Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

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RogerE
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Arabic

اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ‎

al-ʿarabiyyah
/alʕaraˈbijːa/
Where is Arabic spoken?
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Arabic_Dialects.svg-1.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic#/media/File:Arabic_Dialects.svg
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The majority of Arabic speaking countries are concentrated in the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, and North Africa, which is known as “The Arab World”. However, there are around 25 Arab speaking countries that claim Arabic as an official or co-official language including Saudi Arabia, Chad, Algeria, Comoros, Eritrea, Djibouti, Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Kuwait, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Bahrain, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Meanwhile, there are six sovereign states where Arabic is a national language or “recognised minority language” such as Turkey, Niger, Iran, Senegal, and Mali.
https://tarjama.com/how-many-countries-that-speak-arabic-around-the-world
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https://tinyurl.com/yxmhcwsy
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.<br />Arab Postal Day – Joint Issue<br />Saudi Arabia,  3 Aug 2008, minisheet, First Day Cover
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Arab Postal Day – Joint Issue
Saudi Arabia, 3 Aug 2008, minisheet, First Day Cover
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Stamps and Languages Local Index (251–351)
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To access a post, paste or type its number into the url at the top of this page, to replace the number '350'
Example: to go to the first post on Catalan, listed here as Catalan 261, modify
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=350
so that it becomes
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=261
To go to the Local Index for the first 150 posts on this thread, enter
https://www.stampboards.com/posting.php?mode=reply&f=13&t=90529&start=150
To go to the Local Index for the posts 151–250 on this thread, enter
https://www.stampboards.com/posting.php?mode=reply&f=13&t=90529&start=250

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Nigel = nigelc for your latest post about EU languages, ISO standard 2-letter and 3-letter language codes, and endonymic and exonymic glossonyms.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=349

As usual, your post adds helpful and relevant information to this thread. I will add here some related terms, together with further consideration of some terms you defined, on the principle that a "second pass" will serve as reinforcement of your information, while allowing me to add some related information.
_______________________
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.<br />Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913)<br />Swiss pioneer in linguistics
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Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913)
Swiss pioneer in linguistics
.
Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure is widely considered to be one of the forefathers of both
linguistics and semiology, which is the philosophical study of the interpretation of signs and symbols.
https://www.listenandlearn.org/blog/7-linguists-who-changed-the-game/
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Some linguistic terms ending in -nym

Naming things is a fundamental part of language. The names compactly encode information, and allow us to remember, to record and to communicate effectively.

English words ending with the suffix –nym classify various kinds of name. The suffix comes from Greek ὄνομα ónoma — name.

Two familiar examples:
synonym — a second word with similar meaning to that of a given word. From Greek σύν sún — with
antonym — a second word with opposed meaning to that of a given word. From Greek αντί antí — instead

Endonyms and exonyms

In ethnolinguistics, various kinds of names are either endonymic (words in the principal language of a location where the things named occur naturally) or exonymic (words in a non-local language). The prefixes endo- and exo- come from Greek ἔνδον éndon — within and ἔξω éxō — out.
Synonyms:
endonym = autonym, Greek αὐτο aúto — self.
exonym = xenonym, from Greek ξένος xénos — foreign.

The term autonym was introduced into linguistics by James A. Matisoff, who remarked: "Human nature being what it is, exonyms are liable to be pejorative rather than complimentary, especially where there is a real or fancied difference in cultural level between the ingroup and the outgroup."

As a place name example, London is an endonym/autonym.
The following are some cognate exonyms/xenonyms (where cognate means the names are derived from the spelling or pronunciation of the endonym):
Londres in Catalan, French, Portuguese, Spanish, and Tagalog; Λονδίνο [Londino] in Greek; Londen in Dutch; Londra in Italian, Maltese, Romanian and Turkish; Londer in Albanian; Londýn in Czech and Slovak; Londyn in Polish; Lundúnir in Icelandic; Lontoo in Finnish; Lúndūn 伦敦 in Mandarin; and Luân Đôn in Vietnamese.
https://enacademic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/657297

More ethnolinguistic terms

ethnonym — name of an ethnic group. From Greek ἔθνος éthnos — nation.
demonym — name of inhabitant of a country. From Greek δῆμος dêmos — people, tribe.
glossonym — name of a language. From Greek γλώσσα glóssa — language.
Synonyms: glottonym, linguonym.
toponym — a place name, especially one derived from a topographical feature, such as Table Mountain, Cape Town. More generally, in human geography, a toponym is the name by which a geographical place is known.
patronym = patronymic (noun) — personal name derived from the name of a father or ancestor, such as Johnson, O'Brien, Ivanovich. From Greek πατρό patró — father.
matronym = matronymic (noun) — personal name based on the given name of one's mother, grandmother, or any female ancestor; English matronymic family names include Parnell, Hilliard, Marriott. From Greek μήτηρ méter — mother.
Note: Patronymic and matronymic can also be adjectives; it would seem natural to reserve them as adjectives and to use patronym and matronym as the corresponding nouns.

Some other -nym words not directly related to ethnolinguistics:

• eponym — name of a real or fictitious person whose name has given rise to the name of a particular item.
• allonym — a name that is assumed by an author but that actually belongs to another person.
• pseudonym — a fictitious name, especially one used by an author.
• aptronym — a person's name that is regarded as amusingly appropriate to their occupation.
• acronym — an abbreviation formed from the initial letters of other words and pronounced as a word, such as ASCII = American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
• metonym — a word, name, or expression used as a substitute for something else with which it is closely associated; sometimes described as "the container for the think contained". For example, "Canberra" is an Australian metonym for the Federal government.
• homonym — each of two or more words having the same spelling and pronunciation but different meanings and origins, such as "pen" —a holding area for animals, or "pen" — a writing instrument.
• hyponym — a word of more specific meaning than a general or superordinate term applicable to it: for instance, spoon is a hyponym of cutlery.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

In this post you will find two simple exercises which I invite you to try. No need to tell us the strictly personal results — they're for your benefit only. :D

Languages ranked by number of speakers

If you ask yourself to list the world's top languages, ranked by number of speakers, and then compare your list with a objective listing based on best available data, you will probably have a few surprises.

I suggest you try that exercise before reading further in this post — say, which do you think are the top 10?
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Some remarks about ranking languages by number of speakers

My information source is a well-written Wikipedia article. It begins with these thoughtful remarks:
Wikipedia wrote:This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.

However, all such rankings should be used with caution, because it is not possible to devise a coherent set of linguistic criteria for distinguishing languages in a dialect continuum.

For example, a language is often defined as a set of varieties that are mutually intelligible, but independent national standard languages may be considered to be separate languages even though they are largely mutually intelligible, as in the case of Danish and Norwegian. Conversely, many commonly accepted languages, including German, Italian and even English, encompass varieties that are not mutually intelligible.

While Arabic is sometimes considered a single language centred on Modern Standard Arabic, other authors describe its mutually unintelligible varieties as separate languages. Similarly, Chinese is sometimes viewed as a single language because of a shared culture and common literary language. It is also common to describe various Chinese dialect groups, such as Mandarin, Wu and Yue, as languages, even though each of these groups contains many mutually unintelligible varieties.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_languages_by_number_of_native_speakers
Languages with at least 10 million speakers

The Wikipedia article cited above lists 91 languages with at least 10 million speakers. Here they are ranked by population. I predict that you will find several languages in the list that you have never heard of before!

As a second learning exercise, may I suggest that you count those languages which for you are newly-encountered, and roughly calculate the total number of speakers of that group of languages. It's a private exercise, but one which will "grow" your thinking about languages.
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/RogerE :D

Footnote: Yes, I did my own exercises. Even though I said the exercises are for your own private information, I will share a few glimpses into my own performance.
I did reasonably well on the top ten languages except for the Indo-Aryan members of that group, and I listed Arabic in the top ten, whereas the table splits it into ten or more separate (mutually unintelligible) languages, scattered further down in the table (the map in my recent Arabic post is relevant). I also ranked Indonesian much higher than it appears on the table, because I didn't properly allow for Javanese.
In the second exercise I encountered for the first time [exonymic] glossonyms of the languages of almost a billion people! Wow, my humble apologies to them all!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

RogerE . I too was surprised, not that Chinese ranked no.1 but that there a multiple variants of the language and that English was behind Spanish, but I forgot a bout Central and South America. Also surprised to find Korean so high on the list and the multiple variants of Arabic. Wow, most educational. Who would have thunk!

