Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

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kuikka
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by kuikka »

Nope. That is in clear Finnish. However, it would be nothing unusual, if it were in Swedish. We have a 6% Swedish speaking minority.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by cursus »

I beg your pardon for my confusion and, at the same time, I must congratulate you for your respect to a minority language in Finland.
Farther to the South, a lot of "democratic" people have a lot to learn about...
I collect: Estonia 1990-1992 Postal History. Barcelona Postal History and postmarks. Catalan cinderellas. Botanical gardens. Ice creams on stamps. Used UK, Germany, Switzerland, Austria & Scandinavia.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Let's continue learning about the Sámi, this time in Finland. The language spoken in this region is Northern Sámi.
Wikipedia wrote:Lapland (Finnish: Lappi [ˈlɑpːi]; Northern Sámi: Sápmi; Swedish: Lappland; Latin: Lapponia) is the largest and northernmost region of Finland. The municipalities in the region cooperate in a Regional Council. There are 21 municipalities in the Lapland region. Lapland borders the region of North Ostrobothnia in the south.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lapland_(Finland)
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Finland, 2 Nov 2011, First Day Cover of stamp showing coat of arms of the Lappi Region.<br />Cover features Lappi scenery, Finnish flag, and 5 euro coin
Finland, 2 Nov 2011, First Day Cover of stamp showing coat of arms of the Lappi Region.
Cover features Lappi scenery, Finnish flag, and 5 euro coin
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The map of Finland on the cover shows the Sámi region in red.
Finnish caption:
Kotiseutujen SuomiFinnish homelands

kotihome, place of birth
kotiseutuhome
kotimaahomeland, motherland

Finland's Sámi culture sheetlet

Finland issued a sheetlet of four stamps celebrating Sámi culture on 23 Jan 2012. The sheetlet, in the shape of a animal hide, is illustrated with various pictograms and ideograms. The stamps are self-adhesives in the four legs of the "hide". The back of the sheet has text in Finnish, Sámi and Swedish, respectively, describing the Sámi Cultural Centre in Inari.
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Finland, 23 Jan 2012, sheetlet of four stamps celebrating Sámi culture
Finland, 23 Jan 2012, sheetlet of four stamps celebrating Sámi culture
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.<br />Back of Finnish 2012 sheetlet celebrating Sámi culture
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Back of Finnish 2012 sheetlet celebrating Sámi culture
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Northern Sámi text:
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Sámi text on back of Finnish 2012 sheetlet
Sámi text on back of Finnish 2012 sheetlet
This Sámi text includes some special characters which I cannot currently transcribe.

However, the corresponding Finnish and Swedish texts, and their translations, are as follows:

Finnish text: Inarissa sijaitseva saamelaiskulttuurikeskus Sajos onsaamelaisiin perinteisiin nojautuva saamelaisen itsehallinnon, kulttuurin ja osaamisen keskus sekä monipuolinen kokous-ja tapahtumatalo.
The Sámi Cultural Centre Sajos in Inari is a centre of Sámi self-government, culture and know-how based on Sámi traditions, as well as a versatile meeting and event building.


Swedish text: Samekulturcentret Sajos är ett på samiska traditioner baserat centrum för samiskt självstyre och kunnande och samisk kultur samt ett mångsidigt hus för konferenser och evenemang.
The Sajos Sámi Cultural Centre is a centre for Sámi traditions based on Sámi self-government and knowledge and Sámi culture, as well as a versatile house for conferences and events.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by kuikka »

Roger,

Please do not get discouraged when I do some corrections to the above post.

The stamp shown is 2004 personalized stamp with own design (in Finland personalized stamps are issued with an official picture, which is then replaced by the picture from customer in personalized stamps). So, you won't find this stamp in catalogues.

The map shows number of northernmost municipalities, and the borders have been drawn with no regard to Sami population. Possibly it shows the municipalities where Sami is a local official language.

I think a better translation for
Kotiseutujen Suomi
would be
Finland of home regions

Kotiseutu would not typically have any borders you can draw into a map. Rather, it is an area a person feels emotional attachment (usually from childhood) and could be defined differently by next door neighbours (although they would be likely to agree in general level what belongs to it).

Added two missing spaces in the text below:

Finnish text: Inarissa sijaitseva saamelaiskulttuurikeskus Sajos on saamelaisiin perinteisiin nojautuva saamelaisen itsehallinnon, kulttuurin ja osaamisen keskus sekä monipuolinen kokous- ja tapahtumatalo.
— The Sámi Cultural Centre Sajos in Inari is a centre of Sámi self-government, culture and know-how based on Sámi traditions, as well as a versatile meeting and event building.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks cursus for posting this charity fundraiser cinderella:
cursus wrote:
12 Jul 2020 22:36
Image
Cinderella from the
Association of Friends of Sami Children.
.
As kuikka points out, the text is in Finnish, and presumably the stamp itself is of Finnish origin.
Finnish: lapin lasten ystävätFriends of Lapland Children
lapsi, lapsetchild, children
ystävä, ystävätfriend, friends

The text adds the abbreviation r.y., which I have guessed denotes
rekisteröitynyt yhteiskuntaregistered society
I hope kuikka will correct or add any further helpful comments he wishes.
______________________
.
Look at this lovely photograph I found, a public domain image from the Swedish National Heritage Board.
It is part of an article titled Coming of Age in Sámi Culture. You can find this excellent article at:
https://www.tota.world/article/167/
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.<br />Teacher and Sámi children outside their school in Vaisaluokta, Lappi
.
Teacher and Sámi children outside their school in Vaisaluokta, Lappi
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by kuikka »

R.y. is rekisteröity yhdistys (registered association).

Finland has huge number of registered associations. Being registered enables them to act as legal persons, having their own bank accounts etc. Registering an association is fairly simple in Finland.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks for your two latest posts on this thread kuikka.
"Straight from the horse's mouth" is an apt expression for information from an insider/expert. ;)

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Some months ago an Icelandic document and cover were posted on the following thread:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=86388&start=0
Recently Icelander DustyMiller has supplied a transcription and translation in that same thread, at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=86388&start=07
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* * * * *
The national flag of Iceland, a symbol of national independence since 1944.
It was designed by Matthías Þórðarson.
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.<br />Iceland, 1984, stamp celebrating 40th anniversary of national flag, Sc 591, Mi 617
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Iceland, 1984, stamp celebrating 40th anniversary of national flag, Sc 591, Mi 617
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* * * * *
Shall we take a brief look at Icelandic here?

The classic first airmail and first semipostal stamps of Iceland have strong artistic appeal:
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Iceland, marginal 2x5 block <br />first airmail stamps, official overprint, Sc C01
Iceland, marginal 2x5 block
first airmail stamps, official overprint, Sc C01
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Iceland, first semipostal set, used, Sc B1–B4
Iceland, first semipostal set, used, Sc B1–B4
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Icelandic:
frímerkipostage stamp
The overprint on the airmail stamps is
Þjónustumerkiofficial/service stamp
Þjónustuservice

The semipostal stamps have three designated subjects:
slysavarniraccident prevention
barnahælicare of children
ellihælicare of the elderly
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Icelandic — íslenska
Wikipedia wrote:Icelandic (/aɪsˈlændɪk/; Icelandic: íslenska [ˈistlɛnska]) is a North Germanic language spoken by about 314,000 people, the vast majority of whom live in Iceland where it is the national language. It is most closely related to Faroese and Western Norwegian.

The language is more conservative than most other Western European languages. While most of them have greatly reduced levels of inflection (particularly noun declension), Icelandic retains a four-case synthetic grammar ...and is distinguished by a wide assortment of irregular declensions. Since the written language has not changed much, Icelanders are able to read classic Old Norse literature created in the 10th through 13th centuries (such as the Eddas and sagas) with relative ease.

Icelandic is closely related to Faroese; the written forms of the two languages are very similar, but their spoken forms are not mutually intelligible. It is not mutually intelligible with the continental Scandinavian languages (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) and is more distinct from the most widely spoken Germanic languages, English and German, than those three are.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icelandic_language

Two letters present in Icelandic and Old English alphabets

No longer found in Modern English, the following two letters are "characteristic" of Icelandic:
Ð, ð [edh], pronounced like 'th' in English "than".
Edh (also called eth) is a letter in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese and Elfdalian.
Þ, þ [thorn] pronounced like 'th' in English "thick".
Thorn is a letter in Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and Old Swedish, as well as modern Icelandic.

Basic word order
Wikipedia wrote:The basic word order in Icelandic is subject–verb–object[SVO]. However, as words are heavily inflected, the word order is fairly flexible, and every combination may occur in poetry; SVO, SOV, VSO, VOS, OSV and OVS are all allowed for metrical purposes. However, as with most Germanic languages, Icelandic usually complies with the V2 word order restriction, so the conjugated verb in Icelandic usually appears as the second element in the clause, preceded by the word or phrase being emphasized. For example:
Ég veit það ekkiI know it not.
Ekki veit ég það Not know I it.
Það veit ég ekkiIt know I not.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Some more notes about Icelandic. In this case, let's look at personal names. The social, cultural and linguistic conventions involved in personal names are an important part of a language.

Icelandic personal names
Icelandic personal names are patronymic (sometimes matronymic) in that they reflect the immediate father or mother of the child and not the historic family lineage. This system — which was formerly used throughout the Nordic area and beyond — differs from most Western family name systems. In most Icelandic families, the ancient tradition of patronymics is still in use; thus, a person uses her/his father's name (usually) or mother's name (increasingly in recent years) in the genitive form followed by the morpheme -son ("son") or -dóttir ("daughter") in lieu of family names.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icelandic_language

Specifically:
A man named Jón Einarsson has a son named Ólafur. Ólafur's last name will not be Einarsson like his father's; it will become Jónsson, indicating that Ólafur is the son of Jón (Jóns + son) [Ólafur Jónsson]. The same practice is used for daughters. Jón Einarsson's daughter Sigríður's last name would not be Einarsson but Jónsdóttir. Again, the name means "Jón's daughter" (Jóns + dóttir) [Sigríður Jónsdóttir].
This example, and those which follow, are from the Wikipedia article
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icelandic_name

What happens if two people would get the same name?
In cases where two people in the same social circle bear the same first name and the same father's name, they have traditionally been distinguished by their paternal grandfather's name (avonymic), e.g. Jón Þórsson Bjarnarsonar (Jón, son of Þór, son of Bjarni) and Jón Þórsson Hallssonar (Jón, son of Þór, son of Hallur).
Flexibility by use of a middle name:
In some cases, an individual's surname is derived from a parent's middle name instead of the first name. For example, if Jón is the son of Hjálmar Arnar Vilhjálmsson he may either be named Jón Hjálmarsson (Jón, son of Hjálmar) or Jón Arnarsson (Jón, son of Arnar). The reason for this may be that the parent prefers to be called by the middle name instead of the first name; this is fairly common. It may also be that the parent's middle name seems to fit the child's first name better.
Matronymics:
The vast majority of Icelandic last names carry the name of the father, but occasionally the mother's name is used: e.g. if the child or mother wishes to end social ties with the father. Some women use it as a social statement while others simply choose it as a matter of style.

In all of these cases, the convention is the same: Ólafur, whose mother is Bryndís, will have the full name of Ólafur Bryndísarson ("the son of Bryndís"). Some well-known Icelanders with matronymic names are the football player Heiðar Helguson ("Helga's son"), the novelist Guðrún Eva Mínervudóttir ("Minerva's daughter"), and the medieval poet Eilífr Goðrúnarson ("Goðrún's son").
Clearly the various reasons behind a particular use of a matronymic rather than patronymic last name would give rise to discussion and interest among Icelanders.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Information about linguistic subjects inevitably includes specialised terms. An earlier post has already explained these linguistic concepts:
pictogram, ideogram, logogram, syllabary, glyph, diacritical mark, and mora.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=265
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This post explains the following linguistic concepts:
phoneme, grapheme, phonetics, phonology and phonics.
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Phoneme

A brief definitIon from an online dictionary:
phoneme /ˈfəʊniːm/ noun [phonetics] — any of the perceptually distinct units of sound in a specified language that distinguish one word from another, for example p, b, d, and t in the English words pad, pat, bad and bat.

With greater detail:
Wikipedia wrote:In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme /ˈfoʊniːm/ is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language.

For example, in most dialects of English ... the sound patterns /sɪn/ (sin) and /sɪŋ/ (sing) are two separate words that are distinguished by the substitution of one phoneme, /n/, for another phoneme, /ŋ/. Two words like this that differ in meaning through the contrast of a single phoneme form a minimal pair...

Phonemes that are established by the use of minimal pairs, such as tap vs tab or pat vs bat, are written between slashes: /p/, /b/. To show pronunciation, linguists use square brackets, such as [pʰ], indicating an aspirated p as in pat...

A phoneme is a sound or a group of different sounds perceived to have the same function by speakers of the language or dialect in question. An example is the English phoneme /k/, which occurs in words such as cat, kit, scat, skit. Although most native speakers do not notice this, in most English dialects the "c/k" sounds in these words are not identical: in kit [kʰɪt], the sound is aspirated, but in skill [skɪl] it is unaspirated. The words, therefore, contain different speech sounds, or phones, transcribed [kʰ] for the aspirated form and [k] for the unaspirated one. These different sounds are nonetheless considered to belong to the same phoneme, because if a speaker used one instead of the other, the meaning of the word would not change. [This] shows that in English, [kʰ] and [k] are allophones of a single phoneme /k/. [Allophones are slightly different phones regarded as equivalent and interchangeable in a particular language.]

