Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

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Panterra
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

It is intriguing that you bring up the anecdote about Richard Feynman, Roger. That gentleman was particularly concerned with the philately of Tannu Tuva, ( ᠲᠠᠩᠨᠦ ᠲᠤᠧᠠ ) which prompts me to raise the issue of the Mongol vertical script here.

I have several times toyed with the idea of learning this language, but quickly dismissed it. And the new regime in Tuva was quick to dump the vertical script in favour of something akin to a Latin alphabet that could be reproduced using modern typewriters.

The very first stamp issue from
Tuva, ( ᠲᠤᠧᠠ ) back in 1926: Wheel of Dharma.

As few folks today understand the Mongolian vertical script or their numerals used on the stamps, I will show each value to help you identify them. Note that Mongolian is written vertically down the page (as shown on the first stamps), but modern computers don't allow for this, so we have to be content with writing them sideways to cope with the inadequacies of computers.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 1 kopeck.
Backman # 1. Mirr # 1.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 2 kopecks.
Backman # 2. Mirr # 2.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 5 kopecks.
Backman # 3. Mirr # 3.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 8 kopecks.
Backman # 4. Mirr # 4.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 10 kopecks.
Backman # 5. Mirr # 5.
Other values to follow.

The Tannu Tuva People's Republic (as it was named until in November 1926, the country name was changed to Tuvan People's Republic) was run by enthusiastic traditional Buddhist politicians at this early stage in their independence. The state's first ruler, Prime Minister Donduk Kuular, and the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party, sought to strengthen ties with Mongolia and establish Lamaism as the state religion. Though the Bolsheviks had a strictly secular policy, they did not manage to convince the Tuvan party of this line until 1929. So the Buddhist emblem was considered to be the appropriate design for the country's first stamps. Note the cancellation on the 5k: this also used Mongol script at the sides, with English at the top and bottom. Since Mongolian script is vertical, it is very appropriate that the Mongol script is at the sides of the postmark so it can correctly read vertically.
Image
Tuva's first leader, Prime Minister Donduk Kuular, enjoying a ciggie as he studies his notes.
Wikipedia wrote:The Dharma Chakra (Sanskrit: Dharma Chakra Pali: dhammacakka, "Wheel of Dharma") is a widespread symbol used in Indian religions such as Jainism and Buddhism.

Historically, the dharma chakra was often used as a decoration in Hindu and Buddhist temples, statues and inscriptions, beginning with the earliest period of Indian Buddhism to the present. It remains a major symbol of the Hindu and Buddhist religions today.

In Buddhism, the Dharma Chakra is widely used to represent the Buddha's Dharma (Buddha's teaching and the universal moral order), Gautama Buddha himself and the walking of the path to enlightenment, since the time of Early Buddhism. The symbol is also sometimes connected to the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path and Dependent Origination. The pre-Buddhist dharmachakra (Pali: dhammacakka) is considered one of the ashtamangala (auspicious signs) in Hinduism and Buddhism and often used as a symbol of both faiths. It is one of the oldest known Indian symbols found in Indian art, appearing with the first surviving post-Indus Valley Civilization Indian iconography in the time of the Buddhist king Ashoka.
Wikipedia wrote:The Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party (Mongolian: ᠲᠠᠩᠨᠦ ᠲᠤᠧᠠ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢᠰᠭᠠᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠨᠠᠮ = Tangnu Tuva-yin arad-un qubisγal-tu nam) was a political party in Tuva, founded in 1921. When the Tannu Tuva People's Republic was founded in the same year, the party held single-party control over its government as a vanguard party.
For more information, visit the Tannu Tuva Collectors' Society website.

.·:*¨¨*:·..·:*¨¨*:·..·:*¨¨*:·..·:*¨¨*:·.
.·:*¨¨*:·..·:*¨¨*:·..·:*¨¨*:·.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Panterra. Can you tells us about the inscriptions in Mongolian script at the top and sides of the stamps in your post? (You did interpret the numerals at the base of each stamp.)

I suppose that the top left side is Tannu ᠲᠠᠩᠨᠦ , and the top right side is Tuva ᠲᠤᠧᠠ . If that is correct, the correspondence between these versions and the versions on the stamps is not very close, and the calligraphy on the stamps seems more stylish and artistic. I have little lead on the inscription at the top of the stamps.

I checked the link you gave for the Tannu Tuva Collectors' Society, but many of the images on that site seem to be "broken".

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

The Happy Day thread has a post by lesbootman showing this Costa Rica stamp, inscribed in Spanish:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=82193&start=4651
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.<br />Costa Rica, 1980, 5.00 colon stamp, used<br />Subject: Huetar Region Postal Centre
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Costa Rica, 1980, 5.00 colon stamp, used
Subject: Huetar Region Postal Centre
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The Huetar Region refers to the Huetar people:
The Huetares were an important indigenous group of Costa Rica, who in the mid-16th century lived in the centre of what is now the country
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huetar_people
Huetar warrior
Huetar warrior
The Spanish stamp inscription is
Tributar es progresar
— (Literal version) To pay taxes is to progress
— (Freer translation) Payment of taxes ensures progress
The stamp was offered on eBay, where the inscription was described as "Pay your taxes".
tributarto pay a tax
progresarto progress
La economía progresó después de las reformas políticas
The economy improved after the political reforms
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.<br />Central Amerca, including Costa Rica and Honduras
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Central Amerca, including Costa Rica and Honduras
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In fact Tributar es progresar is the slogan/motto of a government department in nearby Honduras
Servicio de Administración de Rentas de Honduras = SAR
Revenue Management Service of Honduras
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.<br />Tributar es progresar<br />Revenue Management Service of Honduras
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Tributar es progresar
Revenue Management Service of Honduras
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Engaging with a second language is not just about vocabulary, grammer and pronunciation. It's about engaging with the culture, the preoccupations and the world view of the speakers of that language. It's a doorway into their world.

In the thread about Portuguese stamps of 2011 and 2012 Waffle has just posted this minisheet, and accompanying single stamp, celebrating 25 years of the Erasmus program.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=91353&start=66
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.<br />Portugal, 2012, minisheet celebrating 25 years of the Erasmus program
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Portugal, 2012, minisheet celebrating 25 years of the Erasmus program
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Recalling Erasmus

Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466–1536) was a philosopher, scholar and Catholic priest, one of the most influential scholars of the northern European Renaissance. He was reknowned for his clear, masterly writings in Latin.

What is the Erasmus program?

The Erasmus program is an educational exchange program set up by various European countries to enable students to pursue part of their education in a different country from their homeland, and thus gain a "pan-European" experience.

The 2012 Portuguese minisheet celebrates Portugal's participation in the program as it reached its 25th year of operation. The Portuguese text on the minisheet is accompanied by a less than perfect English translation.
First, here are a few vocabulary items from that Portuguese text:

aprenderto learn
a aprendizagemapprenticeship, learning, schoolingn
há 25 anos25 years ago
inesquecíveisunforgettable

Here is the Portuguese text, followed by two English translations, the first rather "mechanical", the second freer and more idiomatic.
Erasmus é, há 25 anos, mobilidade, juventude, partilha, momentos e aprendizagens inesquecíveis numa Europa que se quer múltipla, mas coesa.r
— ["Mechanical" translation] Erasmus has been, for 25 years, mobility, youth, sharing, unforgettable moments and learning in a Europe that wants to be multiple, but cohesive.
— [Freer translation] For 25 years the Erasmus program has been about mobility, youth, sharing, learning and unforgettable experiences in a Europe which aspires to be multipartite but cohesive.

Envolvendo já quase 3 milhões de estudantes na Europa, o sempre jovem Erasmus continuará a construir pontes para o futuro.
— ["Mechanical" translation] Involving almost 3 million students in Europe, the ever-young Erasmus will continue to build bridges for the future.
— [Freer translation] Involving some 3 million students in Europe, the perpetually youthful Erasmus+ program will continue building bridges into the future.n

The successor program Erasmus+

In 2014 an ambitious successor program called Erasmus+ was launched.
https://www.erasmusmais.pt/iniciativas?lang=en
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.<br />Launch of Erasmus+ program
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Launch of Erasmus+ program
Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 12.00.48 pm.png
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A brief look at the overall statistics of the Erasmus+ program in its 2018 annual report shows how successful it proved to be.
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Erasmus+ 2018 annual progress report, summary snapshot of overall statistics
Erasmus+ 2018 annual progress report, summary snapshot of overall statistics
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Portugal's continuing participation in the Erasmus+ program

The Erasmus+ program within Portugal is administered from a central office in Lisbon, and 13 further regional offices, giving local support to student participants:
https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/about_en
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educação e formaçãoeducation and training
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 12.11.09 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 12.17.44 pm.png
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Don't you feel a little envious of the students given the opportunity to participate in the Erasmus+ program‽ Sadly the Covid-19 pandemic has severely interrupted the 2020 iteration of the program, but already a sequel to Erasmus+ is being planned.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

A really masterly dissertation on the Erasmus program, Roger. The explanation is excellent. Thank you for your obvious interest and participation on this Thread. It is extremely helpful and educational. I knew a little of the historical context of Erasmus, but the explanation of the program is exceptional.

Makes me wish it had been available for me in the years 1964-1972, as it would have expanded the horizons of a young and very impressionable man from Northern Ireland.