Reminds me of the dreadful Boston joke where many uni graduates take menial employment. A visitor from New York arrives at the airport and hails a taxi. "Where to sir?" the cabbie enquires. Lusting after a local fish dish, Scrod, The visitor replies," First, I would love to get Scrod." Noting the cabbies puzzled look, the visitor asks, " surely you have heard that request before." "Yes Sir ", was the reply, " but not in the pluperfect subjunctive, before."
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Waffle, glad you had a mind-widening experience with the list of 91 languages with at least 10 million speakers.
I also chuckled at your conjugation story. ;)

Here's a challenge for you (and any other interested reader).
I looked up an online website, and it offered me a choice of languages. Which languages are they?
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by kuikka »

For the guessing languages:

The third one is likely to be Bengali. The fourth Hindi. The last one I would guess to be Marathi. Guess for fifth is Malayam. For the second to last I would guess Tamil.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

The eighth is Malayalam, very familiar to collectors of the State of Cochin.
cochin-16-2p-DieI-and-Die2-u.jpg
Cochin 1916 two pies. At left: die one. Right: die two.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Joy Daschaudhuri »

RogerE wrote:
30 Jul 2020 02:44
I looked up an online website, and it offered me a choice of languages. Which languages are they?
Image
/RogerE :D
हिन्दी Hindī
ಕನ್ನಡ Kannaḍa
বাংলা Bāṅglā
मराठी Marāṭhī
తెలుగు Telugu
தமிழ் Tamizh
ગુજરાતી Gujarātī
മലയാളം Malayāḷam
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ Pañjābī

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Joy Daschaudhuri »

kuikka wrote:
30 Jul 2020 04:09
For the guessing languages:

The third one is likely to be Bengali. The fourth Hindi. The last one I would guess to be Marathi. Guess for fifth is Malayam. For the second to last I would guess Tamil.
Fourth one is Marathi, not Hindi.
Last one is Panjabi, not Marathi.
Fifth one is Telugu, not Malayalam.
Second last one is Malayalam, not Tamil.

Guessing success rate: 20%

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Re: Kochchi 1930 2P Ramavarma XVI Die II SG 35b

Post by Joy Daschaudhuri »

Panterra wrote:
30 Jul 2020 04:32
Image
Cochin 1916 two pies. At left: die one. Right: die two.
Kochchi 2P Ramavarma XVI Die II SG 35b was issued in 1930.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Image
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Thanks to Joy Daschaudhuri, our resident expert in Kolkata, India, for posting the following
endonymic glossonyms, in relevant script and transliteration into Roman [Latin] script. I have
taken the liberty of adding the English exonyms for these languages.
(Thanks again to Nigel = nigelc for recently bringing this terminology to our attention — it's
a bit of a mouthful, but it enables us to pay better attention to perspective.)
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हिन्दी Hindī — Hindi
ಕನ್ನಡ Kannaḍa — Kannada
বাংলা Bāṅglā — Bengali
मराठी Marāṭhī — Marathi
తెలుగు Telugu — Telugu
தமிழ் Tamizh — Tamil
ગુજરાતી Gujarātī — Gujarati
മലയാളം Malayāḷam — Malayalam
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ Pañjābī — Punjabi
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I had planned to identify each of the languages in a follow-up to my post. Now that has been
nicely done, I will follow up with a brief look at each of those languages, one language at a time.
This will allow us to look at each one in its own right.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

Thanks Roger and Joy.

Joy, could you please explain your spelling Tamizh in "தமிழ் Tamizh"?

I would have expected something closer to "Tamil" as in the English name as this is the way I've heard தமிழ் pronounced.

This was an interesting puzzle. I can't transliterate any of these scripts but I recognised the name हिन्दी and I guessed తెలుగు from previous exposure to the script.
Nigel

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Eli »

Thanks to Joy Daschaudhuri! Your score is 100/100!! :D :D :D

RogerE wrote:
28 Jul 2020 23:18
The majority of Arabic speaking countries are concentrated in the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, and North Africa, which is known as “The Arab World”. However, there are around 25 Arab speaking countries that claim Arabic as an official or co-official language including Saudi Arabia, Chad, Algeria, Comoros, Eritrea, Djibouti, Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Kuwait, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Bahrain, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Meanwhile, there are six sovereign states where Arabic is a national language or “recognised minority language” such as Turkey, Niger, Iran, Senegal, and Mali.
https://tarjama.com/how-many-countries-that-speak-arabic-around-the-world
To this list I would add Israel, since Arabic has a special status and all official documents, stamps, money, signs etc. are written Arabic in addition to Hebrew, the main launguage.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Hindi
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हिन्दी
Hindī — Hindi
Devanagari script: हिन्दी = ह h/hə, हि hi, न n/nə, द d/də, दी dī, न्दी ndī
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मानक हिन्दी
Mānak Hindī — Modern Standard Hindi
Devanagari script: मानक = म m/mə, मा mā, न n/nə, क k/kə
मानक mānak — standard, norm
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Wikipedia wrote:Hindi (हिन्दी Hindī), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (मानक हिन्दी Mānak Hindī), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in India. Hindi is often described as a standardised, Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and neighbouring areas of Northern India.

Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the two official languages of the Government of India, along with the English language... It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India...

Apart from the script and formal vocabulary, standard Hindi is mutually intelligible with standard Urdu, another recognised register of Hindustani as both share a common colloquial base.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindi
Evolution and Rise of Hindi
Wikipedia wrote:Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi is a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit... After arrival of Islamic administrative rule in northern India, Hindi acquired many loanwords from Persian and Arabic.

Modern Standard Hindi is based on the Delhi dialect, the vernacular of Delhi and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige dialects such as Awadhi, Maithili (sometimes regarded as separate from the Hindi dialect continuum) and Braj.

Urdu – considered another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the latter part of the Mughal period (1800s), and underwent significant Persian influence. Modern Hindi and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century... In the late 19th century, a movement to further develop Hindi as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu took form. In 1881, Bihar accepted Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, and thus became the first state of India to adopt Hindi.

After Independence, the government of India instituted the following conventions:
standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi. The committee's report was released in 1958 as A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi.
standardisation of the orthography, using the Devanagari script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture, to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari characters, and introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages.

On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India adopted Hindi written in the Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India replacing Urdu's previous usage in British India.
To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan-India in favour of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha ... [On Simha's birthday] on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following the adoption of Hindi as the official language. Now, it is celebrated as Hindi Day.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindi
Geographical reach of Hindi

The Hindi belt [also called the Hindi-Urdu belt] refers to nine Indian states where Hindi is the official language and a majority of the people are Hindi-speaking: Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Chandigarh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi.
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Hindi Belt
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Hindi_belt.png
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Wikipedia wrote:Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt and to a lesser extent other parts of India (usually in a simplified or pidginised variety such as Bazaar Hindustani...). Outside India, several other languages are recognised officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri. Such languages include Fiji Hindi, which is official in Fiji, and Caribbean Hindustani, which is spoken in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindi
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Tamil
.
தமிழ்
Tamiḻ /t̪ɐmɨɻ/ — Tamil
Tamil script: தமிழ் = த் t, த ta, ம் m, ி i, மி mi, ழ் ḻ
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Wikipedia wrote:Tamil /ˈtæmɪl/: தமிழ் /tamiɻ/ Tamiḻ – is a Dravidian language, predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora and Sri Lankan Muslims.

Tamil is an official language in three countries: India, Sri Lanka and Singapore. In India, it is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry. Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Furthermore, Tamil is used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English, Malay and Mandarin.

Tamil is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. A. K. Ramanujan described it as "the only language of contemporary India which is recognisably continuous with a classical past." The variety and quality of classical Tamil literature has led to it being described as "one of the great classical traditions and literatures of the world".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_language
Tamil script

Tamil script has the endonym
தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி
/t̪ɐmɨɻ ˈɐɾit͡ɕːuʋəɽi/ Tamiḻ ariccuvaṭi
This script is also used by several minority languages, such as Saurashtra, Badaga, Irula and Paniya.

Tamil script is an abugida (see general definition in next section). A consonant is mei body, and a vowel is uyir life; the compounds are called uyirmeiliving bodies, as they can be pronounced. The compounds formed from the hard consonant க் k are listed in this table:
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Tamil script compounds (uyirmei) with க்
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Screen Shot 2020-07-30 at 11.48.04 pm.png

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An 18x12 table can display the 18 hard consonants combined with the 12 vowels, to form 216 compounds. A further 6x12 table can display the 6 soft consonants combined with the 12 vowels, to form 72 compounds, making a total of 288.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamil_script

Abugida scripts

Abugida scripts are a class of writing systems which differ from alphabets, abjads and syllabaries. An abugida has been described as somewhere in between an alphabet and a syllabary. It has sequences of consonants and vowels that are written as units, based on the consonant letter. Vowels must be able to be written independently as well, but they are treated as secondary.
Wikipedia wrote:This contrasts with a full alphabet, in which vowels have status equal to consonants, and with an abjad, in which vowel marking is absent, partial, or optional (although in less formal contexts, all three types of script may be termed alphabets). The terms also contrast them with a syllabary, in which the symbols cannot be split into separate consonants and vowels.