In some languages, however, [kʰ] and [k] are perceived by native speakers as different sounds, and substituting one for the other can change the meaning of a word. In those languages, therefore, the two sounds represent different phonemes. For example, in Icelandic, [kʰ] is the first sound of kátur, meaning "cheerful", but [k] is the first sound of gátur, meaning "riddles". Icelandic, therefore, has two separate phonemes /kʰ/ and /k/.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoneme

Grapheme

A brief definitIon from an online dictionary:
grapheme /ˈɡrafiːm/ noun [linguistics] — the smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system.
Wikipedia wrote:The word grapheme, coined in analogy with phoneme, is derived from Ancient Greek γράφω [gráphō] — write, and the suffix -eme by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units. The study of graphemes is called graphemics.

The concept of graphemes is abstract and similar to the notion of a character in computing. ... A specific shape that represents any particular grapheme in a specific typeface is called a glyph. For example, the grapheme corresponding to the abstract concept "the Arabic numeral one" has a distinct glyph with identical meaning (an allograph) in each of many typefaces.
Is a grapheme to be understood as a "reference" or an "analogy"?
There exist two main opposing grapheme concepts. In the so-called referential conception, graphemes are interpreted as the smallest units of writing that correspond with sounds (more accurately phonemes). In this concept, the sh in the written English word shake would be a grapheme, as it represents the phoneme /ʃ/. This referential concept is linked to the dependency hypothesis that claims that writing merely depicts speech.

By contrast, the analogical concept defines graphemes analogously to phonemes, i.e. via written minimal pairs such as shake vs. snake. In this example, h and n are graphemes because they distinguish two words. This analogical concept is associated with the autonomy hypothesis which holds that writing is a system in its own right and should be studied independently from speech.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grapheme

Phonetics

A brief definitIon from an online dictionary:
phonetics /fəˈnɛtɪks/ noun — the study and classification of speech sounds.
Wikipedia wrote:Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans make and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians — linguists who specialise in phonetics — study the physical properties of speech.

The field of phonetics is traditionally divided into three subdisciplines based on the research questions involved, such as how humans plan and execute movements to produce speech (articulatory phonetics), how different movements affect the properties of the resulting sound (acoustic phonetics), or how humans convert sound waves to linguistic information (auditory phonetics).

Traditionally, the minimal linguistic unit of phonetics is the phone — a speech sound in a language — which differs from the phonological unit of phoneme. The phoneme is an abstract categorisation of phones.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonetics

Phonology

A brief definitIon from an online dictionary:
phonology /fəˈnɒlədʒi/ noun — the system of contrastive relationships among the speech sounds that constitute the fundamental components of a language; the branch of linguistics that deals with systems of sounds within a language or between different languages.
Wikipedia wrote:Phonology is a branch of linguistics which studies how languages group sounds together. It is primarily concerned with the systematic organisation of sounds in spoken languages and signs in sign languages. At one time it only related to the study of the systems of phonemes in spoken languages. Now it may relate to any linguistic analysis either
(a) at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and rime [rhyme], articulatory gestures, articulatory features, mora, etc.), or
(b) all levels of language where sound or signs are structured to convey linguistic meaning.

Sign languages have a phonological system equivalent to the system of sounds in spoken languages. The building blocks of signs are specifications for movement, location and handshape…

The word 'phonology' [of a language] can also refer to the phonological system (sound system) of a given language. This is one of the fundamental systems which a language is considered to comprise, like its syntax, its morphology and its vocabulary.

Phonology is often distinguished from phonetics. While phonetics concerns the physical production, acoustic transmission and perception of the sounds of speech, phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages to encode meaning. For many linguists, phonetics belongs to descriptive linguistics, and phonology to theoretical linguistics, although establishing the phonological system of a language is necessarily an application of theoretical principles to analysis of phonetic evidence. Note that this distinction was not always made, particularly before the development of the modern concept of the phoneme in the mid 20th century.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonology

Phonics

A brief definitIon from an online dictionary:
phonics /ˈfəʊnɪks,ˈfɒnɪks/ noun — a method of teaching people to read by correlating sounds with symbols in an alphabetic writing system.
Phonics is a method for teaching the reading and writing of an alphabetic language (such as English, Arabic or Russian). It is done by demonstrating the relationship between the sounds (phonemes) of the spoken language, and the letters (graphemes), groups of letters, or syllables of the written language.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonics
I hope to add some information, in a future post, about current methods of teaching reading and writing.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Recall that Icelandic personal names are typically patronymic: a representative diagram shows the conventions:
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.<br />Icelandic naming conventions
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Icelandic naming conventions
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Three Famous Icelanders
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.<br />Iceland, 1 Nov 1979, centenaries of famous Icelanders:<br />Jón Sigurðsson, Ingibjörg Einarsdóttir; Snorri Sturluson
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Iceland, 1 Nov 1979, centenaries of famous Icelanders:
Jón Sigurðsson, Ingibjörg Einarsdóttir; Snorri Sturluson
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Jón Sigurðsson
Jón Sigurðsson (17 June 1811 — 7 December 1879) was the leader of the 19th century Icelandic independence movement. He was the son of Þórdís Jónsdóttir and pastor Sigurður Jónsson. In 1833, he moved to Denmark to study grammar and history at the University of Copenhagen. After completing his education, Jón began to work at the Arnamagnæan Institute, which was then the home of the manuscripts of the Icelandic sagas. He became an expert on the sagas and on Icelandic history …

His birthday, 17 June, was chosen as Iceland's National Holiday to recognise his efforts toward Icelandic independence. He is often referred to as President Jón ("Jón forseti") by Icelanders. The main reason for this is that he served as the president of the Althing [Iceland's ancient Parliament] several times, for the first time in 1849. He also served as the President of the Copenhagen Department of Hið íslenska bókmenntafélag (the Icelandic Literature Society). He is currently pictured on Iceland's 500 krónur bill, and has been honoured on Icelandic postage stamps on the centenaries of his birth and death, the 150th anniversary of his birth, and on the creation of the Republic of Iceland (on his 133rd birthday).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C3%B3n_Sigur%C3%B0sson
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.<br />Iceland, 10Kr banknote, 1928, featuring Jón Sigurðsson
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Iceland, 10Kr banknote, 1928, featuring Jón Sigurðsson
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Ingibjörg Einarsdóttir
Ingibjörg Einarsdóttir (9. október 1804 – 16. desember 1879) var eiginkona Jóns Sigurðssonar, … þau voru loks gefin saman 4. september 1845.
Ingibjörg Einarsdóttir (9 October, 1804 – 16 December 1879) was the wife of Jón Sigurðsson, … they were finally married on 4 September 1845.
https://jonsigurdsson.is/lifsverk/einkahagir/ingibjorg_einarsdottir/
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Snorri Sturluson
Snorri Sturluson (Icelandic: [ˈsnɔrrɪ ˈstʏrtlʏsɔn]; 1179 — 23 September 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician. He was elected twice as lawspeaker to the Icelandic parliament, the Althing. He was the author of the Prose Edda or Younger Edda, which consists of Gylfaginning ("the fooling of Gylfi"), a narrative of Norse mythology, the Skáldskaparmál, a book of poetic language, and the Háttatal, a list of verse forms. He was also the author of the Heimskringla, a history of the Norwegian kings that begins with legendary material in the Ynglinga saga and moves through to early medieval Scandinavian history. For stylistic and methodological reasons, Snorri is often taken to be the author of Egil's saga. He was assassinated in 1241 by men claiming to be agents of the King of Norway.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snorri_Sturluson

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

To supplement the Iceland First Day Cover image in my previous post, here are images of the two stamps, taken from current eBay items.
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.<br />Iceland, 1 Nov 1979: centenary commemorative for Jón Sigurðsson and Ingibjörg Einarsdóttir, Sc 517
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Iceland, 1 Nov 1979: centenary commemorative for Jón Sigurðsson and Ingibjörg Einarsdóttir, Sc 517
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.<br />Iceland, 1 Nov 1979, 800th anniversary of birth of Snorri Sturluson, Sc 518
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Iceland, 1 Nov 1979, 800th anniversary of birth of Snorri Sturluson, Sc 518
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Shall we return to discussing Phonics? In a recent post we noted:
Phonics is a method for teaching the reading and writing of an alphabetic language, by demonstrating the relationship between the sounds (phonemes) of the spoken language, and the letters (graphemes), groups of letters, or syllables of the written language.
This post considers the use of phonics for teaching the reading and writing of English.

In English the correspondence between the written language and the spoken language is complex, and a serious challenge for learners. Unsurprisingly, various teaching methods have been tried. The choice of method is contentious in some circles.

Phonics vs whole language learning
Phonics is taught using a variety of approaches, for example:
(a) learning individual sounds (e.g. the word cat has three letters and three sounds c - a - t, (/k/, /æ/, /t/ in IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet); the word flower has six letters but four sounds: f - l - ow - er, (in IPA: /f/, /l/, /aʊ/, /ər/),
or
(b) learning groups of letters such as rimes* (e.g. hat, mat and sat have the same rime, at), or consonant blends (e.g. bl as in black and st as in last), or syllables (e.g. pen-cil and al-pha-bet),
or
(c) having students read books, play games and perform activities that contain the sounds they are learning.

Reading by using phonics is often referred to as decoding words, sounding-out words or using print-to-sound relationships. Phonics focuses on the sounds and letters within words, that is, it is sublexical. It is often contrasted with the whole language approach, a word-level-up strategy for teaching reading.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonics
* Note about "rimes":
The spelling rhyme (from original rime) was introduced at the beginning of the Modern English period from a learned (but perhaps etymologically incorrect) association with Latin rhythmus. The older spelling rime survives in Modern English as a rare alternative spelling; cf. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. A distinction between the spellings is also sometimes made in the study of linguistics and phonology for which rime/rhyme is used to refer to the nucleus and coda of a syllable. Some prefer to spell it rime to separate it from the poetic rhyme.

The word derives from Old French rime or ryme, which might be derived from Old Frankish rīm, a Germanic term meaning "series, sequence" attested in Old English (Old English rīm meaning "enumeration, series, numeral") and Old High German rīm, ultimately cognate to Old Irish rím, Greek ἀριθμός [arithmos] — number. Alternatively, the Old French words may derive from Latin rhythmus, from Greek ῥυθμός [rhythmos] — rhythm.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhyme
Phonics in the UK Education System

The current curriculum in early education in the UK bases the teaching of reading and writing English on phonics. Online searches for information about phonics find many resources intended for parents wishing to help their early school-age children with phonic learning of reading and writing. The terminology used is "technical but simplified". On one such website we find
Phonics is a method of teaching children to read by linking sounds (phonemes) and the symbols that represent them (graphemes, or letter groups). Phonics is the learning-to-read method used in primary schools in the UK today...
A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound. The phonemes used when speaking English are:
.
Screen Shot 2020-07-14 at 1.32.33 pm.png
.
The aim is for children to be able to see a letter and then say the sound it represents out loud. This is called decoding.

Some phonics programmes start children off by learning the letters s, a, t, n, i, p first. This is because once they know each of those letter sounds, they can then be arranged into a variety of different words (for example: sat, tip, pin, nip, tan, tin, sip, etc.)...
Children then need to go from saying the individual sounds of each letter, to being able to blend the sounds and say the whole word. This can be a big step for many children and takes time.

While children are learning to say the sounds of letters out loud, they will also begin to learn to write these letters (encoding). They will be taught where they need to start with each letter and how the letters need to be formed in relation to each other. Letters (or groups of letters) that represent phonemes are called graphemes.
https://www.theschoolrun.com/phonics-teaching-step-by-step

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Phonics and spelling reform are intimately related subjects in the context of English. This is reflected in various philatelic items.

For example, spelling reform to better correlate the written language with the spoken language was actively promoted by reformers in the USA during the 19th Century. Here are two advertising covers found on eBay:
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.<br />1860 Cincinnati OH USA <br />Phonetic Books Advertising Cover, to Prairie Du Rocher IL
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1860 Cincinnati OH USA
Phonetic Books Advertising Cover, to Prairie Du Rocher IL
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.<br />1850s Cincinnati OH USA <br />Phonetic Printing (Phonography) Advertising Cover, to Fairfield CT
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1850s Cincinnati OH USA
Phonetic Printing (Phonography) Advertising Cover, to Fairfield CT
.

Frank C. Laubach

A more recent philatelic item strongly related to phonics is this 1984 commemorative:
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.<br />USA, 30¢ commemorative, Frank C. Laubach,<br />Missionary and Phonetics Teacher to Adults
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USA, 30¢ commemorative, Frank C. Laubach,
Missionary and Phonetics Teacher to Adults
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.<br />USA, 2 Sep 1984, Gill Craft First Day Cover, Frank C. Laubach<br />The cachet incorporates some of his phonetic symbols
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USA, 2 Sep 1984, Gill Craft First Day Cover, Frank C. Laubach
The cachet incorporates some of his phonetic symbols
.
Wikipedia wrote:Frank Charles Laubach (September 2, 1884 – June 11, 1970), ... while working among Muslims at a remote location in the Philippines, he developed the "Each One Teach One" literacy program. It has been used to teach about 60 million people to read in their own language. He was deeply concerned about poverty, injustice and illiteracy, and considered them barriers to peace in the world.