Deserves another award for post of the month!
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Waffle, a very generous assessment :D

After completing the post I took time to do much-needed lawn-mowing, and now that I've come back to Stampboards I've found no fewer than four whoopsies in that post ("grammar" corrects the worst; the others are sporadic extra letters that should have been eliminated during paste-ins). These small blemishes were only noticed after it was too late to edit them out — at least I got my lawn-mowing done before dark, so I have to take comfort from that aphorism "The perfect is the enemy of the good". ;)

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

The pronunciation of Portuguese has so far not been discussed seriously in this thread.

I have found a thorough but user-friendly website presenting details of the pronunciation of European Portuguese. The details are as follows (by screen shot). If you want to hear the sounds, all you need to do is go to the actual website and click on the blue button against each IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet symbol, or against the example Portuguese words.
https://european-portuguese.info

Pronunciation of European Portuguese consonants
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 8.47.01 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 8.48.22 pm.png
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Coda consonants [consonants at the end of a syllable]
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 8.52.53 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 8.53.35 pm.png
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Pronunciation of European Portuguese vowels
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 8.55.58 pm.png
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Word stress — rules for accentuation
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 8.59.17 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 9.00.27 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 9.01.32 pm.png
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A more detailed coverage of all cases:
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 9.05.41 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 9.08.22 pm.png
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Screen Shot 2020-07-22 at 9.11.26 pm.png
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

What do oranges have to do with Portugal?
As Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to introduce the sweet orange in Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them. Some examples are
Albanian: portokall
Bosnian (archaic): portokal, prtokal
Bulgatian: портокал (portokal)
Greek: πορτοκάλι (portokáli)
Macedonian: portokal
Persian: پرتقال (porteghal)
Romanian: portocală
Related names can be found in other languages, such as
Arabic: البرتقال (burtuqāl)
Georgian: ფორთოხალი (p'ort'oxali)
Turkish: portakal
Amharic: birtukan
Also, in southern Italian dialects such as Neapolitan, an orange is portogallo or purtuallo, "(the) Portuguese (one)", in contrast to standard Italian: arancia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portuguese_language
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.<br />Turkey, 28 Apr 1993, portakal – orange
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Turkey, 28 Apr 1993, portakal – orange
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.<br />Northern Cyprus, 1976, portakal – orange, Sc.35
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Northern Cyprus, 1976, portakal – orange, Sc.35
ÖRNEK — SPECIMEN
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Contrast these examples with orange in
Portuguese: laranja
Galician: laranxa
Spanish: naranja
Catalan: taronja
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.<br />Brasil, 1981, laranja – orange, RHM 606
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Brasil, 1981, laranja – orange, RHM 606
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

A supplement to the previous post, about oranges:
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.<br />Albania, 1965, portokall – orange, Sc.792
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Albania, 1965, portokall – orange, Sc.792
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David Scott Kastan, with Stephen Farthing, wrote:Early in the 16th century Portuguese traders brought sweet oranges from India to Europe, and the colour takes its name from them... Often they referred to oranges as “golden apples”. Not until they knew them as oranges did they see them as orange.

The word itself begins as an ancient Sanskrit word, naranga, possibly derived from an even older Dravidian ... root naru, meaning fragrant. Along with the oranges, the word migrated into Persian and Arabic. From there it was adopted into European languages, as with narancs in Hungarian or the Spanish naranja. In Italian it was originally narancia, and in French narange, though the word in both of these languages eventually dropped the “n” at the beginning to become arancia and orange, probably from a mistaken idea that the initial “n” sound had carried over from the article, una or une. Think about English, where it would be almost impossible to hear any real difference between “an orange” and “a norange.” An “orange” it became, but it probably should really have been a “norange.” Still, orange is better, if only because the initial “o” so satisfyingly mirrors the roundness of the fruit.

The etymological history of “orange” traces the route of cultural contact and exchange — one that ultimately completes the circle of the globe. The word for “orange” in modern-day Tamil, the surviving Dravidian language that gave us the original root of the word, is arancu, pronounced almost exactly like the English word “orange” and in fact borrowed from it.
https://lithub.com/color-or-fruit-on-the-unlikely-etymology-of-orange/
To finish, here is a lovely minisheet from Francophone Monaco, showing an orangerorange tree in the four seasons:
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.<br />Monaco, 1991, minisheet, <br />Oranger – orange tree, in the four seasons
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Monaco, 1991, minisheet,
Oranger – orange tree, in the four seasons
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by castores »

Not really on track in terms of motivating us to engage with languages but as far as oranges on postage stamps:
orange.jpg
Australia:
Navel oranges Navels are the largest grown varieties in Australia and available during the winter from June – August. Sweet and juicy, they are rich in orange colour, seedless and easy to peel.

Valencias are one of the largest orange varieties grown in Australia and available from November to February – the summer months. Deliciously sweet and juicy, they are ideal for eating and juicing.

Valencias

Florida Valencia oranges are sweet summer oranges named after Valencia, Spain popular for its sweet citrus produce.
They are available from March up until June and you can buy Valencia oranges from fruit stands and grocery stores during their seasonal peak from July to October or get Valencia oranges online to get them straight from the farm.
Although they contain a few seeds, they are the perfect juicing orange because they are juicier than other oranges.
Furthermore, the juice is invigorating, brightly colored, has a well-balanced sweet-tart flavor that will help you beat the heat of summer.
Valencias Limonin, which is a natural compound and known anti-oxidant that when exposed to air converts enzymes and becomes bitter, is found in the seeds so you can juice the fruit, store it in the fridge and enjoy it for a few days, even weeks.

Navels

Navels on the other hand are seedless winter oranges that are in season from December through March with peak in January and February.
They taste sweeter than Valencias and are great to munch on fresh out of hand or tossed in a salad.
You can easily distinguish Navel oranges from other oranges by their trademark ?Navel? on the fruit?s blossom end, which is actually an undeveloped second ?twin? fruit opposite its stem.
Unlike Valencia oranges, Navels are better eaten fresh rather than juiced because the Limonin is found in the flesh of Navels so the juice turns bitter within 30 minutes.
Australia
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

One of the great resources now available to help us engage with languages is Google Translate. But translation is an art, not a simple word-for-word substitution using a bilingual dictionary. Skillful translation requires understanding, reasoning, awareness of context and knowledge of culture and history.

These points are developed in an excellent article by Douglas Hofstadter* in The Atlantic. The author is well known for his book Gödel, Escher, Bach, a ground-breaking exploration of pattern, symmetry and perception. Here is a snapshot extract to introduce you to his article:
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Screen Shot 2020-07-23 at 3.42.26 pm.png
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You can access the article at this link:
https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2018/01/the-s ... te/551570/

Getting down to specific instances, it includes discussion of several translation "test cases", involving French, German and Chinese. If you have some acquaintance with any one of those languages, you will find the relevant discussion particularly interesting.

Hofstadter doesn't reject the proposition that a computer could translate to professional standards, but his criticism of present AI translation programs is that they do not understand, in fact, they don't even know that words refer to the world. His writing is thought-provoking: it will certainly give you much to think about.

*Endnote: I like Hofstadter's comment that when asked how many languages he speaks he says he's pi-lingual, because if he adds up the fractions measuring his knowledge of various languages the total is pretty close to pi. This is more considered than the simplistic view that one either knows a language or not: it's more realistic to think of fractional or partial knowledge.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

RogerE wrote:
22 Jul 2020 02:50
Thanks Panterra. Can you tells us about the inscriptions in Mongolian script at the top and sides of the stamps in your post? (You did interpret the numerals at the base of each stamp.)

I suppose that the top left side is Tannu ᠲᠠᠩᠨᠦ , and the top right side is Tuva ᠲᠤᠧᠠ . If that is correct, the correspondence between these versions and the versions on the stamps is not very close, and the calligraphy on the stamps seems more stylish and artistic. I have little lead on the inscription at the top of the stamps.

/RogerE
:D
I'm not familiar with Mongolian script either, but "The Postal History and Stamps of Tuva" by S.M. Blekhman (English edition published 1997 by the Tannu Tuva Collectors' Society), helpfully provides clarity:
Samuel Blekhman wrote:In the upper part of the stamp there are four letters for the abbreviated name of the country, Tannu-Tuvinian People's Republic. The text on the left and right at the top means "Postage Stamp" and at the bottom is the rate.


The website for the Tannu Tuva Collectors' Society has had little attention for some years but is now again being updated. Check each day for more improvements.

The high values of the first stamp issue from Tuva, back in 1926: Wheel of Dharma.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 30 kopecks.
Backman # 6. Mirr # 6.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 50 kopecks.
Backman # 7. Mirr # 7.
Image
Tuva 1926 Wheel of Dharma, 1 rouble.
Backman # 8. Mirr # 8.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thank you Panterra, that significantly advances our understanding of the inscriptions on the stamps. I assume that the inscriptions in the lower side panels of all but the last stamp you showed must be /k/ for kopek, while those in the last (green) stamp must be /r/ for rouble.