’Äbugida is an Ethiopian name for the Ge‘ez script, taken from four letters of that script, 'ä bu gi da, in much the same way that abecedary is derived from Latin a be ce de, and abjad is derived from the Arabic a b j d, while alphabet is derived from the names of the two first letters in the Greek alphabet, alpha and beta. Abugida as a term in linguistics was proposed by Peter T. Daniels in his 1990 typology of writing systems.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abugida
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Kannada
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ಕನ್ನಡ
Kannaḍa [ˈkɐnnɐɖaː] — Kannada /ˈkɑːnədə, ˈkænədə/
Kannada script: ಕನ್ನಡ = ಕ kɐ, ನ್ n, ನ nɐ, ನ್ + ನ = ನ್ನ nnɐ, ಡ da
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ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ [akṣaramāle] / ವರ್ಣಮಾಲೆ [varṇamāle] — Kannada script
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Wikipedia wrote:Kannada /ˈkɑːnədə, ˈkæn-/: ಕನ್ನಡ [ˈkɐnnɐɖaː], less commonly known as Kanarese, is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by the people of Karnataka in Southern India. The language is also spoken by linguistic minorities in the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Kerala and Goa... In 2011 the language had roughly 43 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is also spoken as a second or third language by over 12.9 million others in Karnataka... It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka.

Kannada was the court language of some of the most powerful empires of South and Central India, such as the Chalukya dynasty, the Rashtrakuta dynasty, the Vijayanagara Empire and the Hoysala Empire.

The Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia and literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with eight Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kannada
Kannada script
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Wikipedia wrote: The Kannada script (ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ akṣaramāle or ವರ್ಣಮಾಲೆ varṇamāle) is a phonemic abugida of forty-nine letters, and is written from left to right. The character set is almost identical to that of other Brahmic scripts. Consonantal letters imply an inherent vowel. Letters representing consonants are combined to form digraphs (ಒತ್ತಕ್ಷರ ottakṣara) when there is no intervening vowel. Otherwise, each letter corresponds to a syllable.
With more information about the linguistic connections:
The Kannada script ... is an abugida of the Brahmic family, used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of South India especially in the state of Karnataka. Kannada script is widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Karnataka. Several minor languages, such as Tulu, Konkani, Kodava, Sanketi and Beary, also use alphabets based on the Kannada script.

The Kannada and Telugu scripts share high mutual intelligibility with each other, and are often considered to be regional variants of single script. Other scripts similar to Kannada script are Sinhala script (which included some elements from the Kadamba script), and Old Peguan script (used in Burma).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kannada_script
Written Kannada is composed of akshara or kagunita, corresponding to syllables. The letters for consonants combine with diacritics for vowels. The consonant letter without any diacritic, such as ಕ ka, has the inherent vowel a ಅ. This is called ದೀರ್ಘ dīrgha. A consonant without a vowel is marked with a 'killer' stroke, such as ಕ್ k. This is known as ಹ್ರಸ್ವ hrasva. The following table is an example of one "family" of syllables.
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Kannada syllables based on ದ d
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Screen Shot 2020-07-31 at 11.59.15 am.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kannada_script
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by norvic »

Roger and others interested in alphabets.

I saw this on twitter today, I have no idea whether it is useful nor the credentials of the writer (not somebody I follow), but it may be of interest.
My Open House zoomcasts about the Endangered Alphabets have been really inconvenient for folks in Australasia, so I'm going to do a Pacific Edition talk on Saturday, August 1 at 7 p.m. EDT. Please tell your friends Down Under about it! Registration is at. https://us02web.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZEpf-CqrDorEtdmz_GDeWC0Tz2tYYdAVkw-
Ian Billings - Norvic Philatelics GB stamps info: https://blog.norphil.co.uk, NPhilatelics on twitter, www norphil.co.uk, shop.norphil.co.uk for our e-commerce site [currently closed for the duration]

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

Thanks Ian,

This is new to me. Their website is www.endangeredalphabets.com and this has some interesting information on many rarely used scripts.

The following is from their "About Us" page:

Mission

The Endangered Alphabets Project preserves endangered cultures by using their writing systems to create artwork and educational materials.

Vision

We envision a world in which all cultures are able to use their own written and spoken languages, as outlined in Article 13 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples:

“Indigenous peoples have the right to revitalize, use, develop and transmit to future generations their histories, languages, oral traditions, philosophies, writing systems and literatures, and to designate and retain their own names for communities, places and persons.”

Who We Are

The Endangered Alphabets Project (the Alphabets) is a Vermont-based nonprofit organization that supports endangered, minority and indigenous cultures by preserving their writing systems.

This involves making artwork out of their sayings, proverbs, spiritual texts, and individual words and letters;

exhibiting this artwork and presenting on the importance of cultural preservation;

and partnering with revival organizations to create and publish educational materials and games in endangered alphabets.
Nigel

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks norvic and nigelc for your messages re Endangerd Alphabets. /RogerE

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Bengali
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বাংলা
Bangla [ˈbaŋla] — Bengali /bɛŋˈɡɔːli/
Bengali script: বাংলা = ব b/bɔ, বা ba, ঙ ŋ, বা + ঙ —> বা + ং = বাং baŋ, ল l/lɔ, লা la
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বাংলা বর্ণমালা [ˈbaŋla bôrnômala] — Bengali script
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Wikipedia wrote:Bengali /bɛŋˈɡɔːli/, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা [ˈbaŋla]), is an Indo-Aryan language primarily spoken by the Bengalis in South Asia, specifically in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, native to Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. There are also a significant number of Bengali speakers in the Indian state of Tripura and Assam's Barak Valley. It is the official and most widely spoken language of Bangladesh and second most widely spoken of the 22 scheduled languages of India, behind Hindi.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengali_language
Bengali script
Wikipedia wrote: The Bengali or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা বর্ণমালা, bangla bôrnômala) is the alphabet used to write the Bengali language and has historically been used to write Sanskrit within Bengal...

From a classificatory point of view, the Bengali script is an abugida, as its vowel graphemes are mainly realised not as independent letters, but as diacritics modifying the vowel inherent in the base letter they are added to. Bengali script is written from left to right and lacks distinct letter cases. It is recognisable, as are other Brahmic scripts, by a distinctive horizontal line known as মাত্রা matra running along the tops of the letters that links them together.
More specific information:
The Bengali script has 9 vowel graphemes, each of which is called a স্বরবর্ণ swôrôbôrnô — vowel letter.
They represent six of the seven main vowel sounds of Bengali, along with two vowel diphthongs...
Consonant letters are called ব্যঞ্জনবর্ণ bænjônbôrnô — consonant letter in Bengali. The names of the letters are typically just the consonant sound plus the inherent vowel অ ô.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengali_alphabet
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Bengali vowels: stand alone, and as diacritics
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Screen Shot 2020-08-01 at 9.16.45 am.png
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Bengali syllables based on ক kô /kɔ/
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Screen Shot 2020-08-01 at 9.17.45 am.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengali_alphabet
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Marathi
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मराठी
Marāṭhī [məˈɾaʈʰi] — Marathi /məˈrɑːti/
Devanagari script: मराठी = म m/mə, र r/rə, रा rā, ठ ṭh/ṭhə, ठी ṭhī
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Wikipedia wrote:Marathi /məˈrɑːti/; मराठी Marāṭhī [məˈɾaʈʰi] is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by around 83 million Marathi people of Maharashtra, India. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra and Goa states of Western India, respectively, and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.

With 83 million speakers in 2011, Marathi ranks 10th in the list of most spoken languages in the world. Marathi has the third largest number of native speakers in India, after Hindi and Bengali.

The language has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indian languages, dating from around 600 AD. The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect. Koli and Malvani Konkani have been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties.