In 1955, he founded Laubach Literacy, which helped introduce about 150,000 Americans to reading each year and had grown to embrace 34 developing countries. An estimated 2.7 million people worldwide were learning to read through Laubach-affiliated programs. In 2002, this group merged with Literacy Volunteers of America, Inc. to form ProLiteracy Worldwide. During the latter years of his life, Laubach traveled all over the world speaking on the topics of literacy and world peace. He was author of a number of devotional writings and works on literacy.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Laubach
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John Hart

Not yet philatelically commemorated (as far as I'm aware), the first serious effort to produce a written form of English more closely matching the spoken language was back in the 16th Century!
Wikipedia wrote:John Hart (died 1574) was an English educator, grammarian [and] spelling reformer... He is best known for proposing a reformed spelling system for English, which has been described as "the first truly phonological scheme" in the history of early English spelling…
Hart's work has been lauded by modern linguists for his highly insightful phonetic analysis of the Early Modern English of his days, and for his thoroughness in pursuing the phonetic principle.
His discussion of vowel pronunciations is particularly interesting to historians of the English language, because it documents the spoken English at an intermediate point during the Great Vowel Shift, which during Hart's days was radically transforming the vowel system of English. Thus, for instance, Hart documents that the pronunciation of words that had Middle English long /iː/ but shifted to /aɪ/ in Modern English was still variable in his days, with some speakers retaining /iː/ in some words, but a diphthong /ɛɪ/ (spelled ei by Hart) already common in others.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hart_(spelling_reformer)
A sample of Hart's reform text is included in that link.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

For now, one more post about the gap between written and spoken English, for the first part, but then moving on to a comparative look at the extent to which the written and spoken forms of some other languages match.

Phonics vs "Whole Language"
Until the mid-1800's, phonics was the accepted method in the United States to teach children to read. Then, in 1841 Horace Mann, the Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, advocated for a whole-word method of teaching reading to replace phonics.
However, the reaction to that change in method was fuelled in the 1950s by Rudolph Flesch, a leading proponent of return to phonics.
Rudolf Franz Flesch (8 May 1911—5 October 1986). In 1955 he published what became his most famous book, Why Johnny Can't Read: And What You Can Do About It*. The book was a critique of the then-trendy practice of teaching reading by sight, often called the "look-say" method. The flaw of this method, according to Flesch, was that it required brute force memorisation with no theory behind it, so that when confronted with an unknown word, the learner became confused. As a solution, Flesch advocated a revival of the phonics method, the teaching of reading by teaching learners to sound out words using rules. The book inspired Dr. Seuss to write The Cat in the Hat (1957).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Flesch
Here is a retrospective commentary on that approach to teaching reading:
Whole language is a discredited philosophy of reading, particularly for teaching literacy in English. Its premise is that learning to read English comes naturally to humans, especially young children, in the same way that learning to speak develops naturally. The method became a major model for education in the US, Canada, New Zealand, and Great Britain in the 1980s and 1990s despite there being little scientific support for the method's effectiveness.

Whole language approaches to reading instruction are typically contrasted with phonics based methods of teaching reading and writing. Phonics based methods emphasise instruction for decoding and spelling. Whole language practitioners disagree with that view and instead focus on teaching meaning and making students read more.

The scientific consensus is that whole-language-based methods of reading instruction (such as teaching children to use context cues to guess the meaning of a printed word) are not as effective as are phonics-instruction-based approaches. Research psychologist Keith Stanovich asserted "The idea that learning to read is just like learning to speak is accepted by no responsible linguist, psychologist, or cognitive scientist in the research community", while in a systematic review of the reading research literature, Louisa Moats concluded that "Almost every premise advanced by whole language about how reading is learned has been contradicted by scientific investigations." Professor Jeanne Chall of Harvard, surveyed the research on literacy and conducted her own classroom observations and found that the "code-emphasis method" (phonics) produces substantially better readers not only in the mechanical aspects of reading but also in terms of reading for meaning and reading for enjoyment, contrary to the claims of whole-language theorists.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whole_language
.
*Note: In 1981 Rudolf Flesch wrote the sequel Why Johnny Still Can't Read, because the "Language Wars" continued. A recent opinion piece by Martin Cothran reflects the ongoing problems:
https://www.intellectualtakeout.org/article/why-johnny-still-cant-read/
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______________________________
.
Let's now consider more generally how written versions of languages compare with their spoken forms.

Phonemic orthography
A phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language. Natural languages rarely have perfectly phonemic orthographies; a high degree of grapheme-phoneme correspondence can be expected in orthographies based on alphabetic writing systems, but they differ in how complete this correspondence is. English orthography, for example, is alphabetic but highly nonphonemic; it was once mostly phonemic during the Middle English stage, when the modern spellings originated, but spoken English changed rapidly while the orthography was much more stable, resulting in the modern nonphonemic situation. However, because of their relatively recent modernisations compared to English, the Romanian, Italian, Turkish, Spanish, Finnish, Czech, Latvian and Polish orthographic systems come much closer to being consistent phonemic representations.

In less formal terms, a language with a highly phonemic orthography may be described as having regular spelling. Another terminology is that of deep and shallow orthographies in which the depth of an orthography is the degree to which it diverges from being truly phonemic. The concept can also be applied to nonalphabetic writing systems like syllabaries...

[A "double" example of] an ideally phonemic orthography is the Serbo-Croatian language. In its alphabet (Latin as well as Serbian Cyrillic alphabet), there are 30 graphemes, each uniquely corresponding to one of the phonemes. This seemingly perfect yet simple phonemic orthography was achieved in the 19th Century — the Cyrillic alphabet first in 1814 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić, and the Latin alphabet in 1830 by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj. Another such ideal phonemic orthography is native to Esperanto, employing the language creator L. L. Zamenhof's then-pronounced principle “one letter, one sound”.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonemic_orthography

Morphophonemic features

Conventions in the alphabetic or syllabic written form of a language can influence spelling choices that don't necessarily reflect the spoken language accurately. In the following quote the general principles are first described, and then (more accessibly!) a range of examples is given:
Alphabetic orthographies often have features that are morphophonemic rather than purely phonemic. This means that the spelling reflects to some extent the underlying morphological structure of the words, not only their pronunciation. Hence different "forms" of a morpheme (minimum meaningful unit of language) are often spelt identically or similarly in spite of differences in their pronunciation. That is often for historical reasons; the morphophonemic spelling reflects a previous pronunciation from before historical sound changes that caused the variation in pronunciation of a given morpheme. Such spellings can assist in the recognition of words when reading.

Some examples of morphophonemic features in orthography

• The English plural morpheme is written -s regardless of whether it is pronounced as /s/ or /z/, such as cats and dogs, not cats and dogz. This is because the [s] and [z] sounds are forms of the same underlying morphophoneme, automatically pronounced differently depending on its environment. (However, when this morpheme takes the form /ɪz/, the addition of the vowel is reflected in the spelling: churches, masses.)

• Similarly the English past tense morpheme is written -ed regardless of whether it is pronounced as /d/, /t/ or /ɪd/ [such as called, pronounced, painted].

• Many English words retain spellings that reflect their etymology and morphology rather than their present-day pronunciation. For example, sign and signature include the spelling ⟨sign⟩, which means the same but is pronounced differently in the two words. Other examples are science /saɪ/ vs. conscience /ʃ/; prejudice /prɛ/ vs. prequel /priː/; nation /neɪ/ vs. nationalism /næ/; special /spɛ/ vs. species /spiː/.

Phonological assimilation is often not reflected in spelling even in otherwise phonemic orthographies such as Spanish, in which obtenerobtain and optimistaoptimist are written with b and p respectively even though both are pronounced /p/ by assimilation with the following /t/.

• On the other hand, Serbo-Croatian (Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Montenegrin) spelling reflects assimilation, so one writes Србија/SrbijaSerbia but српски/srpskiSerbian.

• The final-obstruent devoicing* that occurs in many languages (such as German, Polish, Russian and Welsh) is not normally reflected in the spelling. For example, in German: Badbath is spelt with a final ⟨d⟩ even though it is pronounced /t/, thus corresponding to other morphologically related forms such as the verb badenbathe in which the d is pronounced /d/. Compare with the German: Rat, ratenadvice, advise in which the t is pronounced /t/ in both positions.

Turkish orthography, however, is more strictly phonemic: for example, the imperative of ederdoes is spelled et, as it is pronounced (the same as the word for meat), not ed, as it would be if German spelling rules applied.

Korean hangul has changed over the centuries from a highly phonemic to a largely morphophonemic orthography.

Japanese kana are almost completely phonemic but have a few morphophonemic aspects, notably in the use of ぢ di and づ du, when the character is a voicing of an underlying or , rather than じ ji and ず zu, their pronunciation in the standard Tokyo dialect. That is from the rendaku sound change combined with the yotsugana merger of formally different morae.

• The Russian orthography is also mostly morphophonemic, because it does not reflect vowel reduction, consonant assimilation and final-obstruent devoicing. Also, some consonant combinations have silent consonants.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonemic_orthography
*Note on final obstruent devoicing:Examples of voiced vs unvoiced pairs of phonemes: /d/ vs /t/; /b/ vs /p/; /v/ vs /f/; /z/ vs /s/. Devoicing is replacing a voiced phoneme by its unvoiced partner.
An obstruent is a speech sound [phoneme] such as [k], [d͡ʒ], or [f] that is formed by obstructing airflow. Obstruents contrast with sonorants, which have no such obstruction and so resonate. All obstruents are consonants, but sonorants include both vowels and consonants.
Terminal devoicing is indicated in the orthography in Turkish, but it isn't in Azeri. For example, the personal name Məhməd is pronounced [mæhˈmæt] in Azeri, with a final [t], even though it is spelled with a final ⟨d⟩. Meanwhile, the Turkish version of this name is also pronounced with a final [t], but is spelled with a more phonetically accurate Mehmet.
In Dutch and Afrikaans, terminal devoicing results in homophones such as hardhard and hartheart as well as differences in consonant sounds between the singular and plural forms of nouns, for example golf, golven (Dutch), golf, golwe (Afrikaans) — wave, waves
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Final-obstruent_devoicing.
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Let's visit the Faroe Islands
Wikipedia wrote:The Faroe /ˈfɛəroʊ/ Islands; Faroese: Føroyar [ˈfœɹjaɹ]; Danish: Færøerne [ˈfɛɐ̯ˌøˀɐnə] is a self-governing archipelago, part of the Kingdom of Denmark (since 14 Jan 1814). It comprises 18 rocky, volcanic islands between Iceland and Norway in the North Atlantic Ocean, connected by road tunnels, ferries, causeways and bridges. Hikers and bird-watchers are drawn to the islands’ mountains, valleys and grassy heathland, and steep coastal cliffs that harbour thousands of seabirds. Capital: Tórshavn
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faroe_Islands
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.<br />Faroe Islands, 1982, Europa stamp set<br />Historic settlement of the Faroe Islands,<br />with excavation details of a Vikingahús [Viking house], 800-1050
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Faroe Islands, 1982, Europa stamp set
Historic settlement of the Faroe Islands,
with excavation details of a Vikingahús [Viking house], 800-1050
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Faroese [/ˌfɛəroʊˈiːz/ or /ˌfæroʊˈiːz/], Faroese: føroyskt mál [ˈføːɹɪst mɔaːl] is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 72,000 people, around 49,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 23,000 abroad, mainly Denmark. The language is regulated by the Faroese Language Board...

Around 900AD, the language spoken in the Faroes was Old Norse, which Norse settlers had brought with them during the time of the settlement of Faroe Islands (landnám) that began in 825AD. However, many of the settlers were not from Scandinavia, but descendants of Norse settlers in the Irish Sea region. In addition, women from Norse Ireland, Orkney, or Shetland often married native Scandinavian men before settling in the Faroe Islands and Iceland. As a result, the Irish language has had some influence on both Faroese and Icelandic.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faroese_language

Nordic House

A cultural centre, hosting contemporary arts exhibitions and performances, and significant historical items, was inaugurated in Tórshavn in 1983. Its website is https://www.nlh.fo/en/
.
'<br />Faroe Islands, 1983 minisheet, Inauguration of Nordic House,  Tórshavn.
'
Faroe Islands, 1983 minisheet, Inauguration of Nordic House, Tórshavn.
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Norðurlanda húsið í FøroyumNordic House, in the Faroe Islands

The national flags represented, from left to right, are as follows:
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Iceland
Iceland
.
Finland
Finland
.
Norway
Norway
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Sweden
Sweden
.
Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
.
Åland Islands
Åland Islands
.
Denmark
Denmark
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A current program at Nordic House, to give a sample of Faroese (translations are "approximate"):
Rundsýningar á føroyskum og donskum
Guided tour in Faroese and Danish
Kom við á forvitnisliga ferð í Norðurlandahúsinum hvønn mikudag og sunnudag.
Take a fascinating tour of Nordic House on any Wednesday and Sunday.
Hvønn mikudag og sunnudag bjóða vit til rundvísing.
On each Wednesday and Sunday we offer guided tours
Sum nakað nýtt verður hon eisini á føroyskum og skipað á ein øðrvísi hátt enn vit plaga og er sera familjuvinalig.
There are novel displays in Faroese organised in various surprising ways which are very family-friendly [This translation needs improvement!]