I have just now found a Wikipedia page on Mongolian script.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolian_script

It is extensive, and I've only had time to take in a little of the early portion.
Here is the title panel. The two words below "Mongolian Script" repeat that title in the Mongolian script.
The "sample text" appears to be given basically for visual information — I have not located a translation.
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Screen Shot 2020-07-24 at 1.42.01 am.png
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The reed pen was the traditional writing implement:
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.<br />Traditional reed pens
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Traditional reed pens
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Elements of the script

The following tabulation shows the graphemes, in order from initial (top), through medial (middle) to terminal (bottom) position forms, together with their names — analogues of body parts or other familiar objects, Mongolian Cyrillic (with transcription in Roman [Latin] script), and Mongolian script (with transcription in Roman [Latin] script).
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Screen Shot 2020-07-24 at 1.37.30 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-07-24 at 1.38.21 am.png
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I will hold over further details for another post.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

I wonder if learning Mongolian script would be appropriate to annotate album pages ready for the next Ulaan Baatar Stamp Exhibition?
Ulaghanbaghatur.png
The capital city of Mongolia's name in Mongol vertical script.
It's rather tempting. But I would be too worried at making silly grammar errors like some I have seen in international stamp exhibitions where a collector (for whom English is clearly not a first language) makes rather basic blunders in their earnest captions, which rather ruin a nice display.


Mongolia-59-Mongolists-50m.jpg
Mongolia 1959 First International Congress of Mongolists, 50 menge.

This whole set is unusual in failing to show the country's name on the stamps!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by lesbootman »

Post repeated from the "Every day is happy day!" thread:

I've got another little conundrum here. What looks like a slightly scruffy example of Costa Rica's 1889 1c stamp (Scott # 25 perhaps) with a cancel or overprint that reads "INUTILIZADA" (reading downwards).
inutil.jpg
Oddly enough "Inutilizada" could be translated as "unused"!
Our days are happier when we give people a bit of our heart rather than a piece of our mind!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by kuikka »

Could it also be translated as 'Not for use', meaning specimen or demonetized reminder?

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Ubobo.R.O. »

2020-07-24_181408.jpg
What we may refer to as REMAINDERED.
Full time horse non-whisperer, post box searcher and lichen covered granite rock percher. Gee I'm handsome !
You gottem birds, butterflies, shells, maps, flags and heads on stamps ? Me wantem !

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

The Portuguese stamps thread being hosted by Waffle has produced another "language" topic worth looking into more closely.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=91353&start=84
.
.<br />Portugal, 2012, Comunicar a cores stamp issue, €0.32, €0.47 and €0.68
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Portugal, 2012, Comunicar a cores stamp issue, €0.32, €0.47 and €0.68
.
.<br />Portugal, 2012, Comunicar a cores stamp issue, €0.80 and €1.00
.
Portugal, 2012, Comunicar a cores stamp issue, €0.80 and €1.00
.
Coloradd sign code, created by Miguel Neiva
.
Portuguese:
comunicarto communicate
a cor, as cores the colour, the colours
comunicar a corescommunicating colours
vermelhored
azulblue
amareloyellow
pretoblack
brancowhite

Communicating with colour

Just as national flags are a visual "language", so colour is widely used as a visual "language". Traffic light colours send us familiar messages; a flashing red light or blue light is a related type of signal; on/off buttons are often colour-coded or accompanied by a red light and a green light so the appropriate light serves to show the operational status of the circuit; and so on... (*)

What about people who are colour-blind?

The problem of helping colour-blind people correctly perceive colour-coded signals and labels was creatively addressed by Miguel Neiva, with a geometrical sign code he called Coloradd. This is celebrated by the 2012 Portuguese stamp set shown here.
Coloradd is a sign code for aiding color blind people to recognise colors, developed by Portuguese graphic designer and professor at the University of Minho, Miguel Neiva. It consists of geometric shapes representing colors and color combinations. The app won the accessibility category of the 2013 Vodafone Foundation Mobile For Good Europe Awards.
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Coloradd.png
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The code is based on five base signs: two triangles (one angled upwards and the other angled downwards), one diagonal line, one solid square box and one empty square box representing black, white and the primary colours: red (magenta), blue (cyan), and yellow. Colours derived from other colours have the symbols of the combined colours, creating derivative colours (orange, green, purple and brown) and dark or white tones. Metalized colours like silver or gold are shown with a left parenthesis on the symbols.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coloradd
_________________
.
(*) Let's think a little more about how colour coding has been used in the past, and is now being used.

Colour Coding Systems
Munsell blog wrote:According to Victoria Finlay’s book, Colour: A Natural History of the Palette, one of the earliest colour coding systems was found in Peru among the remains of the Inca empire. Relay teams of runners would carry multicoloured cords [quipus] full of knots as messages. Each knot and colour meant something different. In many forms such an efficient way of message transmission remains to this day. A simple and preferably unambiguous message is attached to the colour and if you know the code the whole thing can be read at a glance. If you know the code.

You know those bomb scenes in movies where the hero has to defuse the bomb by deciphering whether to cut the red or the blue wire…. Or the confusion at the airports during those Homeland Security alerts. Red and green, pretty clear, but blue, yellow and orange… people didn’t quite know what to make of those no matter how many times they had seen the colour chart.

And I hope that all the medical personnel know their colour codes (blue, red, pink, amber… you name it) because I have no idea. If the meaning you attach to a coloor doesn’t rely on already formed layers of cultural symbology (red = danger, green = relax) it is hard to find your way around if you don’t know the whole code.
https://munsell.com/color-blog/why-that-color-signal/
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color-signs-codes.jpg
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Colour as a Guide
Munsell blog wrote:Contemporary visual communication generally relies on colours as guides. Maps, websites, technical diagrams, safety instructions, charts, learning tools, etc… Colours might not give you the exact information every time, but they will at least group the information for you and gently guide you toward what you need. Think of the New York Subway system. The colour of the line will give you a general idea where you’re going, but only the number and letter will give you the precise information. Such a subtle colour guidance might enhance the experience of a website (see Guardian or Huffington Post). On the other hand I have noticed that due to our speedy way of life, we often consider colour as the full message. It happened more than once that without paying much attention, I tapped on the Dictionary or Facebook app icon instead of the Weather app. They are all overwhelmingly blue and that’s all I care to remember about them among the many other glossy icons on my iPad.
https://munsell.com/color-blog/why-that-color-signal/
Now let's learn a little more about colour-blindness

Colour-blindness, more properly called Colour Vision Deficiency = CVD
Wikipedia wrote:The first scientific paper on the subject of colour blindness, Extraordinary facts relating to the vision of colours, was published by the English chemist John Dalton in 1798 after the realisation of his own colour blindness. Because of Dalton's work, the general condition has been called daltonism, although in English this term is now used only for deuteranopia [a form of red-green colour-blindness],
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_blindness
Colour vision deficiency has a genetic basis, and has considerably higher incidence in males than in females. There are in fact about eight different forms that the deficiency can take. Deuteranopia is the most common form. The incidence varies across ethnic and national groups: in males it varies from less than 2% in some groups, through to as high as 10% in the most seriously affected groups.

A helpful insight into colour-blindness is provided by a first-person experience piece entitled How do the colour-blind think and talk about colour?
https://wearecolorblind.com/articles/how-do-the-colorblind-think-and-talk-about-color/

Colour Guidelines for Inclusiveness

Awareness of the challenges faced by people with colour vision deficiency can lead to better choices by graphic designers. Here is an indication of current thinking in this area:
Good graphic design avoids using colour coding or using colour contrasts alone to express information; this not only helps colour blind people, but also aids understanding by normally sighted people by providing them with multiple reinforcing cues.

Designers should also note that red–blue and yellow–blue colour combinations are generally safe. So instead of the ever-popular "red means bad and green means good" system, using these combinations can lead to a much higher ability to use colour coding effectively. This will still cause problems for those with monochromatic colour blindness, but it is still something worth considering.
https://usabilla.com/blog/how-to-design-for-color-blindness/
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

What are the official languages of the EU = European Union?

The answer is provided on the access page to the EU website, which is
https://europa.eu/
By selecting the language of your choice, subsequent pages of the site are presented in your chosen language.
.
.<br />The 24 official languages of the European Union, <br />and their two-letter codes
.
The 24 official languages of the European Union,
and their two-letter codes
.
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.<br />France, 2004, stamp celebrating the enlargement of the European Union, Sc 3022
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France, 2004, stamp celebrating the enlargement of the European Union, Sc 3022
.
Within the EU website are details about many aspects of the EU, including information about its official languages and its policies concerning languages of member countries.
https://europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/eu-languages_en
.
Screen Shot 2020-07-26 at 12.25.08 am.png
.
On that same page are sample texts in all 24 languages, with an audio option for each to hear that text spoken fluently. For example, under Portuguese the text begins
Os europeus unidos na diversidade
A União Europeia (UE) é uma família de países democráticos europeus, com um projecto comum de paz e prosperidade. Não se trata de um Estado que pretende substituir Estados existentes, mas vai além de qualquer outra organização internacional. A UE é, neste aspecto, única. Os Estados Membros criaram instituições comuns a que delegam parte da sua soberania por forma a que as decisões sobre questões específicas de interesse comum possam ser tomadas democraticamente a nível europeu.
The matching paragraph under English is
Europeans united in diversity
The European Union (EU) is a family of democratic European countries, committed to working together for peace and prosperity. It is not a State intended to replace existing states, but it is more than just another international organisation. The EU is, in fact, unique. Its Member States have set up common institutions to which they delegate some of their sovereignty so that decisions on specific matters of joint interest can be made democratically at European level.
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

lesbootman wrote:
24 Jul 2020 18:27
Costa Rica's 1889 1c stamp (Scott # 25 perhaps) with a cancel or overprint that reads "INUTILIZADA" (reading downwards).
Costa Rica, 1889, 1¢, handstamp INUTILIZADA, Sc 25(?)
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Image
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Translating Inutilizada