The contemporary grammatical rules described by Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad(*) and endorsed by the Government of Maharashtra are supposed to take precedence in standard written Marathi. Traditions of Marathi Linguistics and the above-mentioned rules give special status to tatsamas, words adapted from Sanskrit. This special status expects the rules for tatsamas to be followed as in Sanskrit. This practice provides Marathi with a large corpus of Sanskrit words to cope with demands of new technical words whenever needed.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marathi_language
(*) Note: Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad is a literary institution in Maharashtra. Its purpose is the "furtherance of the Marathi language and literature". It was set up in Pune in 1906.
The earliest evidence of written Marathi dates back to 700 AD. Marathi has a long literary history, starting with religious writings in the 12-13th centuries. The first Marathi translation of an English book was made in 1817, and the first Marathi newspaper appeared in 1835. Since 1950, Marathi has been written with the Devanagari alphabet which consists of 52 symbols (16 vowels and 36 consonants).
https://www.mustgo.com/worldlanguages/marathi/
Marathi script
Wikipedia wrote: Marathi is usually written in the Balbodh version of Devanagari script, an abugida consisting of 36 consonant letters and 16 initial-vowel letters. It is written from left to right.
More specifically:
From the 13th century until the 19th century the Modi alphabet was used for administrative purposes, while the Balbodh बाळबोध version of the Devanāgarī alphabet was used for literature, particularly poetry.
The name Balbodh बाळबोध [bāḷabōdha] /baːɭboːd̪ʱ/ in Marathi means "understood by children" and comes from बाळ [baːɭ] — child, and बोध [boːd̪ʱ] — perception. It is also used to write Korku, a Munda language spoken in central India.
https://omniglot.com/writing/marathi.htm
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Balbodh vowels: stand alone, and as diacritics
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 1.39.29 am.png
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Balbodh consonants
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 1.40.40 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 1.42.20 am.png
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https://omniglot.com/writing/marathi.htm
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/RogerE :D
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Telugu
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తెలుగు
Telugu [teluɡu] — Telugu /ˈtɛlʊɡuː/
Telugu script: తెలుగు =
త t, ఎ e, త + ఎ = తె te;
ల l, ఉ u, ల + ఉ = లు lu;
గ g, ఉ u, గ + ఉ = గు gu.
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తెలుగు లిపి [Telugu lipi] — Telugu script
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Wikipedia wrote:Telugu /ˈtɛlʊɡuː/; తెలుగు [teluɡu] is the most spoken Dravidian language. It is spoken predominantly in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana (where it is official) and in the Union Territories of Puducherry (Yanam) and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands by the Telugu people.

It stands alongside Hindi and Bengali as one of the few languages with primary official language status in more than one Indian state. Telugu is also a linguistic minority in the states of Odisha, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Maharashtra. It is one of six languages designated a classical language of India by the country's government.

Telugu ranks fourth among the languages with the highest number of native speakers in India, with 6.7 percent at the 2011 census and 15th in the Ethnologue list of most widely-spoken languages worldwide. It is the most widely spoken member of the Dravidian language family and one of the twenty-two scheduled languages of the Republic of India. It is also the fastest-growing language in the United States, where there is a large Telugu-speaking community.

Roughly 10,000 pre-colonial inscriptions exist in the Telugu language.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telugu_language
Telugu script
Wikipedia wrote: Telugu script: తెలుగు లిపి [Telugu lipi], is an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write the Telugu language, a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana as well as several other neighbouring states. The Telugu script is also widely used for writing Sanskrit texts and to some extent the Gondi language...

It shares extensive similarities with the Kannada script, as it has evolved from the Kadamba and Bhattiprolu scripts of the Brahmi family.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telugu_script
Telugu uses eighteen vowels, each of which has both an independent form and a diacritic form used with consonants to create syllables. The language makes a distinction between short and long vowels.
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Telugu vowels: stand alone, and as diacritics
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 12.10.22 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 12.11.09 pm.png
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The independent form is used when the vowel occurs at the beginning of a word or syllable, or is a complete syllable in itself (example: a, u, o). The diacritic form is added to consonants (represented by the dotted circle) to form a consonant-vowel syllable (example: ka, kru, mo). అ does not have a diacritic form, because this vowel is already inherent in all of the consonants. The other diacritic vowels are added to consonants to change their pronunciation to include that of the vowel.
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 12.14.22 pm.png
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Telugu consonants
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 12.15.43 pm.png
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There are also several other diacritics used in the Telugu script. ్ mutes the vowel of a consonant, so that only the consonant is pronounced. ం and ఁ nasalize the vowels or syllables to which they are attached. ః adds a voiceless breath after the vowel or syllable it is attached to.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telugu_script
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 12.20.09 pm.png
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Gujarati
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ગુજરાતી
Gujarātī — Gujarati
Gujarati script: ગુજરાતી = ગ g/gə , ગુ gu; જ j/jə; ર r/rə, રા rā; ત t/tə તી tī

ગુજરાતી લિપિ
Gujǎrātī Lipi — Gujarati script
લિપિ = લ l/lə, લિ li; પ p/pə, પિ pi

લિપિ lipi — script
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Wikipedia wrote:Gujarati /ˌɡʊdʒəˈrɑːti/; ગુજરાતી [Gujarātī] /ɡudʒəˈɾɑːtiː/ is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat and spoken predominantly by the Gujarati people.

Gujarati is part of the Indo-European language family. It is descended from Old Gujarati (c. 1100–1500 CE). In India, it is the official language in the state of Gujarat, as well as an official language in the union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.

As of 2011, Gujarati was the sixth most widely spoken language in India by number of native speakers, spoken by ... about 4.5% of the total Indian population. It is the 26th most widely spoken language in the world by number of native speakers as of 2007.

The Gujarati language is more than 700 years old and is spoken by more than 55 million people worldwide. Outside of Gujarat, it is spoken in many other parts of South Asia by Gujarati migrants, especially in Mumbai and in Pakistan, mainly in Karachi. It is also widely spoken in many countries outside South Asia by the Gujarati diaspora.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujarati_language
Gujarati script
Wikipedia wrote:The Gujarati script ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi, is an abugida used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. It is a variant of the Devanagari script differentiated by the loss of the characteristic horizontal line running above the letters and by modifications to some characters.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujarati_script
Gujarati vowels

Vowels (svara), in their conventional order, are historically grouped into "short" (hrasva) and "long" (dīrgha) classes, based on the "light" (laghu) and "heavy" (guru) syllables they create in traditional verse. The historical long vowels ī and ū are no longer distinctively long in pronunciation. Only in verse do syllables containing them assume the values required by meter.
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Vowels as stand-alone graphemes, as diacritics, and as syllabic combinations with ભ bha
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 10.26.16 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 10.27.35 pm.png
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Gujarati consonants

Consonants (vyañjana) are grouped in accordance with the traditional, linguistically based Sanskrit scheme of arrangement, which considers the usage and position of the tongue during their pronunciation.
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 10.31.28 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 10.33.10 pm.png
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Gujarati non-vowel diacritics
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Screen Shot 2020-08-02 at 10.39.58 pm.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujarati_script

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Malayalam
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മലയാളം
Malayāḷam [mʌlʌjaːɭʌm] — Malayalam /ˌmæləˈjɑːləm/
Malayalam script: മലയാളം = മ m/mə; ല l/lə; യ y/yə, യാ yā; ള ḷ/ḷə, ളം ḷəṁ

മലയാളലിപി
Malayāḷalipi /mələjɑːɭə lɪpɪ/ — Malayalam script
ലിപി lipi — script
ലിപി = ല l/lə, ലി lɪ; പ p/pə, പി pɪ
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Wikipedia wrote:Malayalam /ˌmæləˈjɑːləm/; മലയാളം Malayāḷam [mʌlʌjaːɭʌm] is a Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala and the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry (Mahé district) by the Malayali people. It is one of 22 scheduled languages of India spoken by nearly 2.88% of Indians. Malayalam ... is spoken by 45 million people worldwide...

Designated a "Classical Language in India" in 2013, it developed into the current form mainly by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century. The oldest documents written purely in Malayalam and still surviving are the Vazhappally Copper plates from 832 AD and Tharisapalli Copper plates from 849 AD.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malayalam
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Malayalam script
Wikipedia wrote:Malayalam script മലയാളലിപി Malayāḷalipi [mələjɑːɭə lɪpɪ] is a Brahmic script used commonly to write the Malayalam language, which is the principal language of Kerala, India, spoken by 45 million people in the world. Malayalam script is also widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Kerala. Like many other Indic scripts, it is an abugida [also called an alphasyllabary], a writing system that is partially “alphabetic” and partially syllable-based.

The modern Malayalam alphabet has 15 vowel letters, 42 consonant letters, and a few other symbols. The Malayalam script is a Vatteluttu(*) script extended with symbols from the Grantha(^) script to represent Indo-Aryan loanwords.

The script is also used to write several minority languages such as Paniya, Betta Kurumba, and Ravula. The Malayalam language itself was historically written in several different scripts.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malayalam_script
(*) Vatteluttu script (Tamil: வட்டெழுத்து, Vaṭṭeḻuttu; Malayalam: വട്ടെഴുത്ത്, Vaṭṭeḻuttŭ) was an abugida of South India (Tamil Nadu and Kerala) and Sri Lanka used for writing the Tamil and Malayalam languages.
(^) Grantha script (Tamil: கிரந்த எழுத்து, Granta eḻuttu; Malayalam: ഗ്രന്ഥ ലിപി, Granta lipi) is a South Indian script, found particularly in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. In its Pallava script origins, the Grantha script is related to the Tamil and the Vatteluttu scripts. The modern Malayalam script of Kerala is a direct descendant of the Grantha script. The Southeast Asian and Indonesian scripts such as Thai and Javanese respectively, as well as South Asian Tigalari and Sinhala scripts are derived or closely related to the Grantha through the early Pallava script.