MikudagWednesday
SunnudagSunday
Kl. 14.00 á føroyskum og kl. 15.00 á donskum
From 14.00 in Faroese, and from 15.00 in Danish
,
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

More from the Faroe Islands.

HAFNIA 87 minisheet

Minisheet header is in four languages:
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.<br />Faroe Islands, 1986, minisheet promoting <br />International Stamp Exhibition HAFNIA 87 in Copenhagen Oct 1987
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Faroe Islands, 1986, minisheet promoting
International Stamp Exhibition HAFNIA 87 in Copenhagen Oct 1987
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Faroese: Altjóða frímerkjaframsýning
English: World Philatelic Exhibition
French: Exposition Philatélique Mondiale
German: Philatelische Weltausstellung

Not included, but for comparison:
Icelandic: Alþjóðleg frímerkjasýning
Danish: International frimærkeudstilling
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The manuscript text at the base of the HAFNIA 87 minisheet is presumably commentary by the original artist. I can't discern any of the details.

Sheepdogs booklet, 1994

Inscription in four languages, about governing postal rates met by the booklet stamps.
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.<br />Faroe Islands -1994 Sheepdogs Booklet
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Faroe Islands -1994 Sheepdogs Booklet
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.<br />Four language information on this sheepdogs booklet
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Four language information on this sheepdogs booklet
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The four languages of the inscription, in order, are Faroese, Danish, German and English.
Notice that the English version uses "inside" ("within" would be better), and it omits "the rest of" (Faroese onnur, Danish øvrige, German übriges), so implicitly excludes the Faroe Islands from being one of the Nordic countries. (Presumably that is an unintended mistake. The English version might have been produced by someone whose command of English was not quite perfect.)

The 4Kr stamps paid the basic first class letter rate (up to 20g) within the Faroe Islands, to the rest of Scandinavia [= the rest of the Nordic countries] and to the countries of the CEPT = Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs.
The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) was established on June 26, 1959, as a coordinating body for European state telecommunications and postal organisations. ... CEPT was responsible for the creation of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) in 1988...

Member countries, as of March 2019 : 48 countries.
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Albania, Andorra, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Vatican City.
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Conference_of_Postal_ ... istrations
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.<br />The CEPT member countries
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The CEPT member countries
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

In my previous post I meant to include the French for the acronym CEPT:
Wikipedia wrote:The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) was established on June 26, 1959, as a coordinating body for European state telecommunications and postal organizations. The acronym comes from the French version of its name Conférence européenne des administrations des postes et des télécommunications.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Conference_of_Postal_ ... istrations
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.<br />CEPT logo, designed by Michael Goaman
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CEPT logo, designed by Michael Goaman
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Here is a Romanian 2008 minisheet celebrating CEPT:
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.<br />Romania, 2008, CEPT minisheet
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Romania, 2008, CEPT minisheet
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Romanian:
scrisoareathe letter
o scrisoarea letter
scrisoriletters
câteva scrisorisome letters
Astăzi am primit două scrisoriToday I received two letters

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

After the brief encounter in the previous post, let's look further at Romanian.

Let's begin with the earliest postage stamps of Romania, some of the great rarities of world philately.
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The first Romanian stamps were the product of two principalities. The Principality of Moldavia issued its first stamps, the famous "aurochs [edited] or bull head" designs, in 1858. The Principality of Moldavia-Wallachia, which would soon become the Principality of Romania, issued stamps between 1862 and 1864. https://www.stamp-collecting-world.com/romanianstamps_1858d.html
Note: The above source has some linguistic errors which I have corrected (for instance, it actually says "auroch" instead of "aurochs". See the following source.) The subsequent linguistic comments in this source should also to be taken carefully).
The aurochs (/ˈɔːrɒks/ or /ˈaʊrɒks/; pl. aurochs, or rarely aurochsen, aurochses), also known as urus or ure (Bos primigenius), is an extinct species of large wild cattle that inhabited Asia, Europe, and North Africa. It is the ancestor of domestic cattle.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aurochs
.<br />Moldavia, 1858, Aurochs with posthorn, definitives <br />27pa, 54pa, 81pa, 108pa
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Moldavia, 1858, Aurochs with posthorn, definitives
27pa, 54pa, 81pa, 108pa
The four Romanian stamps shown above were issued in the Principality of Moldavia between July and October of 1858. These were the first postage stamps issued by any Southeastern European state.

The design features the Arms of Moldavia, with that being an "aurochs [edited] or bull head, with a star above". The denomination is contained within a post horn. The inscription reads ПОРТО СКРИСОРИ (PORTO SCRISORI [edited]), Romanian Cyrillic for "Postage to be paid by the recipient". [? edit] This inscription is actually a mistake. The inscription should have read FRANCO in Cyrillic letters instead of PORTO in Cyrillic letters, which would have changed the meaning to "Postage to be paid by the sender". The payment of postage obviously happened when the stamp was affixed to the letter envelope by the sender. [Suggestion/edit: Porto Scrisori might simply be Carriage of Letter, without any implication that the recipient was to pay. (See Romanian notes in previous post.)] These new stamps were only valid for postal use within the Principality of Moldavia.

The design of these stamps, utilising an aurochs [edited] and a star, was also a political statement against the Ottoman Empire, which actually ruled over the principality during this time...

In January 1862, the Principality of Moldavia and the Principality of Wallachia united to form the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, also known as the Romanian United Principalities...

These new designs are squarish with rounded corners. They feature the combined coats of arms of the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, with a post horn below. The inscriptions have been corrected from PORTO SCRISORI [edited] to FRANCO SCRISOREI, and the inscriptions are ALL spelled in Latin letters.[Suggestion/edit: Franco Scrisorei might simply be Payment for Letter]
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.<br />Moldavia-Wallachia, 1862, Combined arms with posthorn, definitives,<br />3pa, 6pa carmine, 6pa red-brown, 30pa
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Moldavia-Wallachia, 1862, Combined arms with posthorn, definitives,
3pa, 6pa carmine, 6pa red-brown, 30pa
.
Now we move to the modern era, when the original stamps were celebrated a hundred years later, in 1958:
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.<br />Romania 1958, Minisheet, Centenary of first Romanian stamps, SG MS2625
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Romania 1958, Minisheet, Centenary of first Romanian stamps, SG MS2625
.
centenarul mărcii româneștithe centenary of the Romanian stamp
centenarul mărcilor româneștiithe centenary of Romanian stamps

Some related forms
centenar, centenarul, centenari centenary, the centenary, centenaries
marcă, mărci, mărcile"stamp*", "stamps", "the stamps"
timbru poștal, timbrul poștalpostage stamp*, the postage stamp
timbre postale, timbrele poștalepostage stamps, the postage stamps
timbre româneștiRomanian stamps
timbrul poștal românescthe Romanian postage stamp
timbrele poștale româneștithe Romanian postage stamps
timbre poștale româneștiRomanian postage stamps
centenarul timbrelor poștale româneștithe centenary of Romanian postage stamps
*Note: I think that marcă literally refers to a handstamped impression (which is precisely what the 1858 issues were), whereas timbru poștal is a formal version of postage stamp (as with French timbre-poste). It appears that marcă is the term for "stamp" preferred by philatelists, as evidenced by the following text from the Romanian version of Wikipedia.
Prima emisiune din 1858
The first issue of 1858

Prima emisiune de mărci poștale românești intitulată Cap de bour a fost tipărită la 15 iulie 1858 și a intrat în circulație la 22 iulie 1858 la biroul poștal din Iași și la 8 august 1858 la celelalte birouri poștale moldovene, iar la 31 octombrie 1858 a fost retrasă.
https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timbrele_po%C8%99tale_%C8%99i_ ... %C3%A2niei
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The first issue of Romanian postage stamps, called Bull's heads, was printed on 15 July 1858 and entered into circulation on 22 July 1858 at the post office in Iasi and on 8 Aug 1858 at the other Moldavian post offices, and on 31 Oct 1858 it was withdrawn.
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________________________
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Romanian language
Romanian (autonym: limba română [ˈlimba roˈmɨnə] — the Romanian language, or românește [roˈmɨn.eʃte] — in Romanian) is a Balkan Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language. ... It is an official and national language of both Romania and Moldova and is one of the official languages of the European Union.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanian_language
Romanian alphabet
The Romanian alphabet is based on the Latin [Roman] script with five additional letters
.
Ă ă /ə/ [a-breve]
 â /ɨ/ [a-circumflex]
Î î /ɨ/ [i-circumflex]
Ș ș /ʃ/ [s=comma]
Ț ț /t͡s/ [t-comma]
.
Formerly, there were as many as 12 additional letters, but some of them were abolished in subsequent reforms. Also, until the early 20th century, a short vowel marker was used, which survives only in ă.

Today the Romanian alphabet is largely phonemic. However, the letters â and î both represent the same close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/; â is used only inside words; î is used at the beginning or the end of non-compound words and in the middle of compound words. Another exception from a completely phonetic writing system is the fact that vowels and their respective semivowels are not distinguished in writing. In dictionaries the distinction is marked by separating the entry word into syllables for words containing a hiatus.

Stressed vowels also are not marked in writing, except very rarely in cases where by misplacing the stress a word might change its meaning and if the meaning is not obvious from the context. For example, trei copíithree children but trei cópiithree copies [edited].
Pronunciation
h is not silent like in other Romance languages such as Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Catalan and French, but represents the phoneme /h/, except in the digraphs ch /k/ and gh /g/ (see below)
j represents /ʒ/, as in French, Catalan or Portuguese — the sound spelled with s in the English words "vision, pleasure, treasure".
• There are two letters with a comma below, Ș ș Ț ț , which represent the sounds /ʃ/ and /t͡s/. However, the allographs with a cedilla instead of a comma, Ş ş [s-cedilla] Ţ ţ [t-cedilla], became widespread when pre-Unicode and early Unicode character sets did not include the standard form.
• A final orthographical i after a consonant often represents the palatalisation of the consonant, as in lup /lup/ — wolf, lupi /lupʲ/ — wolves. It is not pronounced like Italian lupi, which also means "wolves", and is an example of the Slavic influence on Romanian.
ă represents the schwa /ə/. [In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa /ʃwɑː/ (sometimes spelled shwa) is denoted by the IPA symbol ə. In English it is English is the vowel sound of the "a" in the word about. It is mainly found in unstressed positions in English, but in some languages it occurs more frequently as a stressed vowel.]
î and â both represent the sound /ɨ/. In rapid speech, as in the country name România, the â sound may sound similar to a casual listener to the short schwa sound ă but careful speakers will distinguish the sound. (In fact, Aromanian does merge the two, writing them ã.) It is roughly equivalent to European Portuguese /ɨ/, the Polish y or the Russian ы.
• The letter e generally represents /e/, somewhat like in the English word set. However, the letter e is pronounced as /je/ (IPA /j/ sounds like the initial sound in English you) when it is the first letter of any form of the verb a fito be, or of a personal pronoun, as in este /jeste/— is and el /jel/ —he. This addition of the semivowel /j/ does not occur in more recent loans and their derivatives, such as electricelectric, and erăera. Some words are now written with the initial i to indicate the semivowel, as in iepurehare, formerly spelled epure.
x represents either the phoneme sequence /ks/ as in expresieexpression, or /ɡz/ as in exempluexample, as in English.
• As in Italian, the letters c and g represent /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ before i and e, and /k/ and /ɡ/ elsewhere. When /k/ and /ɡ/ are followed by vowels /e/ and /i/, or their corresponding semivowels or the final /ʲ/, the digraphs ch and gh are used instead of c and g, as shown in the table below. Unlike Italian, Romanian uses ce- and ge-to write /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/ before a back vowel instead of ci- and gi-.
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Screen Shot 2020-07-18 at 9.32.50 pm.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanian_language#Pronunciation
___________________
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Following precedent with earlier posts for other Romance languages, let's finish here with the present tense of the verb to be. This post will also give the present tense of the verb to have.

Present tense of verb to be
a fi /a fi/ — to be
eu sunt /jew sunt/ — I am
tu ești /tu jeʃtʲ/ — you (sing.) are
el este /jel 'jes.te/ — he is [long form]
el e /jel je/ — he is [short form, less formal]
ea este /je̯a 'jes.te/ — she is [long form]
ea e /je̯a je/ — she is [short form, less formal]
noi suntem /noj 'sun.tem/ — we are
voi sunteți /voj 'sun.tet͡sʲ/ — you (pl) are
dumneavoastră sunteți /dum.ne̯a'vo̯as.trə 'sun.tet͡sʲ/ — you (sing or pl, formal) are
ei sunt /jej sunt/ — they (m or mixed) are
ele sunt /'je.le sunt/ — they (f) are
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https://www.learnro.com/be-have-conjugated-romanian
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Present tense of verb to have
a avea /a a've̯a/ — to have
eu am /jew am/ — I have
tu ai /tu aj/ — you (sing.) have
el are /jel 'a.re/ — he has
ea au /jea 'a.re/ — she has
noi avem /noj a'vem/ — we have
voi aveți /voj a'vet͡sʲ/ — you (pl) have
dumneavoastră aveți /dum.ne̯a'vo̯as.trə a'vet͡sʲ/ — you (sing or pl, formal) have
ei au /jej aw/ — they (m or mixed) have
ele au /'je.le aw/ — they (f) have
.
https://www.learnro.com/be-have-conjugated-romanian

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Romania and Moldavia — homelands of the Romanian language.