The question is: What is the significance of the hand-stamped Spanish language overprint INUTILIZADA ?
It is motivated by the similarity to the English word "unutilised", which would be an unlikely cancellation! (Recall the warnings about "mechanical" translation.) In fact, an online Spanish-English Dictionary gives the following more plausible translations (with relevant example sentences):
inutilizar
TRANSITIVE VERB
a. to render useless
Algunos usuarios del nuevo teléfono están informando acerca de fallas técnicas que podrían inutilizar el dispositivo. Some users of the new phone are reporting glitches that might render the device useless.
b. to make useless
Si sigues toqueteando el registro, vas a inutilizar la computadora.
If you keep messing with the registry, you'll make the computer useless.
c. to disable
Un ACV le inutilizó la pierna izquierda; ahora está haciendo fisioterapia para recuperar la movilidad.
A stroke disabled her left leg; now she's doing physical therapy to regain mobility.
d. to put out of action
Tras varios intentos, los soldados lograron inutilizar la estación de radio.
After several attempts, the soldiers managed to put the radio station out of action.
https://www.spanishdict.com/translate/inutilizada
Comments from an expert

I contacted SOCORICO, the Society of Costa Rica Collectors, which is Affiliate No.96 of the American Philatelic Society. I received the following information from Dr Hector R. Mena, who is Librarian of SOCORICO and the principal author of the specialisted catalogue of Costa Rica stamps produced by SOCORICO:
http://www.socorico.org/catalog.php

The INUTILIZADA marking was applied to stamps that were demonetized and unfit for postage but usable by collectors. A similar situation happened to demonetized stamps between 1900 and 1925 which were marked with 5 parallel bars. In the late 1800's only the main post offices were supplied with circular dated cancellers. All the others had to invent their own cancelling devices. So, more than 150 types of cancellation markings exist for these issues. There are older publications listing many of the markings but nobody can say that the list is complete.
Hector R. Mena


Follow-up

For me this still leaves some questions unresolved, so I hope Dr Mena will tell us what there is about this particular stamp that makes it "unfit for postage but usable by collectors". How should we translate INUTILIZADA in English?

Here, currently on eBay, is an example of the five-bar cancellation described by Dr Mena:
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Costa Rica, 2¢ surcharge on 5¢, 5 bar cancel, Sc 98c
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s-l1600.jpg
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Here is an item currently on eBay, with the perfin described as INUTILIZADO. It seems that the word could equally be CANCELADO.
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Costa Rica, 1910, 1¢, perfin [INUTILIZ(?)]ADO, Sc69
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s-l1600.jpg
s-l1600-1.jpg
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A further question: INUTILIZADA is the feminine form of the adjective, whereas INUTILIZADO and CANCELADO are masculine forms. I am not sure what would have governed the choice of gender for these adjectives, but el sello postalthe postage stamp is masculine, so the correct phrase would be el sello postal inutilizado/cancelado.

I hope that Dr Mena will be able to tell us more.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

A further question: INUTILIZADA is the feminine form of the adjective, whereas INUTILIZADO and CANCELADO are masculine forms. I am not sure what would have governed the choice of gender for these adjectives, but el sello postal — the postage stamp is masculine, so the correct phrase would be el sello postal inutilizado/cancelado.
Hi Roger,

I guess it depends whether you think of this stamp as a sello (m) or as an estampilla (f)?
Nigel

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

I have received further information from Dr Hetor R. Mena (Librarian of SOCORICO), supplying the context and insights needed to more fully understand the Costa Rica Inutilizada 1¢ stamp portraying President Soto. I'm sure that fellow Stampboards members will join me in thanking Dr Mena for his detailed information and for kindly sharing his expert knowledge with us.
.
Costa Rica, 1889, 1 centavo, President Soto stamp
Issued 20 Sep 1889
Demonetised 30 June 1892
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inutil.jpg
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Dr Mena informs us:

1. History. — The government of Bernardo Soto* was the highest and final point of the liberal governments of the end of the 19th century in Costa Rica. After decades of predominant liberal thinking and anticlerical feelings, the conservative parties assumed power in 1892. Soto was a benign and illustrious president who accepted his defeat at the popular vote and peacefully relinquished power to the Rodriguez administration.

However, the conservatives did not want to see his image on postage/telegraph stamps and issued their own stamps (the 1892 Coat of Arms issue). Since then, Costa Rica has not issued stamps with images of sitting presidents, unless related to an extraordinary event (such as winning a Nobel price, secretary of the OAS, woman's vote, etc.).

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Costa Rica, 1892, 10¢ Arms issue, Sc 44
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s-l400.jpg
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2. Philately. — The 1889 Soto stamp was issued on September 20, 1889 and demonetized in June 30, 1892. The numbers of stamps printed by Waterlow and Sons is unknown. After the stamps were no longer valid for postage they were sold at auction to a general merchant on January 23, 1893. He had 1c: 1.3 million; 2c: 1.5 million; 5c: half million; 10c: almost a million; 20c: 1.4 million; 50c: 450 thousand; 1 peso: 87 thousand; 2 pesos: 15 thousand; 5 pesos: 3,600; 10 pesos: 1,300.

What could a general merchant do to recover his investment from that many stamps? Since the philatelic market of that period preferred used stamps, he had to invent all kinds of markings to make them saleable. Philatelists collecting this issue would prefer dated circular cancellations or town specific cancellations rather than mute, per favor or obviously nonpostal markings.

— Hector Mena


With this background, it now seems reasonable to translate Inutilizada as Demonetised or Invalidated.

*Note: Ramón Bernardo Soto Alfaro (12 February 1854 – 28 January 1931) was President of Costa Rica from 1885 to 1889.
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Costa Rica, 1889,
1¢ to 1p, Pres Soto definitives, Sc 25-31
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s-l1600.jpg
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How much better we understand and appreciate these stamps now that we have the information Dr Mena has shared with us!
By the way, in case you wish to check out the website of SOCORICO, here is the link:
http://www.socorico.org/

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by lesbootman »

Wow, one insignificant stamp has such a story behind it, and even now there are a few uncertainties.

I would tend to agree that the stamp was remaindered but note that the thin parallel bars "cancels" are far and away the more common sign of a remaindered Costa Rican stamp. They get a mention in the Scott catalogue.

Thanks very much everyone for all the help.
Our days are happier when we give people a bit of our heart rather than a piece of our mind!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Here's a post which has just been added to the Stamps and Coronavirus thread:
https://www.stampboards.com/posting.php?mode=quote&f=13&p=6756459
sebjarod wrote:
28 Jul 2020 00:32
Last week, the French philatelic service director announced an unprogrammed issue on 14 September: a 12 stamp booklet with daily scenes thanking "Les Héros du quotidien" ("Daily Life Heroes") designed by Miles Hyman.
Image
Currently in France, 12 self-adhesive NVI stamp booklets are semi-definitive stamps that La Poste sells in most post offices and newsagents. The issue is so aimed at a larger public than stamp collectors only.
.oOOOo.
.
We have not had many posts about French in the present thread, since it is probably the most familiar second language for many Stampboarders. However, not for everyone, so let's take the opportunity to translate this booklet announcement.

French words and phrases

le début /lə deby/ — commencement, start, beginning
en début de semaineat the beginning of the week
au début de l’annéeat the start of the year
mettre à jourto update, make suitable forthe present by adapting to recents events
mettre en valeurto enhance, make appear better
mettre en scèneto produce, to arrange and prepare a performance
mettre fin àto stop, put an end to
à traversacross, through
couper à travers champto cut across the fields, take a shortcut
l'émission /lemisjɔ̃/— emission, production, program
regarder une émissionto watch a [television] program
quotidien (m), quotidienne (f) /kɔtidjɛ̃/, /kɔtidjɛn/ — daily, everyday
le quotidiendaily [news]paper
la vie quotidiennedaily life
le cycle /lə sikl/ — cycle, recurrence
le cycle de vielife cycle
la scène /sɛn/— scene, stage; the place where something real or imaginary
happens; show of anger, a row

monter sur scèneto go on stage
mettre en scèneto direct, to make a film or stage production
faire une scèneto make a scene
dévoiler /devwale/— to reveal, unveil; to expose
dévoiler une nouvelle œuvre d’artto unveil a new artwork
une femme voiléea woman wearing a veil
PDG [= Président-Directeur Général] /pedeʒe/[/b] — CEO [=Chief Executive Officer],
president of a large company

avant /avɑ̃/— before (in time or location)
avant de venirbefore coming
tournez à gauche avant le carrefourturn left before the intersection
Il faut avant tout les avertirFirst of all, we must warn them
la poste est juste avantthe post office is just this side of it
le lancement /lə lɑ̃smɑ̃/— launch, launching
la fusée de lancementbooster, first stage of a multistage rocket
le lancement d’un nouveau produitthe launch of a new product
le dessin /lə desɛ̃/— drawing, outline; plan
faire un dessinto make a drawing
le dessin des lèvresthe outline of the lips
être doué pour le dessinto be good at drawing
être doué pour quelque choseto be gifted at something
engagé /ɑ̃ɡaʒe/— politically engaged, committed, bound by promise
un chanteur engagéa politically engaged singer (m)
engager des poursuites contreto proceed, to take legal action against
soudain (m), soudaine (f) /sudɛ̃/, /sudɛn/— sudden
un bruit soudaina sudden noise
soudain [adverb] — suddenly
soudain il disparutsuddenly he disappeared
immobile /imɔbil/— still, immobile, motionless
rester immobileto keep perfectly still
se mobiliser /səmɔbilise/— to mobilise

The booklet text

A free translation. [Compare with remarks in the earlier post about "mechanical" translation https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=334]

Début septembre, #LaPoste mettra à l'honneur et remerciera nos #hérosduquotidien à travers l'émission d'un carnet de #timbres. 12 scènes de vie dessinées par l'artist @miles_hyman qui seront dévoilées par P. Wahl, PDG du @GroupeLaPoste avant le lancement.