Malayalam vowels
Malayalam short and long vowels, followed by
diphthongs, anusvaram and visargam

Stand alone form, diacritical form, and an example word
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Screen Shot 2020-08-04 at 12.02.55 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-04 at 12.08.29 am.png
Note: The archaic diacritical form of the diphthong ഔ au should be െ+ ൌ
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Screen Shot 2020-08-04 at 12.42.29 am.png
An anusvaram (അനുസ്വാരം anusvāram) originally denoted the nasalisation where the preceding vowel was changed into a nasalised vowel, and hence is traditionally treated as a kind of vowel sign. In Malayalam, however, it simply represents a consonant /m/ after a vowel, though this /m/ may be assimilated to another nasal consonant. It is treated as a special consonant, transliterated as ṁ.
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Screen Shot 2020-08-04 at 12.43.04 am.png
A visargam (വിസർഗം, visargam) represents a consonant /h/ after a vowel, and is transliterated as ḥ. Like the anusvara, it is a special symbol, and is never followed by an inherent vowel or another vowel.
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Example syllables formed by adding a diacritic to the consonant ക ka
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Screen Shot 2020-08-04 at 12.57.02 am.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malayalam_script
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Malayalam consonants
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Malayalam consonants
Typeface capitals indicate Unicode names for the graphemes
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Screen Shot 2020-08-04 at 1.14.20 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-04 at 1.15.41 am.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malayalam_script

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Punjabi
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ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
Pañjābī [pʌnˈdʒɑːbi] — Punjabi /pənˈdʒaːbiː/
Gurmukhī script: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ = ਪ p/pə, ਪੰ pañ; ਜ j/jə, ਜਾ jā; ਬ b/bə, ਬੀ bī.
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Shahmukhi script: پن٘جابی
پ ن٘ = پن٘ — pañ
ج ا = جا — jā
ب ی = بی — bī.
Wikipedia wrote:Punjabi, sometimes spelled Panjabi: Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, Shahmukhi: پن٘جابی /pʌnˈdʒɑːbi/, is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 125 million native speakers in the Indian subcontinent and around the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnolinguistic group of the cultural region of Punjab, which encompasses northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the 11th most widely spoken language in India and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian subcontinent.

It is the third most spoken language in the United Kingdom after the native British languages and Polish. It is also the fifth most-spoken native language in Canada after English, French, Mandarin and Cantonese. It is the twenty-sixth most spoken language in the United States, and tenth in Australia...

Punjabi is spoken in many dialects in an area from Delhi to Islamabad. The Majhi dialect has been adopted as standard Punjabi in India and Pakistan for education, media etc. The Majhi dialect originated in the Majha region of the Punjab. The Majha region consists of several eastern districts of the Pakistani Punjab and in India around Amritsar, Gurdaspur, and surrounding districts. The two most important cities in this area are Lahore and Amritsar.

In India, Punjabi is written in the Gurmukhī script in offices, schools, and media. Gurmukhi is the official standard script for Punjabi, though it is often unofficially written in the Latin scripts due to influence from English, India's two primary official languages at the Union-level.

In Pakistan, Punjabi is generally written using the Shahmukhī script, created from a modification of the Persian Nastaʿlīq script. In Pakistan, Punjabi uses technical loan words from Persian and Arabic languages, just like Urdu does.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punjabi_language
Etymology

Lightly edited commentary about the origins of the term Punjab/Panjab:
Punjab is derived from Persian Panj-ābFive Waters, referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors of South Asia and was a translation of the Sanskrit name for the region, Panchanada, which means 'Land of the Five Rivers'.

Panj is cognate with Sanskrit pañca (पञ्च), Greek pénte (πέντε), and Lithuanian penki, all of which meaning 'five'; āb is cognate with Sanskrit áp (अप्) and with the av- of Avon. The historical Punjab region, now divided between India and Pakistan, is defined physiographically by the Indus River and these five tributaries.
Punjabi Gurmukhī script

The Gurmukhī script contains thirty-five base graphemes (akkhar, plural akkharā̃), traditionally arranged in seven rows of five letters each. The first three are mātarā vāhakvowel carrier, are distinct because they form the basis for vowels and are not consonants or vianjan as the others are.
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Screen Shot 2020-08-04 at 12.23.45 pm.png
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Wikipedia wrote: Punjabi Gurmukhī script: ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ [ˈɡʊɾmʊkʰiː] ("Gurmukhī" in Shahmukhi script: گُرمُکھی‎) is an abugida script.

It developed from the Laṇḍā scripts, standardised and used by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad (1504–1552). Commonly regarded as a Sikh script, Gurmukhi is used in Punjab, India as the official script of the Punjabi language.

The primary scripture of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, is written in Gurmukhī, in various dialects and languages often subsumed under the generic title Sant Bhashasaint language, in addition to other languages like Persian and various phases of Indo-Aryan languages.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gurmukhi
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The term Gurmukhī refers to the religious association of the script with Sikhism. It is primarily used by the Guru's followers, Gurmukhs — literally, those who face, or follow, the Guru.
ਗੁਰੂ gurū — guru, teacher
ਮੂੰਹ mūha — mouth
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gurmukhi

Gurmukhī script

Modern Gurmukhī has thirty-five original letters, hence its common alternative term pentīthirty-five, plus six additional consonants, nine vowel diacritics, two diacritics for nasal sounds, one diacritic that geminates consonants and three subscript characters.
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Gurmukhī consonants
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Screen Shot 2020-08-04 at 1.02.24 pm.png
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Gurmukhī vowels
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Stand alone, diacritical form, and syllabic combination with ਕ kə
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Screen Shot 2020-08-04 at 1.05.20 pm.png
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Nasalisation
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tippī and bindī
are used for producing a nasal phoneme ...
All short vowels are nasalised using ṭippī,
and all long vowels are nasalised using bindī
except for dulenkaṛ which uses ṭippi instead.
Gemination
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addhak /'ə́d̪:əkᵊ/
indicates that the following consonant is geminated,
meaning that the consonant is doubled or reinforced.
Consonant length is distinctive in the Punjabi language and the use of this diacritic
can change the meaning of a word, for example:
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Screen Shot 2020-08-04 at 1.30.19 pm.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gurmukhi

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Languages with Official Status in India (Part 1)
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My post ranking world languages with at least 10 million speakers made me realise how
little I knew about many of those languages, including languages quite high up on the list.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=353

In particular, I have been working hard to learn a little about the main languages spoken on
the Indian subcontinent, and to share that information in this thread. My starting point
was the post naming nine of those languages, in their own scripts:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=355

Since then i have added an introductory post for each of those nine languages and their scripts.
Let us now take an overview to help us integrate that information.

Most commonly spoken languages in the Indian states and union territories
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1280px-Language_region_maps_of_India.svg.png
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Languages with Official Status in India
Wikipedia wrote:There are two official languages of India at the union level, namely, Hindi and English.
There are also various official languages at the state/territory level... States within India have the liberty and powers to specify their own official language(s) through legislation. In addition to the official languages, the constitution recognises 22 regional languages, which include Hindi but not English, as scheduled languages,

Business in the Indian parliament can only be transacted in Hindi or in English. English may be used for official purposes such as parliamentary proceedings, judiciary, and communications between the Central Government
and a State Government.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_with_official_status_in_India
Historical note
Wikipedia wrote:The official languages of British India [prior to Independence in 1947] were English, Urdu and Hindi, with English being used for purposes at the central level. The Indian constitution adopted in 1950 envisaged that English would be phased out in favour of Hindi, over a fifteen-year period, but gave Parliament the power to provide for the continued use of English even thereafter. Plans to make Hindi the sole official language of the Republic met with resistance in many parts of the country. English and Hindi continue to be used today, in combination with other... official languages.
The scheduled languages

The Eighth Schedule to the Indian Constitution contains a list of 22 scheduled languages.
They are listed here with the regions where they are widely spoken and used as the state's official language.
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India's Scheduled Languages
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Screen Shot 2020-08-05 at 1.57.06 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-05 at 1.57.42 am.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_with_official_status_in_India
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Languages with Official Status in India (Part 2)
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Let us continue looking at the official languages of India, but now by state and territory.