Modern Romania within Eastern Europe
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.<br />Romania and its neighbours in Eastern Europe
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Romania and its neighbours in Eastern Europe
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Historical political groupings

Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania
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.<br />Historical Romanian precursors (1600)
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Historical Romanian precursors (1600)
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Principality of Moldavia/Moldova
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'<br />Principality of Moldavia (1346–1859)
'
Principality of Moldavia (1346–1859)
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Moldavia (Romanian: Moldova [molˈdova]; or, in old Romanian Cyrillic, Цара Мѡлдовєй, and in subsequent Romanian alphabet:Țara Moldovei — The Moldavian Country) is a historical region and former principality in Central and Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester River. An initially independent and later autonomous state, it existed from the 14th century to 1859, when it united with Wallachia (Țara Românească) as the basis of the modern Romanian state; at various times, Moldavia included the regions of Bessarabia, all of Bukovina and Hertza.
Edited extract from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moldavia
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Modern Republic of Moldova
Formerly known as Bessarabia, this region was an integral part of the Romanian principality of Moldavia until 1812, when it was ceded to Russia by its suzerain, the sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Bessarabia remained a province of the Russian Empire until after World War I, when it became a part of Greater Romania, and it reverted to Russian control in 1940–41 and again after World War II, when it was joined to a strip of formerly Ukrainian territory, the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, on the left bank of the Dniester River (Moldovan: Nistru) to form the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. Upon the collapse of the Soviet Union in August 1991, this republic declared its independence and took the name Moldova. It became a member of the United Nations in 1992.
https://www.britannica.com/place/Moldova
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.<br />Republic of Moldova, since 1991
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Republic of Moldova, since 1991
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.<br />Republic of Moldova, state flag
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Republic of Moldova, state flag
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Romanian:
drapelul Republicii Moldovathe flag of the Republic of Moldova
drapelflag
drapelul Moldoveithe flag of Moldova
republică, republica, republici, republicilerepublic, the republic, republics, the republics
al republicii; spre republica; pentru republicaof the republic; to the republic; for the republic
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________________________
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Moldovan 2008 booklet
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.<br />Moldova, 2008, cover of booklet  (Mi. MH13)<br />commemorating 150 years<br />since the first postage stamps of the principality of Moldavia
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Moldova, 2008, cover of booklet (Mi. MH13)
commemorating 150 years
since the first postage stamps of the principality of Moldavia
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4 mărci poștale în valoare de 8 lei
4 postage stamps, value 8 lei
150 de ani de la tipărirea primelor mărci poștale Moldovenești "cap de bour”
150 years since the printing of the first Moldovan postage stamps "cap de bour"
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.<br />Moldova, 2008, interior of booklet  (Mi. MH13)
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Moldova, 2008, interior of booklet (Mi. MH13)
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Screen Shot 2020-07-21 at 1.06.54 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-07-21 at 1.07.46 am.png
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

What is UPAEP?

Briefly, a group of countries with shared postal and cultural links based on language heritage —
Spanish and Portuguese.

UPAEP = Unión Postal de las Américas, España y Portugal (Spanish)
Postal Union of the Americas, Spain and Portugal

Borrowing from Waffle's thread on Portuguese stamp issues of 2011 and 2012:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=91353&start=59
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Image
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Portugal, 2011, stamp commemorating Centenary of UPAEP
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Portuguese inscription:
UPAEP 100 anos unindo culturas
UPAEP 100 years uniting cultures
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Origins of UPAEP

In 1838 a postal treaty between Ecuador, Venezuela and Colombia was signed in Bogotá. From 1864 several countries in the Americas worked towards the creation of a postal union, founded in 1911 under the official name: the South American Postal Union. From 1921 it was joined by member states from Central and North America. In 1926 Spain became part of the entity; in 1931 Canada and Haiti joined. Finally, in 1991 Portugal joined, resulting in the current legal grouping.
(That is an edited version of the awkwardly translated entry in
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postal_Union_of_the_Americas,_Spain_and_Portugal)

The Spanish language version of Wikipedia provides a well written summary of post-1911 developments:
La Unión Postal de las Américas, España y Portugal (UPAEP) es la asociación de los servicios y operadores de correos nacionales públicos formada en 1911 por iniciativa de Francisco García y Santos, Director General de Correos del Uruguay. El Consejo Consultivo y Técnico tiene su sede en Montevideo, Uruguay. Forma parte de la Unión Postal Universal como unión restrictiva.
Conocido anteriormente como: Unión de los Correos Sudamericanos (1911-1921), Unión Postal Panamericana (1921-1931) y Unión Postal de las Américas y España (1931-1990).
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uni%C3%B3n_Postal_de_las_Am%C3%A9ricas,_Espa%C3%B1a_y_Portugal
The Postal Union of the Americas, Spain and Portugal (UPAEP) is the association of public national postal services and operators formed in 1911 on the initiative of Francisco García y Santos, General Director of Correos del Uruguay. The Advisory and Technical Council is based in Montevideo, Uruguay. It is part of the Universal Postal Union as a restrictive union.
Previously known as: Union of South American Posts (1911-1921), Pan American Postal Union (1921-1931) and Postal Union of the Americas and Spain (1931-1990).


Current membership of UPAEP

The 2011 Portuguese commemorative stamp includes 27 flags, with the flag of Portugal centred at the top, flanked by 13 pairs of flags representing the other member countries, 7 pairs on the left, 6 pairs on the right. This stamp design provides yet one more instance where national flags serve as a visual language/code, in this case primarily indicating membership, but also serving to celebrate shared cultural heritage. The member countries are:
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Screen Shot 2020-07-21 at 1.00.09 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-07-21 at 1.02.03 pm.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postal_Union_of_the_Americas,_Spain_and_Portugal
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

What is the Lusosphere?

The Lusosphere is the conceptual "space" in which Portuguese is the language used.

Lusophones are an ethnolinguistic group of peoples and nations that comprise an estimated 270 million people spread across 10 sovereign states and territories that recognise Portuguese as an official language. This area, known as the Lusofonia or Lusophone World, is the corresponding community of Lusophone nations which exist in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Oceania.
Wikipedia wrote:The term Lusophone is a classical compound, whereby the combining form Luso- derives from the Latin term for an area roughly corresponding to modern Portugal, called Lusitania. The suffix -phon derives from the Ancient Greek word φωνή [phōnē] — voice. The use of the term Lusophone mirrors similar terms, such as Anglophone for English-speakers, Francophone for French-speakers, Hispanophone for Spanish-speakers, and Sinophone for Chinese-speakers. The term is sometimes used in reference to the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, similar to the French term Francophonie.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lusophone
Each of those terms has a -sphere analogue. For example, Anglosphere is a familiar term.

Countries comprising the Lusosphere

In order of population size, largest to smallest, the 10 Lusophone countries are as follows.
The top four account for more than 98% of the total population.
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.<br />Lusophone countries
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Lusophone countries
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lusophone
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Brazilian Portuguese

The largest component of the Lusosphere is provided by Brazil, which has a population around 20 times the population of Portugal, and approximately three-quarters of the total population of the Lusosphere.
Português do Brasil [poɾtʊˈɡez dʊ bɾaˈziw] or português brasileiro [poɾtʊˈɡez bɾaziˈlejɾʊ] — Brazilian Portuguese, is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil. It is spoken by almost all of the more than 200 million inhabitants of Brazil and spoken widely across the Brazilian diaspora, today consisting of about two million Brazilians who have emigrated to other countries.

Brazilian Portuguese differs, particularly in phonology and prosody, from dialects spoken in Portugal and Portuguese-speaking African countries. In these latter countries, the language tends to have a closer connection to contemporary European Portuguese, partly because Portuguese colonial rule ended much more recently in them than in Brazil. Despite this difference between the spoken varieties, Brazilian and European Portuguese differ little in formal writing (in many ways analogous to the differences encountered between American and British English) and remain mutually intelligible.

In 1990, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries = CPLP*, which included representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement on the reform of the Portuguese orthography to unify the two standards then in use by Brazil on one side and the remaining Portuguese-speaking countries on the other. This spelling reform went into effect in Brazil on 1 January 2009. In Portugal, the reform was signed into law by the President on 21 July 2008 allowing for a 6-year adaptation period, during which both orthographies co-existed. All of the CPLP countries have signed the reform. In Brazil, this reform has been in force since January 2016. Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries have since begun using the new orthography.

Regional varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, while remaining mutually intelligible, may diverge from each other in matters such as vowel pronunciation and speech intonation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazilian_Portuguese
*Note: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa = CPLPThe Community of Portuguese Language Countries Portuguese, also known as Comunidade Lusófonathe Lusophone Commonwealth, is an international organisation and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.

Brazilian Covid19 Minisheet
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.<br />Brazil, 2020, Covid-19 minisheet
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Brazil, 2020, Covid-19 minisheet
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Brazilian Portuguese inscriptions on this minisheet:
Combate à covid-19Combating covid-19
Seja consciente, seja responsável, seja solidário!Be aware, be responsible, be supportive!
Prevenção está em nossas mãosPrevention is in our hands
Juntos vamos vencer o vírusTogether we will beat the viruse
Meios de comunicaçãoMedia or Means of communication
Principais sintomas da covid-19Main symptoms of covid-19
Servicos essenciaisEssential services
Profissionais da saúdeHealth professionals
Ciência e tecnologiaScience and technology
Unidades de terapia intensivaIntensive care units
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______________________________
.
A Richard Feynman anecdote: The distinguished physicist Richard P. Feynman made numerous professional visits to Brazil. There is an anecdote, perhaps apocryphal, that the first time he was invited to go to Brazil to give a lecture, he spent a few weeks studying Spanish prior to his visit, so he could use some of the language in his lecture. Only at the last minute did he discover that the language in Brazil is Portuguese, not Spanish!

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by turtle-bienhoa »

Can someone please post the Vietnamese article here? I'm ready to proofread it.
Searching for musical instruments, Lions International, Rotary International, the sport of cricket, round and triangular stamps, and PIGS. OINK!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Please be patient turtle-bienhoa. I've been trying to pick up on topics closely related to recent posts in other threads, to complement those posts, and to keep the subject motivation "relevant" and "current". I am also trying to provide some thematic links running through several adjacent posts. Most of my posts take hours to prepare, so it might be a while before Vietnamese naturally has its turn here. However, I definitely do intend to include Vietnamese in the discussions in this thread...

/RogerE

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

It is intriguing that you bring up the anecdote about Richard Feynman, Roger. That gentleman was particularly concerned with the philately of Tannu Tuva, ( ᠲᠠᠩᠨᠦ ᠲᠤᠧᠠ ) which prompts me to raise the issue of the Mongol vertical script here.

I have several times toyed with the idea of learning this language, but quickly dismissed it. And the new regime in Tuva was quick to dump the vertical script in favour of something akin to a Latin alphabet that could be reproduced using modern typewriters.

The very first stamp issue from
Tuva, ( ᠲᠤᠧᠠ ) back in 1926: Wheel of Dharma.

As few folks today understand the Mongolian vertical script or their numerals used on the stamps, I will show each value to help you identify them. Note that Mongolian is written vertically down the page (as shown on the first stamps), but modern computers don't allow for this, so we have to be content with writing them sideways to cope with the inadequacies of computers.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 1 kopeck.
Backman # 1. Mirr # 1.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 2 kopecks.
Backman # 2. Mirr # 2.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 5 kopecks.
Backman # 3. Mirr # 3.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 8 kopecks.
Backman # 4. Mirr # 4.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 10 kopecks.
Backman # 5. Mirr # 5.
Other values to follow.

The Tannu Tuva People's Republic (as it was named until in November 1926, the country name was changed to Tuvan People's Republic) was run by enthusiastic traditional Buddhist politicians at this early stage in their independence. The state's first ruler, Prime Minister Donduk Kuular, and the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party, sought to strengthen ties with Mongolia and establish Lamaism as the state religion. Though the Bolsheviks had a strictly secular policy, they did not manage to convince the Tuvan party of this line until 1929. So the Buddhist emblem was considered to be the appropriate design for the country's first stamps. Note the cancellation on the 5k: this also used Mongol script at the sides, with English at the top and bottom. Since Mongolian script is vertical, it is very appropriate that the Mongol script is at the sides of the postmark so it can correctly read vertically.
Image
Tuva's first leader, Prime Minister Donduk Kuular, enjoying a ciggie as he studies his notes.
Wikipedia wrote:The Dharma Chakra (Sanskrit: Dharma Chakra Pali: dhammacakka, "Wheel of Dharma") is a widespread symbol used in Indian religions such as Jainism and Buddhism.

Historically, the dharma chakra was often used as a decoration in Hindu and Buddhist temples, statues and inscriptions, beginning with the earliest period of Indian Buddhism to the present. It remains a major symbol of the Hindu and Buddhist religions today.