#tous engagés
Dans une France soudain immobile, ils ont continué à se mobiliser au service de TOUS.


In a September release, LaPoste will honour and thank our Everyday Heroes with the issue of a stamp booklet — 12 everyday scenarios drawn by artist Miles Hyman, to be unveiled by P. Wahl, CEO of LaPoste Group, ahead of the launch of this issue.

# Everyone engaged
In a France suddenly brought to a standstill, they have kept on the go for us ALL.


/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

In the Stamps and Coronavirus thread, the latest post by Canada stamper shows
two covers with slogan meter markings from Casablanca, Morocco.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?p=6756647#p6756647

That post represents a fine cooperative effort, as Eli has provided the Arabic script
and English translation for the slogan.

My Arabic is almost non-existent, but I can use online resources to help provide
a little more information.
Perhaps Eli could correct/comment on the following effort, where I have added
a transliteration into Roman [Latin] alphabet, and an "analysis" of the Arabic script:
.
ابقوا في منازلكم لوقف الوباء
aibqawa fi manazilikum liwaqf alwaba'
Stay in your homes to stop the epidemic

ابقوا = ا ب ق وا — aibqawa — stay
في = ف ي — fi — in
منازلكم = م ن ا زل ك م — manazilikum — your homes
لوقف = ل وق — liwaqf — to stop
الوباء = ا ل وب ا ء — alwaba' — the epidemic

بقي — baqi — stay, remain (verb)
البقاء — albaqa' — stay, rest (noun)
ابق آمنا — 'abaq amanaa — stay safe
يبقى الجميع بأمان — yabqaa aljamie baman — everyone stay safe

منزل — manzil — a house, a home
المنزل — almanzil — the house, the home
المنازل — almanazil — the houses, the homes
منزلي — manzili — my home
منزله — manzilih — his home
منزلنا — manziluna — our home
في منازلنا — fi manaziluna — in our homes
في منازلكم — fi manazilikum — in your homes
الجميع يبقون في المنزل — aljamie yabaquwn fi almanzil — everyone stay at home

لوقف — liwaqf — to stop, to halt
الوباء — alwaba' — the epidemic
جائحة — jayiha — pandemic
الفيروس — alfayrus — the virus
فيروس الكورونا — fayrus alkuruna — the coronavirus
جائحة فيروس كورونا — jayihat fayrus kuruna — coronavirus pandemic

A side-note which I found:
بريد — barid — mail
البريد — albarid — the mail
البريد الإلكتروني — albarid al'iiliktruniu — e-mail, electronic mail
لوقف تلقي رسائل البريد الإلكتروني — liwaqf tulqi rasayil albarid al'iiliktrunii — to stop receiving e-mails ;)
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

RogerE wrote:
26 Jul 2020 01:51
What are the official languages of the EU = European Union?

The answer is provided on the access page to the EU website, which is
https://europa.eu/
By selecting the language of your choice, subsequent pages of the site are presented in your chosen language.
.
Image
Hi Roger,

Thanks for sharing this EU language table. :)

This table lists all the EU's official languages using both a two-letter code and the language's name for itself which gives me an opportunity to introduce some linguistic jargon.

A language's name for itself is called an endonymic glossonym. (!)

Let's break this down:

The word exonym was introduced by the Australian geographer Marcel Aurousseau to refer to a name for a country (or city etc.) used by people outside of that country, derived from the Greek for outer name.

This word was soon followed by endonym to mean a word used within a country to refer to that country, once again from the Greek for inner name.

So for example Germany and Allemagne are exonyms for the country whose usual endonym is Deutschland.

SImilarly, a glossonym is a name of a language.

The two-letter language codes are defined in the international (ISO) standard ISO 639-1 which at latest defines 184 codes.

This sounds a lot but has been found not to be nearly enough and a number of additional standards have been defined for three or four-letter codes, especially the three-letter codes in ISO 639-3.

For example here are the ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-3 codes for some languages which are not in the EU list:

Gaelic - gd - gla
Manx - gv - glv
Welsh - cy - cym
Cornish - kw - cor
Breton - br - bre
Faroese - fo - fao
Icelandic - is - isl
Luxembourgish - lb - ltz
West Frisian - fy - fry

and here are some others that have ISO 639-3 codes but no ISO 639-1 codes:

Scots - sco
Low German - nds
Saterland Frisian - stq
North Frisian - frr
Sorbian - wen
Nigel

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Arabic

اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ‎

al-ʿarabiyyah
/alʕaraˈbijːa/
Where is Arabic spoken?
.
Arabic_Dialects.svg-1.png
.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic#/media/File:Arabic_Dialects.svg
.
The majority of Arabic speaking countries are concentrated in the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, and North Africa, which is known as “The Arab World”. However, there are around 25 Arab speaking countries that claim Arabic as an official or co-official language including Saudi Arabia, Chad, Algeria, Comoros, Eritrea, Djibouti, Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Kuwait, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Bahrain, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Meanwhile, there are six sovereign states where Arabic is a national language or “recognised minority language” such as Turkey, Niger, Iran, Senegal, and Mali.
https://tarjama.com/how-many-countries-that-speak-arabic-around-the-world
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Screen Shot 2020-07-28 at 8.59.01 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-07-28 at 8.59.55 pm.png
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https://tinyurl.com/yxmhcwsy
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.<br />Arab Postal Day – Joint Issue<br />Saudi Arabia,  3 Aug 2008, minisheet, First Day Cover
.
Arab Postal Day – Joint Issue
Saudi Arabia, 3 Aug 2008, minisheet, First Day Cover
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Stamps and Languages Local Index (251–351)
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.
To access a post, paste or type its number into the url at the top of this page, to replace the number '350'
Example: to go to the first post on Catalan, listed here as Catalan 261, modify
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=350
so that it becomes
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=261
To go to the Local Index for the first 150 posts on this thread, enter
https://www.stampboards.com/posting.php?mode=reply&f=13&t=90529&start=150
To go to the Local Index for the posts 151–250 on this thread, enter
https://www.stampboards.com/posting.php?mode=reply&f=13&t=90529&start=250

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Nigel = nigelc for your latest post about EU languages, ISO standard 2-letter and 3-letter language codes, and endonymic and exonymic glossonyms.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=349

As usual, your post adds helpful and relevant information to this thread. I will add here some related terms, together with further consideration of some terms you defined, on the principle that a "second pass" will serve as reinforcement of your information, while allowing me to add some related information.
_______________________
.
.<br />Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913)<br />Swiss pioneer in linguistics
.
Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913)
Swiss pioneer in linguistics
.
Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure is widely considered to be one of the forefathers of both
linguistics and semiology, which is the philosophical study of the interpretation of signs and symbols.
https://www.listenandlearn.org/blog/7-linguists-who-changed-the-game/
.
Some linguistic terms ending in -nym

Naming things is a fundamental part of language. The names compactly encode information, and allow us to remember, to record and to communicate effectively.

English words ending with the suffix –nym classify various kinds of name. The suffix comes from Greek ὄνομα ónoma — name.

Two familiar examples:
synonym — a second word with similar meaning to that of a given word. From Greek σύν sún — with
antonym — a second word with opposed meaning to that of a given word. From Greek αντί antí — instead

Endonyms and exonyms

In ethnolinguistics, various kinds of names are either endonymic (words in the principal language of a location where the things named occur naturally) or exonymic (words in a non-local language). The prefixes endo- and exo- come from Greek ἔνδον éndon — within and ἔξω éxō — out.
Synonyms:
endonym = autonym, Greek αὐτο aúto — self.
exonym = xenonym, from Greek ξένος xénos — foreign.

The term autonym was introduced into linguistics by James A. Matisoff, who remarked: "Human nature being what it is, exonyms are liable to be pejorative rather than complimentary, especially where there is a real or fancied difference in cultural level between the ingroup and the outgroup."

As a place name example, London is an endonym/autonym.
The following are some cognate exonyms/xenonyms (where cognate means the names are derived from the spelling or pronunciation of the endonym):
Londres in Catalan, French, Portuguese, Spanish, and Tagalog; Λονδίνο [Londino] in Greek; Londen in Dutch; Londra in Italian, Maltese, Romanian and Turkish; Londer in Albanian; Londýn in Czech and Slovak; Londyn in Polish; Lundúnir in Icelandic; Lontoo in Finnish; Lúndūn 伦敦 in Mandarin; and Luân Đôn in Vietnamese.
https://enacademic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/657297

More ethnolinguistic terms

ethnonym — name of an ethnic group. From Greek ἔθνος éthnos — nation.
demonym — name of inhabitant of a country. From Greek δῆμος dêmos — people, tribe.
glossonym — name of a language. From Greek γλώσσα glóssa — language.
Synonyms: glottonym, linguonym.
toponym — a place name, especially one derived from a topographical feature, such as Table Mountain, Cape Town. More generally, in human geography, a toponym is the name by which a geographical place is known.
patronym = patronymic (noun) — personal name derived from the name of a father or ancestor, such as Johnson, O'Brien, Ivanovich. From Greek πατρό patró — father.
matronym = matronymic (noun) — personal name based on the given name of one's mother, grandmother, or any female ancestor; English matronymic family names include Parnell, Hilliard, Marriott. From Greek μήτηρ méter — mother.
Note: Patronymic and matronymic can also be adjectives; it would seem natural to reserve them as adjectives and to use patronym and matronym as the corresponding nouns.