The Indian states and union territories
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india-map.jpg
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Wikipedia wrote:
Union Territory
संघशासित क्षेत्र / प्रदेसा Sanghaśasita Kṣetra/Pradeśa
Federally administered territory/province )
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India. Unlike the states of India, which have their own governments, union territories are federal territories governed directly by the Central Government of India.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_territory
Official language(s) of each Indian state and union territory
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Screen Shot 2020-08-05 at 2.20.21 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-05 at 2.21.41 am.png
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Note: Rajasthan should be numbered 21, not 22
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_with_official_status_in_India

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Odia
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[Odia (= Oriya) is the most spoken official language of India not yet
discussed in any recent post on this thread. Time to put that right!]

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ଓଡ଼ିଆ
Oṛiā — Odia
Odia/Kalinga script: ଓଡ଼ିଆ = ଓ o; ଡ ḍa, ଡ଼ ṛa [ḍa], ଡ଼ି ṛi [ḍi]; ଆ ā
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ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଲିପି oṛiā ḷipi — Odia script
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Wikipedia wrote:Odia ଓଡ଼ିଆ Oṛiā, formerly known as Oriya, is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian state of Odisha.

It is the official language in Odisha (formerly known as Orissa) where native speakers make up 82% of the population . It is also spoken in parts of the adjacent states of West Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Andhra Pradesh. Odia is the second official language of Jharkhand. The language is also spoken by at least a million people in Chhattisgarh.

Odia is the sixth Indian language to be designated a Classical Language in India, on the basis of having a long literary history and not having borrowed extensively from other languages. The earliest known inscription in Odia dates back to the 10th century CE...

Odia is thought to be directly descended from an Odra Prakrit which was spoken in eastern India over 1,500 years ago, and is the primary language used in early Jain texts. Odia appears to have had relatively little influence from Persian and Arabic, compared to other major North Indian languages...

Modern Odia, from the mid-1800s, benefitted from the first Odia printing typeset, cast in 1836 by Christian missionaries. This contributed to a great resurgence in Odia literature and language.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odia_language
Odisha, formerly known as Orissa

The map of Indian states and territories in the previous post is evidently dated, because it uses the former
name "Orissa" for Orisha.
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500px-IN-OR.svg.png
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Wikipedia wrote:Odisha /ɒˈrɪsə, ɔː-, oʊ-/ ଓରିଶା: [oɽiˈsaː], also formerly Orissa, is an Indian state located on the Eastern India. It neighbours the states of West Bengal and Jharkhand to the north, Chhattisgarh to the west and Andhra Pradesh to the south. Odisha has a coastline of 485 km along the Bay of Bengal. It is the 8th largest state by area, and the 11th largest by population. The state has the third largest population of Scheduled Tribes in India.

The ancient kingdom of Kalinga was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE, and again won back by king Kharavela. The borders of modern-day Odisha define the same historical region. The modern boundaries of Odisha were demarcated by the British Indian government and the "Province of Orissa" was established on 1 April 1936. It consisted of the Odia (Oriya) speaking districts. The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem. Odisha celebrates 1 April is celebrated as Utkala Dibasa [ଉତ୍କଳ ଦିବାସା] — Utkala Day.

Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was the capital under many rulers, through to the end of the British era in 1948. Since then Bhubaneswar has been the capital of Odisha.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odisha
Odia script
The Odia script ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଲିପି oṛiā ḷipi) is a Brahmic script used to write primarily Odia language

Odia is a syllabic alphabet or an abugida wherein all consonants have an inherent vowel embedded within. Diacritics (which can appear above, below, before, or after the consonant they belong to) are used to change the form of the inherent vowel. When vowels appear at the beginning of a syllable, they are written as independent letters. Also, when certain consonants occur together, special conjunct symbols are used to combine the essential parts of each consonant symbol.

The curved appearance of the Odia script is a result of the practice of writing on palm leaves, which have a tendency to tear if you use too many straight lines.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odia_language
Odia vowels and diacritics
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Screen Shot 2020-08-05 at 4.08.51 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-05 at 4.11.40 pm.png
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As in other abugida scripts, Odia consonant letters have an inherent vowel. It is transliterated as ⟨a⟩, phonetic value [ɔ]. Its absence is marked by a halanta (virāma): for instance କ ka with halanta is କ୍ k.
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Vowel diacritics shown in combination with କ ka
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Screen Shot 2020-08-05 at 4.46.21 pm.png
The bracketed entries are "work around" solutions for fonts which don't support the "proper" characters
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Odia consonants
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"Structured" consonants
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Screen Shot 2020-08-05 at 4.24.46 pm.png
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"Unstructured" consonants
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Screen Shot 2020-08-05 at 4.31.12 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-05 at 4.31.54 pm.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odia_script

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Princely States of India
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The stamps of modern India are normally inscribed in Hindi and English, the two official languages of the Republic at the union level. Where are philatelists likely to encounter inscriptions in any of the other languages of India? Most probably, on the stamps and related philatelic items of the princely states of India.

There is already an extensive Stampboards thread on the stamps of the Indian states where many examples are shown and discussed:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=8480&hilit=Indian+states
(I take issue with that thread's title calling them "uglies" — beauty is in the eye of the beholder, and for me even the most rudimentary of them are fascinating, character-filled, unpretentious, ephemeral records of the resources available for their creation.)

Some posts about stationery items are in another thread, at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=60266&p=6764362&hilit=Indian+states#top

In the present Stamps and Languages thread it will be appropriate to look at a few relevant philatelic items from the linguistic viewpoint, to complement the mainly philatelic discussions in those other threads. You will surely understand and appreciate the philatelic items better if you understand their inscriptions and the cultural context in which they were used.

Example: What do you know of the cultural and linguistic context in which these revenue stamps were used?
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.<br />Chhota Udepur, court fee revenue stamps
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Chhota Udepur, court fee revenue stamps
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The Indian princely states
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The princely states, often referred to in philatelic literature as feudatory states, less often as native states, were political entities that comprised a quarter of the population of pre-Independence India, and two-fifths of its area. Collectively they issued a great number of stamps and stationery items, not to mention documents and related ephemera, arguably constituting one of the most engaging fields of Indian philately.
Wikipedia wrote: A princely state, also called a native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or indigenous or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state specifically refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. The imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary.

At the time of British withdrawal, 565 princely states were officially recognised in the Indian subcontinent, apart from thousands of zamindari(*) estates and jagirs(**). In 1947, princely states covered 40% of the area of pre-independence India and constituted 23% of its population. The most important states had their own British Residencies: Hyderabad of the Nizams, Mysore and Travancore in the South followed by Jammu and Kashmir, and Sikkim in the Himalayas, and Indore in Central India.

The most prominent among the states — roughly a quarter of the total — had the status of a salute state, one whose ruler was entitled to be saluted by a set number of guns on ceremonial occasions. The princely states varied greatly in status, size, and wealth; the premier 21-gun salute states of Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir were each over 200,000 sqkm in size. In 1941, Hyderabad had a population of over 16 million, while Jammu and Kashmir had a population of slightly over 4 million. At the other end of the scale, the non-salute principality of Lawa covered an area of 49 sqkm, with a population of just below 3,000. Some two hundred of the lesser states even had an area of less than 25 sqkm.

The era of the princely states effectively ended with Indian Independence in 1947. By 1950, almost all of the principalities had acceded to either India or Pakistan. The accession process was largely peaceful, except in the cases of Jammu and Kashmir (whose ruler opted for independence but decided to accede to India following an invasion by Pakistan-based forces), Hyderabad State (whose ruler opted for independence in 1947, followed a year later by the police action and annexation of the state by India), Junagarh (whose ruler acceded to Pakistan, but was annexed by India), and Kalat (whose ruler declared independence in 1947, followed in 1948 by the state's accession to Pakistan).

As per the terms of accession, the erstwhile Indian princes received privy purses (government allowances), and initially retained their statuses, privileges, and autonomy in internal matters during a transitional period which lasted until 1956. During this time, the former princely states were merged into unions, each of which was headed by a former ruling prince with the title of Rajpramukh (ruling chief), equivalent to a state governor. In 1956, the position of Rajpramukh was abolished and the federations dissolved, the former principalities becoming part of Indian states. The states which acceded to Pakistan retained their status until the promulgation of a new constitution in 1956, when most became part of the province of West Pakistan. A few of the former states retained their autonomy until 1969 when they were fully integrated into Pakistan. The Indian Government formally derecognised the princely families in 1971, followed by the Government of Pakistan in 1972.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princely_state
(*) Note: zamindar [Hindi: ज़मींदार]: a feudal landlord in British India paying the government a fixed revenue.
(**) jagir [jāgīr] [Hindi: जागीर]: a type of feudal land grant in the Indian subcontinent. The land grant was called iqta, usually for a holder's lifetime. The land reverted to the state upon the death of the jagirdar.
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.<br />The Nawab of Junagarh, Bahadur Khan III (seated centre in an ornate chair), shown in an 1885 photograph with state officials and family.
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The Nawab of Junagarh, Bahadur Khan III (seated centre in an ornate chair), shown in an 1885 photograph with state officials and family.
F. Nelson (British Library)
http://ogimages.bl.uk/images/019/019PHO0000002S6U00066000%5BSVC2%5D.jpg
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/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Chhota Udepur court fee stamps
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Chhota Udepur (now more usually Chhota Udaipur) is a small former princely state, within the modern state of Gujarat. The principal languages used in the princely state were Gujurati, Hindi and English.