In Buddhism, the Dharma Chakra is widely used to represent the Buddha's Dharma (Buddha's teaching and the universal moral order), Gautama Buddha himself and the walking of the path to enlightenment, since the time of Early Buddhism. The symbol is also sometimes connected to the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path and Dependent Origination. The pre-Buddhist dharmachakra (Pali: dhammacakka) is considered one of the ashtamangala (auspicious signs) in Hinduism and Buddhism and often used as a symbol of both faiths. It is one of the oldest known Indian symbols found in Indian art, appearing with the first surviving post-Indus Valley Civilization Indian iconography in the time of the Buddhist king Ashoka.
Wikipedia wrote:The Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party (Mongolian: ᠲᠠᠩᠨᠦ ᠲᠤᠧᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠭᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠮ = Tangnu Tuva-yin arad-un qubisγal-tu nam) was a political party in Tuva, founded in 1921. When the Tannu Tuva People's Republic was founded in the same year, the party held single-party control over its government as a vanguard party.
For more information, visit the Tannu Tuva Collectors' Society website.

.·:*¨¨*:·..·:*¨¨*:·..·:*¨¨*:·..·:*¨¨*:·.
.·:*¨¨*:·..·:*¨¨*:·..·:*¨¨*:·.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Panterra. Can you tells us about the inscriptions in Mongolian script at the top and sides of the stamps in your post? (You did interpret the numerals at the base of each stamp.)

I suppose that the top left side is Tannu ᠲᠠᠩᠨᠦ , and the top right side is Tuva ᠲᠤᠧᠠ . If that is correct, the correspondence between these versions and the versions on the stamps is not very close, and the calligraphy on the stamps seems more stylish and artistic. I have little lead on the inscription at the top of the stamps.

I checked the link you gave for the Tannu Tuva Collectors' Society, but many of the images on that site seem to be "broken".

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

The Happy Day thread has a post by lesbootman showing this Costa Rica stamp, inscribed in Spanish:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=82193&start=4651
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.<br />Costa Rica, 1980, 5.00 colon stamp, used<br />Subject: Huetar Region Postal Centre
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Costa Rica, 1980, 5.00 colon stamp, used
Subject: Huetar Region Postal Centre
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The Huetar Region refers to the Huetar people:
The Huetares were an important indigenous group of Costa Rica, who in the mid-16th century lived in the centre of what is now the country
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huetar_people
Huetar warrior
Huetar warrior
The Spanish stamp inscription is
Tributar es progresar
— (Literal version) To pay taxes is to progress
— (Freer translation) Payment of taxes ensures progress
The stamp was offered on eBay, where the inscription was described as "Pay your taxes".
tributarto pay a tax
progresarto progress
La economía progresó después de las reformas políticas
The economy improved after the political reforms
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.<br />Central Amerca, including Costa Rica and Honduras
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Central Amerca, including Costa Rica and Honduras
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In fact Tributar es progresar is the slogan/motto of a government department in nearby Honduras
Servicio de Administración de Rentas de Honduras = SAR
Revenue Management Service of Honduras
.
.<br />Tributar es progresar<br />Revenue Management Service of Honduras
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Tributar es progresar
Revenue Management Service of Honduras
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Engaging with a second language is not just about vocabulary, grammer and pronunciation. It's about engaging with the culture, the preoccupations and the world view of the speakers of that language. It's a doorway into their world.

In the thread about Portuguese stamps of 2011 and 2012 Waffle has just posted this minisheet, and accompanying single stamp, celebrating 25 years of the Erasmus program.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=91353&start=66
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.<br />Portugal, 2012, minisheet celebrating 25 years of the Erasmus program
.
Portugal, 2012, minisheet celebrating 25 years of the Erasmus program
.
Recalling Erasmus

Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466–1536) was a philosopher, scholar and Catholic priest, one of the most influential scholars of the northern European Renaissance. He was reknowned for his clear, masterly writings in Latin.

What is the Erasmus program?

The Erasmus program is an educational exchange program set up by various European countries to enable students to pursue part of their education in a different country from their homeland, and thus gain a "pan-European" experience.

The 2012 Portuguese minisheet celebrates Portugal's participation in the program as it reached its 25th year of operation. The Portuguese text on the minisheet is accompanied by a less than perfect English translation.
First, here are a few vocabulary items from that Portuguese text:

aprenderto learn
a aprendizagemapprenticeship, learning, schoolingn
há 25 anos25 years ago
inesquecíveisunforgettable

Here is the Portuguese text, followed by two English translations, the first rather "mechanical", the second freer and more idiomatic.
Erasmus é, há 25 anos, mobilidade, juventude, partilha, momentos e aprendizagens inesquecíveis numa Europa que se quer múltipla, mas coesa.r
— ["Mechanical" translation] Erasmus has been, for 25 years, mobility, youth, sharing, unforgettable moments and learning in a Europe that wants to be multiple, but cohesive.
— [Freer translation] For 25 years the Erasmus program has been about mobility, youth, sharing, learning and unforgettable experiences in a Europe which aspires to be multipartite but cohesive.

Envolvendo já quase 3 milhões de estudantes na Europa, o sempre jovem Erasmus continuará a construir pontes para o futuro.
— ["Mechanical" translation] Involving almost 3 million students in Europe, the ever-young Erasmus will continue to build bridges for the future.
— [Freer translation] Involving some 3 million students in Europe, the perpetually youthful Erasmus+ program will continue building bridges into the future.n

The successor program Erasmus+

In 2014 an ambitious successor program called Erasmus+ was launched.
https://www.erasmusmais.pt/iniciativas?lang=en
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.<br />Launch of Erasmus+ program
.
Launch of Erasmus+ program
Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 12.00.48 pm.png
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A brief look at the overall statistics of the Erasmus+ program in its 2018 annual report shows how successful it proved to be.
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Erasmus+ 2018 annual progress report, summary snapshot of overall statistics
Erasmus+ 2018 annual progress report, summary snapshot of overall statistics
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Portugal's continuing participation in the Erasmus+ program

The Erasmus+ program within Portugal is administered from a central office in Lisbon, and 13 further regional offices, giving local support to student participants:
https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/about_en
.
educação e formaçãoeducation and training
.
Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 12.11.09 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 12.17.44 pm.png
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Don't you feel a little envious of the students given the opportunity to participate in the Erasmus+ program‽ Sadly the Covid-19 pandemic has severely interrupted the 2020 iteration of the program, but already a sequel to Erasmus+ is being planned.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

A really masterly dissertation on the Erasmus program, Roger. The explanation is excellent. Thank you for your obvious interest and participation on this Thread. It is extremely helpful and educational. I knew a little of the historical context of Erasmus, but the explanation of the program is exceptional.

Makes me wish it had been available for me in the years 1964-1972, as it would have expanded the horizons of a young and very impressionable man from Northern Ireland.

Deserves another award for post of the month!
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Waffle, a very generous assessment :D

After completing the post I took time to do much-needed lawn-mowing, and now that I've come back to Stampboards I've found no fewer than four whoopsies in that post ("grammar" corrects the worst; the others are sporadic extra letters that should have been eliminated during paste-ins). These small blemishes were only noticed after it was too late to edit them out — at least I got my lawn-mowing done before dark, so I have to take comfort from that aphorism "The perfect is the enemy of the good". ;)

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

The pronunciation of Portuguese has so far not been discussed seriously in this thread.

I have found a thorough but user-friendly website presenting details of the pronunciation of European Portuguese. The details are as follows (by screen shot). If you want to hear the sounds, all you need to do is go to the actual website and click on the blue button against each IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet symbol, or against the example Portuguese words.
https://european-portuguese.info

Pronunciation of European Portuguese consonants
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 8.47.01 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 8.48.22 pm.png
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Coda consonants [consonants at the end of a syllable]
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 8.52.53 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 8.53.35 pm.png
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Pronunciation of European Portuguese vowels
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 8.55.58 pm.png
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Word stress — rules for accentuation
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 8.59.17 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 9.00.27 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 9.01.32 pm.png
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A more detailed coverage of all cases:
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 9.05.41 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 9.08.22 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 9.11.26 pm.png
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

What do oranges have to do with Portugal?
As Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to introduce the sweet orange in Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them. Some examples are
Albanian: portokall
Bosnian (archaic): portokal, prtokal
Bulgatian: портокал (portokal)
Greek: πορτοκάλι (portokáli)
Macedonian: portokal
Persian: پرتقال (porteghal)
Romanian: portocală
Related names can be found in other languages, such as
Arabic: البرتقال (burtuqāl)
Georgian: ფორთოხალი (p'ort'oxali)
Turkish: portakal
Amharic: birtukan
Also, in southern Italian dialects such as Neapolitan, an orange is portogallo or purtuallo, "(the) Portuguese (one)", in contrast to standard Italian: arancia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portuguese_language
.
.<br />Turkey, 28 Apr 1993, portakal – orange
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Turkey, 28 Apr 1993, portakal – orange
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.<br />Northern Cyprus, 1976, portakal – orange, Sc.35
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Northern Cyprus, 1976, portakal – orange, Sc.35
ÖRNEK — SPECIMEN
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Contrast these examples with orange in
Portuguese: laranja
Galician: laranxa
Spanish: naranja
Catalan: taronja
.
.<br />Brasil, 1981, laranja – orange, RHM 606
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Brasil, 1981, laranja – orange, RHM 606
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

A supplement to the previous post, about oranges:
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.<br />Albania, 1965, portokall – orange, Sc.792
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Albania, 1965, portokall – orange, Sc.792
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David Scott Kastan, with Stephen Farthing, wrote:Early in the 16th century Portuguese traders brought sweet oranges from India to Europe, and the colour takes its name from them... Often they referred to oranges as “golden apples”. Not until they knew them as oranges did they see them as orange.

The word itself begins as an ancient Sanskrit word, naranga, possibly derived from an even older Dravidian ... root naru, meaning fragrant. Along with the oranges, the word migrated into Persian and Arabic. From there it was adopted into European languages, as with narancs in Hungarian or the Spanish naranja. In Italian it was originally narancia, and in French narange, though the word in both of these languages eventually dropped the “n” at the beginning to become arancia and orange, probably from a mistaken idea that the initial “n” sound had carried over from the article, una or une. Think about English, where it would be almost impossible to hear any real difference between “an orange” and “a norange.” An “orange” it became, but it probably should really have been a “norange.” Still, orange is better, if only because the initial “o” so satisfyingly mirrors the roundness of the fruit.

The etymological history of “orange” traces the route of cultural contact and exchange — one that ultimately completes the circle of the globe. The word for “orange” in modern-day Tamil, the surviving Dravidian language that gave us the original root of the word, is arancu, pronounced almost exactly like the English word “orange” and in fact borrowed from it.
https://lithub.com/color-or-fruit-on-the-unlikely-etymology-of-orange/
To finish, here is a lovely minisheet from Francophone Monaco, showing an orangerorange tree in the four seasons:
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.<br />Monaco, 1991, minisheet, <br />Oranger – orange tree, in the four seasons
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Monaco, 1991, minisheet,
Oranger – orange tree, in the four seasons
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by castores »

Not really on track in terms of motivating us to engage with languages but as far as oranges on postage stamps:
orange.jpg
Australia:
Navel oranges Navels are the largest grown varieties in Australia and available during the winter from June – August. Sweet and juicy, they are rich in orange colour, seedless and easy to peel.

Valencias are one of the largest orange varieties grown in Australia and available from November to February – the summer months. Deliciously sweet and juicy, they are ideal for eating and juicing.

Valencias

Florida Valencia oranges are sweet summer oranges named after Valencia, Spain popular for its sweet citrus produce.
They are available from March up until June and you can buy Valencia oranges from fruit stands and grocery stores during their seasonal peak from July to October or get Valencia oranges online to get them straight from the farm.
Although they contain a few seeds, they are the perfect juicing orange because they are juicier than other oranges.
Furthermore, the juice is invigorating, brightly colored, has a well-balanced sweet-tart flavor that will help you beat the heat of summer.
Valencias Limonin, which is a natural compound and known anti-oxidant that when exposed to air converts enzymes and becomes bitter, is found in the seeds so you can juice the fruit, store it in the fridge and enjoy it for a few days, even weeks.

Navels

Navels on the other hand are seedless winter oranges that are in season from December through March with peak in January and February.
They taste sweeter than Valencias and are great to munch on fresh out of hand or tossed in a salad.
You can easily distinguish Navel oranges from other oranges by their trademark ?Navel? on the fruit?s blossom end, which is actually an undeveloped second ?twin? fruit opposite its stem.
Unlike Valencia oranges, Navels are better eaten fresh rather than juiced because the Limonin is found in the flesh of Navels so the juice turns bitter within 30 minutes.
Australia
Everything PNG
This and that

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

One of the great resources now available to help us engage with languages is Google Translate. But translation is an art, not a simple word-for-word substitution using a bilingual dictionary. Skillful translation requires understanding, reasoning, awareness of context and knowledge of culture and history.