Some other -nym words not directly related to ethnolinguistics:

• eponym — name of a real or fictitious person whose name has given rise to the name of a particular item.
• allonym — a name that is assumed by an author but that actually belongs to another person.
• pseudonym — a fictitious name, especially one used by an author.
• aptronym — a person's name that is regarded as amusingly appropriate to their occupation.
• acronym — an abbreviation formed from the initial letters of other words and pronounced as a word, such as ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
• metonym — a word, name, or expression used as a substitute for something else with which it is closely associated; sometimes described as "the container for the think contained". For example, "Canberra" is an Australian metonym for the Federal government.
• homonym — each of two or more words having the same spelling and pronunciation but different meanings and origins, such as "pen" —a holding area for animals, or "pen" — a writing instrument.
• hyponym — a word of more specific meaning than a general or superordinate term applicable to it: for instance, spoon is a hyponym of cutlery.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

In this post you will find two simple exercises which I invite you to try. No need to tell us the strictly personal results — they're for your benefit only. :D

Languages ranked by number of speakers

If you ask yourself to list the world's top languages, ranked by number of speakers, and then compare your list with a objective listing based on best available data, you will probably have a few surprises.

I suggest you try that exercise before reading further in this post — say, which do you think are the top 10?
_______________________
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Some remarks about ranking languages by number of speakers

My information source is a well-written Wikipedia article. It begins with these thoughtful remarks:
Wikipedia wrote:This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.

However, all such rankings should be used with caution, because it is not possible to devise a coherent set of linguistic criteria for distinguishing languages in a dialect continuum.

For example, a language is often defined as a set of varieties that are mutually intelligible, but independent national standard languages may be considered to be separate languages even though they are largely mutually intelligible, as in the case of Danish and Norwegian. Conversely, many commonly accepted languages, including German, Italian and even English, encompass varieties that are not mutually intelligible.

While Arabic is sometimes considered a single language centred on Modern Standard Arabic, other authors describe its mutually unintelligible varieties as separate languages. Similarly, Chinese is sometimes viewed as a single language because of a shared culture and common literary language. It is also common to describe various Chinese dialect groups, such as Mandarin, Wu and Yue, as languages, even though each of these groups contains many mutually unintelligible varieties.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_languages_by_number_of_native_speakers
Languages with at least 10 million speakers

The Wikipedia article cited above lists 91 languages with at least 10 million speakers. Here they are ranked by population. I predict that you will find several languages in the list that you have never heard of before!

As a second learning exercise, may I suggest that you count those languages which for you are newly-encountered, and roughly calculate the total number of speakers of that group of languages. It's a private exercise, but one which will "grow" your thinking about languages.
.
Screen Shot 2020-07-29 at 2.21.46 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-07-29 at 2.22.41 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-07-29 at 2.23.28 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-07-29 at 2.24.03 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-07-29 at 2.25.27 pm.png
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/RogerE :D

Footnote: Yes, I did my own exercises. Even though I said the exercises are for your own private information, I will share a few glimpses into my own performance.
I did reasonably well on the top ten languages except for the Indo-Aryan members of that group, and I listed Arabic in the top ten, whereas the table splits it into ten or more separate (mutually unintelligible) languages, scattered further down in the table (the map in my recent Arabic post is relevant). I also ranked Indonesian much higher than it appears on the table, because I didn't properly allow for Javanese.
In the second exercise I encountered for the first time [exonymic] glossonyms of the languages of almost a billion people! Wow, my humble apologies to them all!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

RogerE . I too was surprised, not that Chinese ranked no.1 but that there a multiple variants of the language and that English was behind Spanish, but I forgot a bout Central and South America. Also surprised to find Korean so high on the list and the multiple variants of Arabic. Wow, most educational. Who would have thunk!

Reminds me of the dreadful Boston joke where many uni graduates take menial employment. A visitor from New York arrives at the airport and hails a taxi. "Where to sir?" the cabbie enquires. Lusting after a local fish dish, Scrod, The visitor replies," First, I would love to get Scrod." Noting the cabbies puzzled look, the visitor asks, " surely you have heard that request before." "Yes Sir ", was the reply, " but not in the pluperfect subjunctive, before."
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Waffle, glad you had a mind-widening experience with the list of 91 languages with at least 10 million speakers.
I also chuckled at your conjugation story. ;)

Here's a challenge for you (and any other interested reader).
I looked up an online website, and it offered me a choice of languages. Which languages are they?
.
Screen Shot 2020-07-18 at 10.22.58 am.png
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by kuikka »

For the guessing languages:

The third one is likely to be Bengali. The fourth Hindi. The last one I would guess to be Marathi. Guess for fifth is Malayam. For the second to last I would guess Tamil.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

The eighth is Malayalam, very familiar to collectors of the State of Cochin.
cochin-16-2p-DieI-and-Die2-u.jpg
Cochin 1916 two pies. At left: die one. Right: die two.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Joy Daschaudhuri »

RogerE wrote:
30 Jul 2020 02:44
I looked up an online website, and it offered me a choice of languages. Which languages are they?
Image
/RogerE :D
हिन्दी Hindī
ಕನ್ನಡ Kannaḍa
বাংলা Bāṅglā
मराठी Marāṭhī
తెలుగు Telugu
தமிழ் Tamizh
ગુજરાતી Gujarātī
മലയാളം Malayāḷam
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ Pañjābī

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Joy Daschaudhuri »

kuikka wrote:
30 Jul 2020 04:09
For the guessing languages:

The third one is likely to be Bengali. The fourth Hindi. The last one I would guess to be Marathi. Guess for fifth is Malayam. For the second to last I would guess Tamil.
Fourth one is Marathi, not Hindi.
Last one is Panjabi, not Marathi.
Fifth one is Telugu, not Malayalam.
Second last one is Malayalam, not Tamil.

Guessing success rate: 20%

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Re: Kochchi 1930 2P Ramavarma XVI Die II SG 35b

Post by Joy Daschaudhuri »

Panterra wrote:
30 Jul 2020 04:32
Image
Cochin 1916 two pies. At left: die one. Right: die two.
Kochchi 2P Ramavarma XVI Die II SG 35b was issued in 1930.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Image
.
Thanks to Joy Daschaudhuri, our resident expert in Kolkata, India, for posting the following
endonymic glossonyms, in relevant script and transliteration into Roman [Latin] script. I have
taken the liberty of adding the English exonyms for these languages.
(Thanks again to Nigel = nigelc for recently bringing this terminology to our attention — it's
a bit of a mouthful, but it enables us to pay better attention to perspective.)
.
हिन्दी Hindī — Hindi
ಕನ್ನಡ Kannaḍa — Kannada
বাংলা Bāṅglā — Bengali
मराठी Marāṭhī — Marathi
తెలుగు Telugu — Telugu
தமிழ் Tamizh — Tamil
ગુજરાતી Gujarātī — Gujarati
മലയാളം Malayāḷam — Malayalam
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ Pañjābī — Punjabi
.
I had planned to identify each of the languages in a follow-up to my post. Now that has been
nicely done, I will follow up with a brief look at each of those languages, one language at a time.
This will allow us to look at each one in its own right.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

Thanks Roger and Joy.

Joy, could you please explain your spelling Tamizh in "தமிழ் Tamizh"?

I would have expected something closer to "Tamil" as in the English name as this is the way I've heard தமிழ் pronounced.

This was an interesting puzzle. I can't transliterate any of these scripts but I recognised the name हिन्दी and I guessed తెలుగు from previous exposure to the script.
Nigel

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Eli »

Thanks to Joy Daschaudhuri! Your score is 100/100!! :D :D :D

RogerE wrote:
28 Jul 2020 23:18
The majority of Arabic speaking countries are concentrated in the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, and North Africa, which is known as “The Arab World”. However, there are around 25 Arab speaking countries that claim Arabic as an official or co-official language including Saudi Arabia, Chad, Algeria, Comoros, Eritrea, Djibouti, Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Kuwait, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Bahrain, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Meanwhile, there are six sovereign states where Arabic is a national language or “recognised minority language” such as Turkey, Niger, Iran, Senegal, and Mali.
https://tarjama.com/how-many-countries-that-speak-arabic-around-the-world
To this list I would add Israel, since Arabic has a special status and all official documents, stamps, money, signs etc. are written Arabic in addition to Hebrew, the main launguage.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Hindi
.
हिन्दी
Hindī — Hindi
Devanagari script: हिन्दी = ह h/hə, हि hi, न n/nə, द d/də, दी dī, न्दी ndī
.
मानक हिन्दी
Mānak Hindī — Modern Standard Hindi
Devanagari script: मानक = म m/mə, मा mā, न n/nə, क k/kə
मानक mānak — standard, norm
.
Wikipedia wrote:Hindi (हिन्दी Hindī), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (मानक हिन्दी Mānak Hindī), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in India. Hindi is often described as a standardised, Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and neighbouring areas of Northern India.

Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the two official languages of the Government of India, along with the English language... It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India...

Apart from the script and formal vocabulary, standard Hindi is mutually intelligible with standard Urdu, another recognised register of Hindustani as both share a common colloquial base.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindi
Evolution and Rise of Hindi
Wikipedia wrote:Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit... After arrival of Islamic administrative rule in northern India, Hindi acquired many loanwords from Persian and Arabic.

Modern Standard Hindi is based on the Delhi dialect, the vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige dialects such as Awadhi, Maithili (sometimes regarded as separate from the Hindi dialect continuum) and Braj.

Urdu – considered another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the latter part of the Mughal period (1800s), and underwent significant Persian influence. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century... In the late 19th century, a movement to further develop Hindi as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu took form. In 1881, Bihar accepted Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, and thus became the first state of India to adopt Hindi.

After Independence, the government of India instituted the following conventions:
standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi. The committee's report was released in 1958 as A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi.
standardisation of the orthography, using the Devanagari script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture, to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari characters, and introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages.

On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing Urdu's previous usage in British India.
To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favour of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha ... [On Simha's birthday] on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following the adoption of Hindi as the official language. Now, it is celebrated as Hindi Day.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindi
Geographical reach of Hindi

The Hindi belt [also called the Hindi-Urdu belt] refers to nine Indian states where Hindi is the official language and a majority of the people are Hindi-speaking: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Chandigarh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
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Hindi Belt
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Hindi_belt.png
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Wikipedia wrote:Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt and to a lesser extent other parts of India (usually in a simplified or pidginised variety such as Bazaar Hindustani...). Outside India, several other languages are recognised officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri. Such languages include Fiji Hindi, which is official in Fiji, and Caribbean Hindustani, which is spoken in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindi
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Tamil
.
தமிழ்
Tamiḻ /t̪ɐmɨɻ/ — Tamil
Tamil script: தமிழ் = த் t, த ta, ம் m, ி i, மி mi, ழ் ḻ
.
Wikipedia wrote:Tamil /ˈtæmɪl/: தமிழ் /tamiɻ/ Tamiḻ – is a Dravidian language, predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora and Sri Lankan Muslims.

Tamil is an official language in three countries: India, Sri Lanka and Singapore. In India, it is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry. Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Furthermore, Tamil is used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English, Malay and Mandarin.

Tamil is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. A. K. Ramanujan described it as "the only language of contemporary India which is recognisably continuous with a classical past." The variety and quality of classical Tamil literature has led to it being described as "one of the great classical traditions and literatures of the world".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_language
Tamil script

Tamil script has the endonym
தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி
/t̪ɐmɨɻ ˈɐɾit͡ɕːuʋəɽi/ Tamiḻ ariccuvaṭi
This script is also used by several minority languages, such as Saurashtra, Badaga, Irula and Paniya.

Tamil script is an abugida (see general definition in next section). A consonant is mei body, and a vowel is uyir life; the compounds are called uyirmeiliving bodies, as they can be pronounced. The compounds formed from the hard consonant க் k are listed in this table:
.
Tamil script compounds (uyirmei) with க்
.
Screen Shot 2020-07-30 at 11.48.04 pm.png

.
An 18x12 table can display the 18 hard consonants combined with the 12 vowels, to form 216 compounds. A further 6x12 table can display the 6 soft consonants combined with the 12 vowels, to form 72 compounds, making a total of 288.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_script

Abugida scripts

Abugida scripts are a class of writing systems which differ from alphabets, abjads and syllabaries. An abugida has been described as somewhere in between an alphabet and a syllabary. It has sequences of consonants and vowels that are written as units, based on the consonant letter. Vowels must be able to be written independently as well, but they are treated as secondary.
Wikipedia wrote:This contrasts with a full alphabet, in which vowels have status equal to consonants, and with an abjad, in which vowel marking is absent, partial, or optional (although in less formal contexts, all three types of script may be termed alphabets). The terms also contrast them with a syllabary, in which the symbols cannot be split into separate consonants and vowels.

’Äbugida is an Ethiopian name for the Ge‘ez script, taken from four letters of that script, 'ä bu gi da, in much the same way that abecedary is derived from Latin a be ce de, and abjad is derived from the Arabic a b j d, while alphabet is derived from the names of the two first letters in the Greek alphabet, alpha and beta. Abugida as a term in linguistics was proposed by Peter T. Daniels in his 1990 typology of writing systems.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abugida
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Kannada
.
ಕನ್ನಡ
Kannaḍa [ˈkɐnnɐɖaː] — Kannada /ˈkɑːnədə, ˈkænədə/
Kannada script: ಕನ್ನಡ = ಕ kɐ, ನ್ n, ನ nɐ, ನ್ + ನ = ನ್ನ nnɐ, ಡ da
.
ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ [akṣaramāle] / ವರ್ಣಮಾಲೆ [varṇamāle] — Kannada script
.
Wikipedia wrote:Kannada /ˈkɑːnədə, ˈkæn-/: ಕನ್ನಡ [ˈkɐnnɐɖaː], less commonly known as Kanarese, is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by the people of Karnataka in Southern India. The language is also spoken by linguistic minorities in the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Kerala and Goa... In 2011 the language had roughly 43 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is also spoken as a second or third language by over 12.9 million others in Karnataka... It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka.

Kannada was the court language of some of the most powerful empires of South and Central India, such as the Chalukya dynasty, the Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Vijayanagara Empire and the Hoysala Empire.

The Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia and literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with eight Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kannada
Kannada script
.
Wikipedia wrote: The Kannada script (ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ akṣaramāle or ವರ್ಣಮಾಲೆ varṇamāle) is a phonemic abugida of forty-nine letters, and is written from left to right. The character set is almost identical to that of other Brahmic scripts. Consonantal letters imply an inherent vowel. Letters representing consonants are combined to form digraphs (ಒತ್ತಕ್ಷರ ottakṣara) when there is no intervening vowel. Otherwise, each letter corresponds to a syllable.
With more information about the linguistic connections:
The Kannada script ... is an abugida of the Brahmic family, used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of South India especially in the state of Karnataka. Kannada script is widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Karnataka. Several minor languages, such as Tulu, Konkani, Kodava, Sanketi and Beary, also use alphabets based on the Kannada script.

The Kannada and Telugu scripts share high mutual intelligibility with each other, and are often considered to be regional variants of single script. Other scripts similar to Kannada script are Sinhala script (which included some elements from the Kadamba script), and Old Peguan script (used in Burma).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kannada_script
Written Kannada is composed of akshara or kagunita, corresponding to syllables. The letters for consonants combine with diacritics for vowels. The consonant letter without any diacritic, such as ಕ ka, has the inherent vowel a ಅ. This is called ದೀರ್ಘ dīrgha. A consonant without a vowel is marked with a 'killer' stroke, such as ಕ್ k. This is known as ಹ್ರಸ್ವ hrasva. The following table is an example of one "family" of syllables.
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Kannada syllables based on ದ d
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Screen Shot 2020-07-31 at 11.59.15 am.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kannada_script
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by norvic »

Roger and others interested in alphabets.

I saw this on twitter today, I have no idea whether it is useful nor the credentials of the writer (not somebody I follow), but it may be of interest.
My Open House zoomcasts about the Endangered Alphabets have been really inconvenient for folks in Australasia, so I'm going to do a Pacific Edition talk on Saturday, August 1 at 7 p.m. EDT. Please tell your friends Down Under about it! Registration is at. https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZEpf-CqrDorEtdmz_GDeWC0Tz2tYYdAVkw-
Ian Billings - Norvic Philatelics GB stamps info: https://blog.norphil.co.uk, NPhilatelics on twitter, www norphil.co.uk, shop.norphil.co.uk for our e-commerce site [currently closed for the duration]

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

Thanks Ian,

This is new to me. Their website is www.endangeredalphabets.com and this has some interesting information on many rarely used scripts.

The following is from their "About Us" page:

Mission

The Endangered Alphabets Project preserves endangered cultures by using their writing systems to create artwork and educational materials.

Vision

We envision a world in which all cultures are able to use their own written and spoken languages, as outlined in Article 13 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples:

“Indigenous peoples have the right to revitalize, use, develop and transmit to future generations their histories, languages, oral traditions, philosophies, writing systems and literatures, and to designate and retain their own names for communities, places and persons.”

Who We Are

The Endangered Alphabets Project (the Alphabets) is a Vermont-based nonprofit organization that supports endangered, minority and indigenous cultures by preserving their writing systems.

This involves making artwork out of their sayings, proverbs, spiritual texts, and individual words and letters;

exhibiting this artwork and presenting on the importance of cultural preservation;

and partnering with revival organizations to create and publish educational materials and games in endangered alphabets.
Nigel

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks norvic and nigelc for your messages re Endangerd Alphabets. /RogerE

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Bengali
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বাংলা
Bangla [ˈbaŋla] — Bengali /bɛŋˈɡɔːli/
Bengali script: বাংলা = ব b/bɔ, বা ba, ঙ ŋ, বা + ঙ —> বা + ং = বাং baŋ, ল l/lɔ, লা la
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বাংলা বর্ণমালা [ˈbaŋla bôrnômala] — Bengali script
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Wikipedia wrote:Bengali /bɛŋˈɡɔːli/, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা [ˈbaŋla]), is an Indo-Aryan language primarily spoken by the Bengalis in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, native to Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. There are also a significant number of Bengali speakers in the Indian state of Tripura and Assam's Barak Valley. It is the official and most widely spoken language of Bangladesh and second most widely spoken of the 22 scheduled languages of India, behind Hindi.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengali_language
Bengali script
Wikipedia wrote: The Bengali or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) is the alphabet used to write the Bengali language and has historically been used to write Sanskrit within Bengal...