A lightly edited extract from Wikipedia:
Chhota Udaipur lies in the heart of a Rathwa tribal area with rich indigenous history and culture. (The Rathwa are an adivasiindigenous tribal community mostly living in the state of Gujarat.) Chhota Udaipur town sits on the edge of a large lake, with a series of temples along the skyline. Every Saturday there is a tribal market which is a hub for local artisans.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chhota_Udaipur_district
Court fee stamps

Let's revisit the court fee stamps shown in the previous post (a group currently on eBay) to look at their inscriptions.
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s-l1600-1.jpg

The state name and face value of each stamp are shown in English and Gujarati.
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Gujarati inscriptions

Gujarati script was discussed in this thread at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=373


છોટા ઉદેપુર સ્ટેટ
chhōṭā udēpura sṭēṭa
Chhota Udepur State


The numeral names:
એક બે ત્રણ ચાર પાંચ છ સાત આઠ નવ દસ
ēka bē traṇa chāra pān̄cha chha sāta āṭha nava dasa
one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten


The units of currency:
અન્ના, રૂપીયા ર r + ૂ ū = રૂ rū
annā, rūpīyā
anna(s), rupee(s)
અન્ના : અ a; ન્ n + ન્ n = ન્ન nn, ન્ન nn + ા ā = ન્ના nnā
રૂપીયા : ર r + ૂ ū = રૂ rū; પ p + ી ī = પી pī; ય y + ા ā = યા yā

Hindi inscriptions
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The Maharajah of Chhota Udaipur is shown on each of the stamps, within a circular frame giving his title in Hindi (outer circle) and English (inner circle). Below the circle is the name of the state, in Hindi.

Screen Shot 2020-08-06 at 10.49.33 pm.png


Hindi inscriptions

Hindi script was discussed in this thread in numerous posts, such as a group beginning at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=100


माहा रावल श्री नटवर सिंहजी माहाराजा
māhā-rāval shrī natavar māhārājā
Maharawal Shri Natwar Sinhji Maharaja


छोटाउदेपुर
chhotāudepur
Chhota Udepur

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Chhota Udepur again

Another revenue stamp from Chhota Udepur

The inscriptions on this stamp (the value in Gujarati, the Maharaja's title and the state name in Hindi) are fully discussed in the previous post.

s-l1600-1.jpg


The state name Chhota Udepur

The Gujarati name છોટા ઉદેપુરChhota Udepur distinguishes the city from the very much larger city Udaipur in neighbouring Rajastan.
છોટા chhōṭā — small
છોટા ઉદેપુર Chhōṭā Udēpura — "Udepur Minor" (my suggested translation)


Modern Chhota Udepur

The name of the princely state Chhota Udepur (Chhota Udaipur) છોટા ઉદેપુર Chhōṭā Udēpura is today also the name of the city Chhota Udaipur, a municipality in Chhota Udaipur district in the state of Gujarat, India.
Wikipedia wrote: The district of Chhota Udaipur (also Chhota Udepur) was carved out of the Vadodara district on 26 January 2013(*)...

The district was created to facilitate decentralisation and ease of access to government services. Its creation, announced in the run up to the Assembly elections in Gujarat in 2012, was also seen by the media and political analysts as a government strategy to attract tribal votes...

Chhota Udaipur district shares its borders with the state of Madhya Pradesh. It has a forest area of 75,704 hectares and has deposits of dolomite, fluorite, granite and sand, all of which are mined. The district is also home to a large dairy industry.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chhota_Udaipur_district
(*)Note: 26 January is celebrated as Republic Day in India. It commemorates the date on which the Constitution of India came into effect: 26 January 1950.

Udaipur, Rajastan
Wikipedia wrote:Udaipur, also known as the "City of Lakes" is a city in the state of Rajasthan in India. It is the historic capital of the kingdom of Mewar in the former Rajputana Agency. It was founded in 1558 by Udai Singh II of the Sisodia clan of Rajput, when he shifted his capital from the city of Chittorgarh to Udaipur after Chittorgarh was besieged by Akbar. It remained as the capital city till 1818 when it became a British princely state, and thereafter the Mewar province became a part of Rajasthan when India gained independence in 1947.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Udaipur
Revenue stamps of Mewar Udaipur

A Mewar Udaipur document bearing five Court Fee stamps with face value 2 annas:


s-l1600-4.jpg

Hindi inscription

कोर्ट फी
[kōrṭ phī] — "court fee"
Here is an approximate Hindi transcription of the title above the ruler's head — I don't have the diacritic under ङ ṅa quite right.
श्री एक लिङुजी
I was also not able to get a clear Hindi transcription of the text below the ruler's head.

I wonder if Joy Daschaudhuri would like to come to our rescue with accurate transcriptions of those Hindi texts, and an appropriate translation. If so, any further comments would also help us understand these revenues better.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

RogerE, I hope that you are pleased with the almost simultaneous expression of Finnish, Swedish and English language translations in my Finnish stamps threads. Within the next 3 weeks, I will start a Gibraltar, Malta and Greek stamp set of thread with multiple translations.

I would love to say that I mam, extremely conversant, knowledgable of any of them. I am sad to admit that the producers of the year books do produce an English accompanyment, otherwise I would be totally al mare,
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

RogerE, I hope that you are pleased with the almost simultaneous expression of Finnish, Swedish and English language translations in my Finnish stamps threads. Within the next 3 weeks, I will start a Gibraltar, Malta and Greek stamp set of threads with multiple translations.

I would love to say that I am, extremely conversant, knowledgable of any of them. I am sad to admit that the producers of the year books do produce an English accompaniment, otherwise I would be totally al mare,
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Mewar 1930 2A K&M 201a Court Fee Stamp

Post by Joy Daschaudhuri »

RogerE wrote:
07 Aug 2020 18:00
Revenue stamps of Mewar Udaipur

A Mewar Udaipur document bearing five Court Fee stamps with face value 2 annas:


Image

Hindi inscription


Here is an approximate Hindi transcription of the title above the ruler's head — I don't have the diacritic under ङ ṅa quite right.
श्री एक लिङुजी
I was also not able to get a clear Hindi transcription of the text below the ruler's head.

I wonder if Joy Daschaudhuri would like to come to our rescue with accurate transcriptions of those Hindi texts, and an appropriate translation. If so, any further comments would also help us understand these revenues better.

/RogerE :D
The Devnagari inscription above the image of Bhopalsinh Fatehsinh Shishodiya (1884–1955):

श्री एकलिङ्गजी (Śhrī Ekliṅgjī)

श्री (Śhrī) is a masculine honorific.

जी (Jī) is also an honorific but used as a suffix after a given name.

एकलिङ्ग (Ekliṅg) is the presiding deity of the ruling Shishodiya Dynasty of Mewar state.
Officially, the entire state of Mewar was the property of Lord Ekliṅg and the Śhishodiya rulers governed the Mewar state as the subservient custodian on behalf of Lord Ekliṅg.

एक (Ek) means one.
लिङ्ग (Liṅg) means phallus of Lord Ekliṅg (another name of Lord Śhiv), which is the symbol of creation of the universe in Sanātan Dharma, also known as Hinduism.

Here are the images of the exterior and interior of the Ekliṅgjī Mandir in Kailāśhpurī, now in Udaypur district of Rajasthan state.

IMG_20200807_135340.jpg
IMG_20200807_135230.jpg
IMG_20200807_135308.jpg

The panel below the denomination, shows the official motto of Mewar state in Devnagari. The language is Mewāṛī, not Hindī. ☹️

Transcription

जो दृढ़ रकखे धर्म को. तिहिं रकखे करतार।

Transliteration

Jo Dṛiṛha Rakkhe Dharma Ko Tihĩ Rakkhe Kartār

Translation

The Almighty protects those who stand steadfast in upholding righteousness.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Joy Daschaudhuri »

Note for RogerE:
Call me only Joy.
I am he and my first name is of Indian origin, not English.

https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?p=4100238#p4100238

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Joy for your prompt and detailed response to my wish for expert input on the Mewar Udaipur court fee revenue stamps. Now we know the language of the Devanagari inscriptions is Mewāṛī(*), not Hindi; we have the correct transcriptions; we have their translations; we know a little about their religious significance; and we have been shown the Ekliṅgjī Mandir in Kailāśhpurī, in Rajasthan's Udaipur district(**). This has opened up a window into the cultural context of the people and the era.
(*)This is a useful reminder that the Devanagari script is used for several Indian languages, not only Hindi.
(**) A few years ago I spent several days in Jaipur, but did not manage to travel as far west as Udaipur.