These points are developed in an excellent article by Douglas Hofstadter* in The Atlantic. The author is well known for his book Gödel, Escher, Bach, a ground-breaking exploration of pattern, symmetry and perception. Here is a snapshot extract to introduce you to his article:
.
Screen Shot 2020-07-23 at 3.42.26 pm.png
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You can access the article at this link:
https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2018/01/the-s ... te/551570/

Getting down to specific instances, it includes discussion of several translation "test cases", involving French, German and Chinese. If you have some acquaintance with any one of those languages, you will find the relevant discussion particularly interesting.

Hofstadter doesn't reject the proposition that a computer could translate to professional standards, but his criticism of present AI translation programs is that they do not understand, in fact, they don't even know that words refer to the world. His writing is thought-provoking: it will certainly give you much to think about.

*Endnote: I like Hofstadter's comment that when asked how many languages he speaks he says he's pi-lingual, because if he adds up the fractions measuring his knowledge of various languages the total is pretty close to pi. This is more considered than the simplistic view that one either knows a language or not: it's more realistic to think of fractional or partial knowledge.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

RogerE wrote:
22 Jul 2020 02:50
Thanks Panterra. Can you tells us about the inscriptions in Mongolian script at the top and sides of the stamps in your post? (You did interpret the numerals at the base of each stamp.)

I suppose that the top left side is Tannu ᠲᠠᠩᠨᠦ , and the top right side is Tuva ᠲᠤᠧᠠ . If that is correct, the correspondence between these versions and the versions on the stamps is not very close, and the calligraphy on the stamps seems more stylish and artistic. I have little lead on the inscription at the top of the stamps.

/RogerE
:D
I'm not familiar with Mongolian script either, but "The Postal History and Stamps of Tuva" by S.M. Blekhman (English edition published 1997 by the Tannu Tuva Collectors' Society), helpfully provides clarity:
Samuel Blekhman wrote:In the upper part of the stamp there are four letters for the abbreviated name of the country, Tannu-Tuvinian People's Republic. The text on the left and right at the top means "Postage Stamp" and at the bottom is the rate.


The website for the Tannu Tuva Collectors' Society has had little attention for some years but is now again being updated. Check each day for more improvements.

The high values of the first stamp issue from Tuva, back in 1926: Wheel of Dharma.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 30 kopecks.
Backman # 6. Mirr # 6.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 50 kopecks.
Backman # 7. Mirr # 7.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 1 rouble.
Backman # 8. Mirr # 8.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thank you Panterra, that significantly advances our understanding of the inscriptions on the stamps. I assume that the inscriptions in the lower side panels of all but the last stamp you showed must be /k/ for kopek, while those in the last (green) stamp must be /r/ for rouble.

I have just now found a Wikipedia page on Mongolian script.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolian_script

It is extensive, and I've only had time to take in a little of the early portion.
Here is the title panel. The two words below "Mongolian Script" repeat that title in the Mongolian script.
The "sample text" appears to be given basically for visual information — I have not located a translation.
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Screen Shot 2020-07-24 at 1.42.01 am.png
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The reed pen was the traditional writing implement:
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.<br />Traditional reed pens
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Traditional reed pens
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Elements of the script

The following tabulation shows the graphemes, in order from initial (top), through medial (middle) to terminal (bottom) position forms, together with their names — analogues of body parts or other familiar objects, Mongolian Cyrillic (with transcription in Roman [Latin] script), and Mongolian script (with transcription in Roman [Latin] script).
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Screen Shot 2020-07-24 at 1.37.30 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-07-24 at 1.38.21 am.png
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I will hold over further details for another post.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

I wonder if learning Mongolian script would be appropriate to annotate album pages ready for the next Ulaan Baatar Stamp Exhibition?
Ulaghanbaghatur.png
The capital city of Mongolia's name in Mongol vertical script.
It's rather tempting. But I would be too worried at making silly grammar errors like some I have seen in international stamp exhibitions where a collector (for whom English is clearly not a first language) makes rather basic blunders in their earnest captions, which rather ruin a nice display.


Mongolia-59-Mongolists-50m.jpg
Mongolia 1959 First International Congress of Mongolists, 50 menge.

This whole set is unusual in failing to show the country's name on the stamps!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by lesbootman »

Post repeated from the "Every day is happy day!" thread:

I've got another little conundrum here. What looks like a slightly scruffy example of Costa Rica's 1889 1c stamp (Scott # 25 perhaps) with a cancel or overprint that reads "INUTILIZADA" (reading downwards).
inutil.jpg
Oddly enough "Inutilizada" could be translated as "unused"!
Our days are happier when we give people a bit of our heart rather than a piece of our mind!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by kuikka »

Could it also be translated as 'Not for use', meaning specimen or demonetized reminder?

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Ubobo.R.O. »

2020-07-24_181408.jpg
What we may refer to as REMAINDERED.
Full time horse non-whisperer, post box searcher and lichen covered granite rock percher. Gee I'm handsome !
You gottem birds, butterflies, shells, maps, flags and heads on stamps ? Me wantem !

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

The Portuguese stamps thread being hosted by Waffle has produced another "language" topic worth looking into more closely.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=91353&start=84
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.<br />Portugal, 2012, Comunicar a cores stamp issue, €0.32, €0.47 and €0.68
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Portugal, 2012, Comunicar a cores stamp issue, €0.32, €0.47 and €0.68
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.<br />Portugal, 2012, Comunicar a cores stamp issue, €0.80 and €1.00
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Portugal, 2012, Comunicar a cores stamp issue, €0.80 and €1.00
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Coloradd sign code, created by Miguel Neiva
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Portuguese:
comunicarto communicate
a cor, as cores the colour, the colours
comunicar a corescommunicating colours
vermelhored
azulblue
amareloyellow
pretoblack
brancowhite

Communicating with colour

Just as national flags are a visual "language", so colour is widely used as a visual "language". Traffic light colours send us familiar messages; a flashing red light or blue light is a related type of signal; on/off buttons are often colour-coded or accompanied by a red light and a green light so the appropriate light serves to show the operational status of the circuit; and so on... (*)

What about people who are colour-blind?

The problem of helping colour-blind people correctly perceive colour-coded signals and labels was creatively addressed by Miguel Neiva, with a geometrical sign code he called Coloradd. This is celebrated by the 2012 Portuguese stamp set shown here.
Coloradd is a sign code for aiding color blind people to recognise colors, developed by Portuguese graphic designer and professor at the University of Minho, Miguel Neiva. It consists of geometric shapes representing colors and color combinations. The app won the accessibility category of the 2013 Vodafone Foundation Mobile For Good Europe Awards.
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Coloradd.png
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The code is based on five base signs: two triangles (one angled upwards and the other angled downwards), one diagonal line, one solid square box and one empty square box representing black, white and the primary colours: red (magenta), blue (cyan), and yellow. Colours derived from other colours have the symbols of the combined colours, creating derivative colours (orange, green, purple and brown) and dark or white tones. Metalized colours like silver or gold are shown with a left parenthesis on the symbols.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coloradd
_________________
.
(*) Let's think a little more about how colour coding has been used in the past, and is now being used.

Colour Coding Systems
Munsell blog wrote:According to Victoria Finlay’s book, Colour: A Natural History of the Palette, one of the earliest colour coding systems was found in Peru among the remains of the Inca empire. Relay teams of runners would carry multicoloured cords [quipus] full of knots as messages. Each knot and colour meant something different. In many forms such an efficient way of message transmission remains to this day. A simple and preferably unambiguous message is attached to the colour and if you know the code the whole thing can be read at a glance. If you know the code.

You know those bomb scenes in movies where the hero has to defuse the bomb by deciphering whether to cut the red or the blue wire…. Or the confusion at the airports during those Homeland Security alerts. Red and green, pretty clear, but blue, yellow and orange… people didn’t quite know what to make of those no matter how many times they had seen the colour chart.

And I hope that all the medical personnel know their colour codes (blue, red, pink, amber… you name it) because I have no idea. If the meaning you attach to a coloor doesn’t rely on already formed layers of cultural symbology (red = danger, green = relax) it is hard to find your way around if you don’t know the whole code.
https://munsell.com/color-blog/why-that-color-signal/
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color-signs-codes.jpg
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Colour as a Guide
Munsell blog wrote:Contemporary visual communication generally relies on colours as guides. Maps, websites, technical diagrams, safety instructions, charts, learning tools, etc… Colours might not give you the exact information every time, but they will at least group the information for you and gently guide you toward what you need. Think of the New York Subway system. The colour of the line will give you a general idea where you’re going, but only the number and letter will give you the precise information. Such a subtle colour guidance might enhance the experience of a website (see Guardian or Huffington Post). On the other hand I have noticed that due to our speedy way of life, we often consider colour as the full message. It happened more than once that without paying much attention, I tapped on the Dictionary or Facebook app icon instead of the Weather app. They are all overwhelmingly blue and that’s all I care to remember about them among the many other glossy icons on my iPad.
https://munsell.com/color-blog/why-that-color-signal/
Now let's learn a little more about colour-blindness

Colour-blindness, more properly called Colour Vision Deficiency = CVD
Wikipedia wrote:The first scientific paper on the subject of colour blindness, Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours, was published by the English chemist John Dalton in 1798 after the realisation of his own colour blindness. Because of Dalton's work, the general condition has been called daltonism, although in English this term is now used only for deuteranopia [a form of red-green colour-blindness],
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_blindness
Colour vision deficiency has a genetic basis, and has considerably higher incidence in males than in females. There are in fact about eight different forms that the deficiency can take. Deuteranopia is the most common form. The incidence varies across ethnic and national groups: in males it varies from less than 2% in some groups, through to as high as 10% in the most seriously affected groups.

A helpful insight into colour-blindness is provided by a first-person experience piece entitled How do the colour-blind think and talk about colour?
https://wearecolorblind.com/articles/how-do-the-colorblind-think-and-talk-about-color/

Colour Guidelines for Inclusiveness

Awareness of the challenges faced by people with colour vision deficiency can lead to better choices by graphic designers. Here is an indication of current thinking in this area:
Good graphic design avoids using colour coding or using colour contrasts alone to express information; this not only helps colour blind people, but also aids understanding by normally sighted people by providing them with multiple reinforcing cues.

Designers should also note that red–blue and yellow–blue colour combinations are generally safe. So instead of the ever-popular "red means bad and green means good" system, using these combinations can lead to a much higher ability to use colour coding effectively. This will still cause problems for those with monochromatic colour blindness, but it is still something worth considering.
https://usabilla.com/blog/how-to-design-for-color-blindness/
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

What are the official languages of the EU = European Union?

The answer is provided on the access page to the EU website, which is
https://europa.eu/
By selecting the language of your choice, subsequent pages of the site are presented in your chosen language.
.
.<br />The 24 official languages of the European Union, <br />and their two-letter codes
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The 24 official languages of the European Union,
and their two-letter codes
.
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.<br />France, 2004, stamp celebrating the enlargement of the European Union, Sc 3022
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France, 2004, stamp celebrating the enlargement of the European Union, Sc 3022
.
Within the EU website are details about many aspects of the EU, including information about its official languages and its policies concerning languages of member countries.
https://europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/eu-languages_en
.
Screen Shot 2020-07-26 at 12.25.08 am.png
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On that same page are sample texts in all 24 languages, with an audio option for each to hear that text spoken fluently. For example, under Portuguese the text begins
Os europeus unidos na diversidade
A União Europeia (UE) é uma família de países democráticos europeus, com um projecto comum de paz e prosperidade. Não se trata de um Estado que pretende substituir Estados existentes, mas vai além de qualquer outra organização internacional. A UE é, neste aspecto, única. Os Estados Membros criaram instituições comuns a que delegam parte da sua soberania por forma a que as decisões sobre questões específicas de interesse comum possam ser tomadas democraticamente a nível europeu.
The matching paragraph under English is
Europeans united in diversity
The European Union (EU) is a family of democratic European countries, committed to working together for peace and prosperity. It is not a State intended to replace existing states, but it is more than just another international organisation. The EU is, in fact, unique. Its Member States have set up common institutions to which they delegate some of their sovereignty so that decisions on specific matters of joint interest can be made democratically at European level.
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

lesbootman wrote:
24 Jul 2020 18:27
Costa Rica's 1889 1c stamp (Scott # 25 perhaps) with a cancel or overprint that reads "INUTILIZADA" (reading downwards).
Costa Rica, 1889, 1¢, handstamp INUTILIZADA, Sc 25(?)
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Image
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Translating Inutilizada

The question is: What is the significance of the hand-stamped Spanish language overprint INUTILIZADA ?
It is motivated by the similarity to the English word "unutilised", which would be an unlikely cancellation! (Recall the warnings about "mechanical" translation.) In fact, an online Spanish-English Dictionary gives the following more plausible translations (with relevant example sentences):
inutilizar
TRANSITIVE VERB
a. to render useless
Algunos usuarios del nuevo teléfono están informando acerca de fallas técnicas que podrían inutilizar el dispositivo. Some users of the new phone are reporting glitches that might render the device useless.
b. to make useless
Si sigues toqueteando el registro, vas a inutilizar la computadora.
If you keep messing with the registry, you'll make the computer useless.
c. to disable
Un ACV le inutilizó la pierna izquierda; ahora está haciendo fisioterapia para recuperar la movilidad.
A stroke disabled her left leg; now she's doing physical therapy to regain mobility.
d. to put out of action
Tras varios intentos, los soldados lograron inutilizar la estación de radio.
After several attempts, the soldiers managed to put the radio station out of action.
https://www.spanishdict.com/translate/inutilizada
Comments from an expert

I contacted SOCORICO, the Society of Costa Rica Collectors, which is Affiliate No.96 of the American Philatelic Society. I received the following information from Dr Hector R. Mena, who is Librarian of SOCORICO and the principal author of the specialisted catalogue of Costa Rica stamps produced by SOCORICO:
http://www.socorico.org/catalog.php

The INUTILIZADA marking was applied to stamps that were demonetized and unfit for postage but usable by collectors. A similar situation happened to demonetized stamps between 1900 and 1925 which were marked with 5 parallel bars. In the late 1800's only the main post offices were supplied with circular dated cancellers. All the others had to invent their own cancelling devices. So, more than 150 types of cancellation markings exist for these issues. There are older publications listing many of the markings but nobody can say that the list is complete.
Hector R. Mena


Follow-up

For me this still leaves some questions unresolved, so I hope Dr Mena will tell us what there is about this particular stamp that makes it "unfit for postage but usable by collectors". How should we translate INUTILIZADA in English?