From a classificatory point of view, the Bengali script is an abugida, as its vowel graphemes are mainly realised not as independent letters, but as diacritics modifying the vowel inherent in the base letter they are added to. Bengali script is written from left to right and lacks distinct letter cases. It is recognisable, as are other Brahmic scripts, by a distinctive horizontal line known as মাত্রা matra running along the tops of the letters that links them together.
More specific information:
The Bengali script has 9 vowel graphemes, each of which is called a স্বরবর্ণ swôrôbôrnô — vowel letter.
They represent six of the seven main vowel sounds of Bengali, along with two vowel diphthongs...
Consonant letters are called ব্যঞ্জনবর্ণ bænjônbôrnô — consonant letter in Bengali. The names of the letters are typically just the consonant sound plus the inherent vowel অ ô.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengali_alphabet
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Bengali vowels: stand alone, and as diacritics
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Screen Shot 2020-08-01 at 9.16.45 am.png
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Bengali syllables based on ক kô /kɔ/
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Screen Shot 2020-08-01 at 9.17.45 am.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengali_alphabet
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Marathi
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मराठी
Marāṭhī [məˈɾaʈʰi] — Marathi /məˈrɑːti/
Devanagari script: मराठी = म m/mə, र r/rə, रा rā, ठ ṭh/ṭhə, ठी ṭhī
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Wikipedia wrote:Marathi /məˈrɑːti/; मराठी Marāṭhī [məˈɾaʈʰi] is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by around 83 million Marathi people of Maharashtra, India. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India, respectively, and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.

With 83 million speakers in 2011, Marathi ranks 10th in the list of most spoken languages in the world. Marathi has the third largest number of native speakers in India, after Hindi and Bengali.

The language has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indian languages, dating from around 600 AD. The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect. Koli and Malvani Konkani have been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties.

The contemporary grammatical rules described by Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad(*) and endorsed by the Government of Maharashtra are supposed to take precedence in standard written Marathi. Traditions of Marathi Linguistics and the above-mentioned rules give special status to tatsamas, words adapted from Sanskrit. This special status expects the rules for tatsamas to be followed as in Sanskrit. This practice provides Marathi with a large corpus of Sanskrit words to cope with demands of new technical words whenever needed.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marathi_language
(*) Note: Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad is a literary institution in Maharashtra. Its purpose is the "furtherance of the Marathi language and literature". It was set up in Pune in 1906.
The earliest evidence of written Marathi dates back to 700 AD. Marathi has a long literary history, starting with religious writings in the 12-13th centuries. The first Marathi translation of an English book was made in 1817, and the first Marathi newspaper appeared in 1835. Since 1950, Marathi has been written with the Devanagari alphabet which consists of 52 symbols (16 vowels and 36 consonants).
https://www.mustgo.com/worldlanguages/marathi/
Marathi script
Wikipedia wrote: Marathi is usually written in the Balbodh version of Devanagari script, an abugida consisting of 36 consonant letters and 16 initial-vowel letters. It is written from left to right.
More specifically:
From the 13th century until the 19th century the Modi alphabet was used for administrative purposes, while the Balbodh बाळबोध version of the Devanāgarī alphabet was used for literature, particularly poetry.
The name Balbodh बाळबोध [bāḷabōdha] /baːɭboːd̪ʱ/ in Marathi means "understood by children" and comes from बाळ [baːɭ] — child, and बोध [boːd̪ʱ] — perception. It is also used to write Korku, a Munda language spoken in central India.
https://omniglot.com/writing/marathi.htm
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Balbodh vowels: stand alone, and as diacritics
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 1.39.29 am.png
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Balbodh consonants
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 1.40.40 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 1.42.20 am.png
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https://omniglot.com/writing/marathi.htm
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/RogerE :D
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Telugu
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తెలుగు
Telugu [teluɡu] — Telugu /ˈtɛlʊɡuː/
Telugu script: తెలుగు =
త t, ఎ e, త + ఎ = తె te;
ల l, ఉ u, ల + ఉ = లు lu;
గ g, ఉ u, గ + ఉ = గు gu.
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తెలుగు లిపి [Telugu lipi] — Telugu script
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Wikipedia wrote:Telugu /ˈtɛlʊɡuː/; తెలుగు [teluɡu] is the most spoken Dravidian language. It is spoken predominantly in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana (where it is official) and in the Union Territories of Puducherry (Yanam) and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands by the Telugu people.

It stands alongside Hindi and Bengali as one of the few languages with primary official language status in more than one Indian state. Telugu is also a linguistic minority in the states of Odisha, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Maharashtra. It is one of six languages designated a classical language of India by the country's government.

Telugu ranks fourth among the languages with the highest number of native speakers in India, with 6.7 percent at the 2011 census and 15th in the Ethnologue list of most widely-spoken languages worldwide. It is the most widely spoken member of the Dravidian language family and one of the twenty-two scheduled languages of the Republic of India. It is also the fastest-growing language in the United States, where there is a large Telugu-speaking community.

Roughly 10,000 pre-colonial inscriptions exist in the Telugu language.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telugu_language
Telugu script
Wikipedia wrote: Telugu script: తెలుగు లిపి [Telugu lipi], is an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as several other neighbouring states. The Telugu script is also widely used for writing Sanskrit texts and to some extent the Gondi language...

It shares extensive similarities with the Kannada script, as it has evolved from the Kadamba and Bhattiprolu scripts of the Brahmi family.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telugu_script
Telugu uses eighteen vowels, each of which has both an independent form and a diacritic form used with consonants to create syllables. The language makes a distinction between short and long vowels.
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Telugu vowels: stand alone, and as diacritics
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 12.10.22 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 12.11.09 pm.png
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The independent form is used when the vowel occurs at the beginning of a word or syllable, or is a complete syllable in itself (example: a, u, o). The diacritic form is added to consonants (represented by the dotted circle) to form a consonant-vowel syllable (example: ka, kru, mo). అ does not have a diacritic form, because this vowel is already inherent in all of the consonants. The other diacritic vowels are added to consonants to change their pronunciation to include that of the vowel.
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 12.14.22 pm.png
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Telugu consonants
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 12.15.43 pm.png
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There are also several other diacritics used in the Telugu script. ్ mutes the vowel of a consonant, so that only the consonant is pronounced. ం and ఁ nasalize the vowels or syllables to which they are attached. ః adds a voiceless breath after the vowel or syllable it is attached to.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telugu_script
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 12.20.09 pm.png
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Gujarati
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ગુજરાતી
Gujarātī — Gujarati
Gujarati script: ગુજરાતી = ગ g/gə , ગુ gu; જ j/jə; ર r/rə, રા rā; ત t/tə તી tī

ગુજરાતી લિપિ
Gujǎrātī Lipi — Gujarati script
લિપિ = લ l/lə, લિ li; પ p/pə, પિ pi

લિપિ lipi — script
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Wikipedia wrote:Gujarati /ˌɡʊdʒəˈrɑːti/; ગુજરાતી [Gujarātī] /ɡudʒəˈɾɑːtiː/ is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat and spoken predominantly by the Gujarati people.

Gujarati is part of the Indo-European language family. It is descended from Old Gujarati (c. 1100–1500 CE). In India, it is the official language in the state of Gujarat, as well as an official language in the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.

As of 2011, Gujarati was the sixth most widely spoken language in India by number of native speakers, spoken by ... about 4.5% of the total Indian population. It is the 26th most widely spoken language in the world by number of native speakers as of 2007.

The Gujarati language is more than 700 years old and is spoken by more than 55 million people worldwide. Outside of Gujarat, it is spoken in many other parts of South Asia by Gujarati migrants, especially in Mumbai and in Pakistan, mainly in Karachi. It is also widely spoken in many countries outside South Asia by the Gujarati diaspora.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujarati_language
Gujarati script
Wikipedia wrote:The Gujarati script ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi, is an abugida used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. It is a variant of the Devanagari script differentiated by the loss of the characteristic horizontal line running above the letters and by modifications to some characters.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujarati_script
Gujarati vowels

Vowels (svara), in their conventional order, are historically grouped into "short" (hrasva) and "long" (dīrgha) classes, based on the "light" (laghu) and "heavy" (guru) syllables they create in traditional verse. The historical long vowels ī and ū are no longer distinctively long in pronunciation. Only in verse do syllables containing them assume the values required by meter.
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Vowels as stand-alone graphemes, as diacritics, and as syllabic combinations with ભ bha
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 10.26.16 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 10.27.35 pm.png
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Gujarati consonants

Consonants (vyañjana) are grouped in accordance with the traditional, linguistically based Sanskrit scheme of arrangement, which considers the usage and position of the tongue during their pronunciation.
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 10.31.28 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 10.33.10 pm.png
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Gujarati non-vowel diacritics
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 10.39.58 pm.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujarati_script

/RogerE :D

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