Here, currently on eBay, is an example of the five-bar cancellation described by Dr Mena:
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Costa Rica, 2¢ surcharge on 5¢, 5 bar cancel, Sc 98c
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s-l1600.jpg
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Here is an item currently on eBay, with the perfin described as INUTILIZADO. It seems that the word could equally be CANCELADO.
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Costa Rica, 1910, 1¢, perfin [INUTILIZ(?)]ADO, Sc69
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s-l1600.jpg
s-l1600-1.jpg
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A further question: INUTILIZADA is the feminine form of the adjective, whereas INUTILIZADO and CANCELADO are masculine forms. I am not sure what would have governed the choice of gender for these adjectives, but el sello postalthe postage stamp is masculine, so the correct phrase would be el sello postal inutilizado/cancelado.

I hope that Dr Mena will be able to tell us more.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

A further question: INUTILIZADA is the feminine form of the adjective, whereas INUTILIZADO and CANCELADO are masculine forms. I am not sure what would have governed the choice of gender for these adjectives, but el sello postal — the postage stamp is masculine, so the correct phrase would be el sello postal inutilizado/cancelado.
Hi Roger,

I guess it depends whether you think of this stamp as a sello (m) or as an estampilla (f)?
Nigel

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

I have received further information from Dr Hetor R. Mena (Librarian of SOCORICO), supplying the context and insights needed to more fully understand the Costa Rica Inutilizada 1¢ stamp portraying President Soto. I'm sure that fellow Stampboards members will join me in thanking Dr Mena for his detailed information and for kindly sharing his expert knowledge with us.
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Costa Rica, 1889, 1 centavo, President Soto stamp
Issued 20 Sep 1889
Demonetised 30 June 1892
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inutil.jpg
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Dr Mena informs us:

1. History. — The government of Bernardo Soto* was the highest and final point of the liberal governments of the end of the 19th century in Costa Rica. After decades of predominant liberal thinking and anticlerical feelings, the conservative parties assumed power in 1892. Soto was a benign and illustrious president who accepted his defeat at the popular vote and peacefully relinquished power to the Rodriguez administration.

However, the conservatives did not want to see his image on postage/telegraph stamps and issued their own stamps (the 1892 Coat of Arms issue). Since then, Costa Rica has not issued stamps with images of sitting presidents, unless related to an extraordinary event (such as winning a Nobel price, secretary of the OAS, woman's vote, etc.).

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Costa Rica, 1892, 10¢ Arms issue, Sc 44
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s-l400.jpg
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2. Philately. — The 1889 Soto stamp was issued on September 20, 1889 and demonetized in June 30, 1892. The numbers of stamps printed by Waterlow and Sons is unknown. After the stamps were no longer valid for postage they were sold at auction to a general merchant on January 23, 1893. He had 1c: 1.3 million; 2c: 1.5 million; 5c: half million; 10c: almost a million; 20c: 1.4 million; 50c: 450 thousand; 1 peso: 87 thousand; 2 pesos: 15 thousand; 5 pesos: 3,600; 10 pesos: 1,300.

What could a general merchant do to recover his investment from that many stamps? Since the philatelic market of that period preferred used stamps, he had to invent all kinds of markings to make them saleable. Philatelists collecting this issue would prefer dated circular cancellations or town specific cancellations rather than mute, per favor or obviously nonpostal markings.

— Hector Mena


With this background, it now seems reasonable to translate Inutilizada as Demonetised or Invalidated.

*Note: Ramón Bernardo Soto Alfaro (12 February 1854 – 28 January 1931) was President of Costa Rica from 1885 to 1889.
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Costa Rica, 1889,
1¢ to 1p, Pres Soto definitives, Sc 25-31
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s-l1600.jpg
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How much better we understand and appreciate these stamps now that we have the information Dr Mena has shared with us!
By the way, in case you wish to check out the website of SOCORICO, here is the link:
http://www.socorico.org/

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by lesbootman »

Wow, one insignificant stamp has such a story behind it, and even now there are a few uncertainties.

I would tend to agree that the stamp was remaindered but note that the thin parallel bars "cancels" are far and away the more common sign of a remaindered Costa Rican stamp. They get a mention in the Scott catalogue.

Thanks very much everyone for all the help.
Our days are happier when we give people a bit of our heart rather than a piece of our mind!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Here's a post which has just been added to the Stamps and Coronavirus thread:
https://www.stampboards.com/posting.php?mode=quote&f=13&p=6756459
sebjarod wrote:
28 Jul 2020 00:32
Last week, the French philatelic service director announced an unprogrammed issue on 14 September: a 12 stamp booklet with daily scenes thanking "Les Héros du quotidien" ("Daily Life Heroes") designed by Miles Hyman.
Image
Currently in France, 12 self-adhesive NVI stamp booklets are semi-definitive stamps that La Poste sells in most post offices and newsagents. The issue is so aimed at a larger public than stamp collectors only.
.oOOOo.
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We have not had many posts about French in the present thread, since it is probably the most familiar second language for many Stampboarders. However, not for everyone, so let's take the opportunity to translate this booklet announcement.

French words and phrases

le début /lə deby/ — commencement, start, beginning
en début de semaineat the beginning of the week
au début de l’annéeat the start of the year
mettre à jourto update, make suitable forthe present by adapting to recents events
mettre en valeurto enhance, make appear better
mettre en scèneto produce, to arrange and prepare a performance
mettre fin àto stop, put an end to
à traversacross, through
couper à travers champto cut across the fields, take a shortcut
l'émission /lemisjɔ̃/— emission, production, program
regarder une émissionto watch a [television] program
quotidien (m), quotidienne (f) /kɔtidjɛ̃/, /kɔtidjɛn/ — daily, everyday
le quotidiendaily [news]paper
la vie quotidiennedaily life
le cycle /lə sikl/ — cycle, recurrence
le cycle de vielife cycle
la scène /sɛn/— scene, stage; the place where something real or imaginary
happens; show of anger, a row

monter sur scèneto go on stage
mettre en scèneto direct, to make a film or stage production
faire une scèneto make a scene
dévoiler /devwale/— to reveal, unveil; to expose
dévoiler une nouvelle œuvre d’artto unveil a new artwork
une femme voiléea woman wearing a veil
PDG [= Président-Directeur Général] /pedeʒe/[/b] — CEO [=Chief Executive Officer],
president of a large company

avant /avɑ̃/— before (in time or location)
avant de venirbefore coming
tournez à gauche avant le carrefourturn left before the intersection
Il faut avant tout les avertirFirst of all, we must warn them
la poste est juste avantthe post office is just this side of it
le lancement /lə lɑ̃smɑ̃/— launch, launching
la fusée de lancementbooster, first stage of a multistage rocket
le lancement d’un nouveau produitthe launch of a new product
le dessin /lə desɛ̃/— drawing, outline; plan
faire un dessinto make a drawing
le dessin des lèvresthe outline of the lips
être doué pour le dessinto be good at drawing
être doué pour quelque choseto be gifted at something
engagé /ɑ̃ɡaʒe/— politically engaged, committed, bound by promise
un chanteur engagéa politically engaged singer (m)
engager des poursuites contreto proceed, to take legal action against
soudain (m), soudaine (f) /sudɛ̃/, /sudɛn/— sudden
un bruit soudaina sudden noise
soudain [adverb] — suddenly
soudain il disparutsuddenly he disappeared
immobile /imɔbil/— still, immobile, motionless
rester immobileto keep perfectly still
se mobiliser /səmɔbilise/— to mobilise

The booklet text

A free translation. [Compare with remarks in the earlier post about "mechanical" translation https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=334]

Début septembre, #LaPoste mettra à l'honneur et remerciera nos #hérosduquotidien à travers l'émission d'un carnet de #timbres. 12 scènes de vie dessinées par l'artist @miles_hyman qui seront dévoilées par P. Wahl, PDG du @GroupeLaPoste avant le lancement.

#tous engagés
Dans une France soudain immobile, ils ont continué à se mobiliser au service de TOUS.


In a September release, LaPoste will honour and thank our Everyday Heroes with the issue of a stamp booklet — 12 everyday scenarios drawn by artist Miles Hyman, to be unveiled by P. Wahl, CEO of LaPoste Group, ahead of the launch of this issue.

# Everyone engaged
In a France suddenly brought to a standstill, they have kept on the go for us ALL.


/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

In the Stamps and Coronavirus thread, the latest post by Canada stamper shows
two covers with slogan meter markings from Casablanca, Morocco.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?p=6756647#p6756647

That post represents a fine cooperative effort, as Eli has provided the Arabic script
and English translation for the slogan.

My Arabic is almost non-existent, but I can use online resources to help provide
a little more information.
Perhaps Eli could correct/comment on the following effort, where I have added
a transliteration into Roman [Latin] alphabet, and an "analysis" of the Arabic script:
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ابقوا في منازلكم لوقف الوباء
aibqawa fi manazilikum liwaqf alwaba'
Stay in your homes to stop the epidemic

ابقوا = ا ب ق وا — aibqawa — stay
في = ف ي — fi — in
منازلكم = م ن ا زل ك م — manazilikum — your homes
لوقف = ل وق — liwaqf — to stop
الوباء = ا ل وب ا ء — alwaba' — the epidemic

بقي — baqi — stay, remain (verb)
البقاء — albaqa' — stay, rest (noun)
ابق آمنا — 'abaq amanaa — stay safe
يبقى الجميع بأمان — yabqaa aljamie baman — everyone stay safe

منزل — manzil — a house, a home
المنزل — almanzil — the house, the home
المنازل — almanazil — the houses, the homes
منزلي — manzili — my home
منزله — manzilih — his home
منزلنا — manziluna — our home
في منازلنا — fi manaziluna — in our homes
في منازلكم — fi manazilikum — in your homes
الجميع يبقون في المنزل — aljamie yabaquwn fi almanzil — everyone stay at home

لوقف — liwaqf — to stop, to halt
الوباء — alwaba' — the epidemic
جائحة — jayiha — pandemic
الفيروس — alfayrus — the virus
فيروس الكورونا — fayrus alkuruna — the coronavirus
جائحة فيروس كورونا — jayihat fayrus kuruna — coronavirus pandemic

A side-note which I found:
بريد — barid — mail
البريد — albarid — the mail
البريد الإلكتروني — albarid al'iiliktruniu — e-mail, electronic mail
لوقف تلقي رسائل البريد الإلكتروني — liwaqf tulqi rasayil albarid al'iiliktrunii — to stop receiving e-mails ;)
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

RogerE wrote:
26 Jul 2020 01:51
What are the official languages of the EU = European Union?

The answer is provided on the access page to the EU website, which is
https://europa.eu/
By selecting the language of your choice, subsequent pages of the site are presented in your chosen language.
.
Image
Hi Roger,

Thanks for sharing this EU language table. :)

This table lists all the EU's official languages using both a two-letter code and the language's name for itself which gives me an opportunity to introduce some linguistic jargon.

A language's name for itself is called an endonymic glossonym. (!)

Let's break this down:

The word exonym was introduced by the Australian geographer Marcel Aurousseau to refer to a name for a country (or city etc.) used by people outside of that country, derived from the Greek for outer name.

This word was soon followed by endonym to mean a word used within a country to refer to that country, once again from the Greek for inner name.

So for example Germany and Allemagne are exonyms for the country whose usual endonym is Deutschland.

SImilarly, a glossonym is a name of a language.

The two-letter language codes are defined in the international (ISO) standard ISO 639-1 which at latest defines 184 codes.

This sounds a lot but has been found not to be nearly enough and a number of additional standards have been defined for three or four-letter codes, especially the three-letter codes in ISO 639-3.

For example here are the ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-3 codes for some languages which are not in the EU list:

Gaelic - gd - gla
Manx - gv - glv
Welsh - cy - cym
Cornish - kw - cor
Breton - br - bre
Faroese - fo - fao
Icelandic - is - isl
Luxembourgish - lb - ltz
West Frisian - fy - fry

and here are some others that have ISO 639-3 codes but no ISO 639-1 codes:

Scots - sco
Low German - nds
Saterland Frisian - stq
North Frisian - frr
Sorbian - wen
Nigel

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