You also referred us to the post on another thread:
Joy Daschaudhuri wrote: Joy is the nearest phonetical transliteration of the Bangla word জয় (a masculine noun) which is a derivative of the Sanskritam word जयः [Jayah] meaning 'victory'. The same word in Hindi is transliterated as Jay.
That is useful information for those who read this thread, thank you. May I point out that I have never attributed incorrect gender to your name, and also that while I'm happy to use 'Joy' to address you, I use your full Stampboards member name when referring to you indirectly. That is appropriate protocol. Readers of this post might like to check out a relevant earlier post I made in this thread, at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=63


/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Devanagari script

I've been reminded by several recent posts that although I made earlier posts in this thread on Hindi and the Devanagari script, I have not yet made a detailed post on that script comparable to recent posts on the scripts of several other major languages of India. Let's correct that oversight now.

देवनागरी
Devanāgarī
देवनागरी = द d/də, दे de; व v/və; न n/nə, ना nā; ग g/gə; र r/rə, री rī


Devanagari script
Wikipedia wrote:Devanagari /ˌdeɪvəˈnɑːɡəri/ DAY-və-NAH-gər-ee; देवनागरी [Devanāgarī], also called Nagari नागरी [Nāgarī] is a left-to-right abugida (alphasyllabary) based on the ancient Brāhmī script, used in the Indian subcontinent. It was developed in ancient India from the 1st to 4th century CE and was in regular use by the 7th century CE.

The Devanagari script, composed of 47 primary characters including 14 vowels and 33 consonants, is the fourth most widely adopted writing system in the world, being used for over 120 languages. The orthography of this script reflects the pronunciation of the language. Unlike the Latin [Roman] alphabet, the script has no distinction corresponding to upper and lower case. It is written from left to right, has a strong preference for symmetrical rounded shapes within squared outlines and is recognisable by a horizontal line that runs along the top of full letters(*).

In a cursory look, the Devanagari script appears different from other Indic scripts such as Bengali, Odia or Gurmukhi, but a closer examination reveals they are very similar except for angles and structural emphasis.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devanagari

(*) Note: The upper line that links the letters and diacritics of a word in Brahmic scripts is called शिरोरेखा [śirorekʰā] /ʃɪɾoːɾeːkʰaː/ in Hindi. It is a characteristic feature of scripts like Devanagari, Gurmukhi and Eastern Nagari. It comes from Sanskrit: शिरो [śiro] — upper, top, head (Hindi: सिर [sir] — head) and रेखा [rekʰā] — line, stroke (Hindi: लकीर [lakīr] line). Hence शिरोरेखा [śirorekʰā] — upper stroke, head line.

Indic scripts share common features,
such as syllable formation by consonant plus vowel diacritic

.
Screen Shot 2020-08-08 at 2.59.35 am.png


Wide use of Devanagari script
Among the languages using Devanagari script — as either their only script or one of their scripts — are Marathi, Pāḷi, Sanskrit(*), Hindi, Nepali, Sherpa, Prakrit, Apabhramsha, Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Braj Bhasha, Chhattisgarhi, Haryanvi, Magahi, Nagpuri, Rajasthani, Bhili, Dogri, Maithili, Kashmiri, Konkani, Sindhi, Bodo, Nepalbhasa, Mundari and Santali. The Devanagari script is closely related to the Nandinagari script commonly found in numerous ancient manuscripts of South India, and it is distantly related to a number of southeast Asian scripts.
(*) Note: The ancient Nagari script for Sanskrit had two additional consonantal characters.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devanagari


Devanagari vowels and diacritics

Diacritics are shown alone, and combined with प p/pə
.
Screen Shot 2020-08-08 at 1.34.42 am.png


A vowel combines with a consonant in its diacritic form. For example, the vowel आ (ā) combines with the consonant क् (k) to form the syllable का (kā), with haland removed and added vowel sign which is indicated by diacritics. The consonant series क, ख, ग, घ ... (ka, kha, ga, gha) is without any added vowel sign, as the vowel अ (a) is inherent.
Diacritics with क k/kə
.
Screen Shot 2020-08-08 at 1.41.32 am.png
.
Screen Shot 2020-08-08 at 1.42.35 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-08 at 1.43.30 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-08 at 1.44.10 am.png


Diacritics for foreign phonemes
Where foreign borrowings and internal developments did inevitably accrue and arise in New Indo-Aryan languages, they have been ignored in writing, or dealt through means such as diacritics and ligatures (ignored in recitation).
• The most prolific diacritic has been the subscript dot (nuqtā) ़. Hindi uses it for the Persian, Arabic and English sounds क़ qa /q/, ख़ xa /x/, ग़ ġa /ɣ/, ज़ za /z/, झ़ zha /ʒ/, and फ़ fa /f/, and for the allophonic developments ड़ ṛa /ɽ/ and ढ़ ṛha /ɽʱ/.
• Sindhi's and Saraiki's implosives are accommodated with a line attached below: ॻ [ɠə], ॼ [ʄə], ॾ [ɗə], ॿ [ɓə].
• Aspirated sonorants may be represented as conjuncts/ligatures with ह ha: म्ह mha, न्ह nha, ण्ह ṇha, व्ह vha, ल्ह lha, ळ्ह ḷha, र्ह rha.
• Marwari uses ॸ for ḍa [ɗə] and uses ड for ɽa [ɽə].
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devanagari


Devanagari consonants

Screen Shot 2020-08-08 at 1.37.10 am.png


Devanagari consonant ligatures and conjuncts
.
• 24 out of the 36 consonants contain a vertical right stroke (ख kha, घ gha, ण ṇa etc.). As first or middle fragments/members of a cluster, they lose that stroke. e.g. त + व = त्व tva, ण + ढ = ण्ढ ṇḍha, स + थ = स्थ stha. In Unicode, these consonants without their vertical stems are called half forms.
• श ś(a) appears as a different, simple ribbon-shaped fragment preceding व va, न na, च ca, ल la, and र ra, causing these second members to be shifted down and reduced in size. Thus श्व śva, श्न śna, श्च śca श्ल śla, and श्र śra.
• र r(a) as a first member takes the form of a curved upward dash above the final character or its ā-diacritic. e.g. र्व rva, र्वा rvā, र्स्प rspa, र्स्पा rspā. As a final member with ट ṭa ठ ṭha ड ḍa ढ ḍha ड़ ṛa छ cha it is two lines below the character, pointed downwards and apart. Thus ट्र ṭra ठ्र ṭhra ड्र ḍra ढ्र ḍhra ड़्र ṛra छ्र chra. Elsewhere as a final member it is a diagonal stroke extending leftwards and down. e.g. क्र ग्र भ्र ब्र. त ta is shifted up to make त्र tra.
• As first members, remaining characters lacking vertical strokes such as द d(a) and ह h(a) may have their second member, reduced in size and lacking its horizontal stroke, placed underneath. क k(a), छ ch(a), and फ ph(a) shorten their right hooks and join them directly to the following member.
• The conjuncts for kṣ and jñ are not clearly derived from the letters making up their components. The conjunct for kṣ is क्ष (क् + ष) and for jñ it is ज्ञ (ज् + ञ).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devanagari
/RogerE :D
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Transliteration and Transcription

Let's think about transliteration and transcription, both relevant to this thread. First notice that each of these actions stays within the context of the source language, whereas translation moves from the source language to a target language. With transliteration, text in the source script is converted to text in another script, in a way which is intended to faithfully represent the original source text, so that a reverse trans-literation should be able to take the final text and use it to accurately recover the source text in its original script. With transcription, or more explicitly, phonetic transcription, text in the source language is converted to text in a phonetic script, intended to faithfully represent the spoken version of the source text. If read aloud, the transcription is intended to faithfully represent the way a native speaker would read aloud the original source text.
Wikipedia wrote:Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves substituting letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways, such as Greek ⟨α⟩ → ⟨a⟩, Cyrillic ⟨д⟩ → ⟨d⟩, Greek ⟨χ⟩ → the digraph ⟨ch⟩, Armenian ⟨ն⟩ → ⟨n⟩ or Latin ⟨æ⟩ → ⟨ae⟩.

For instance, for the Modern Greek term "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία", which is usually translated as "Hellenic Republic", the usual transliteration to Latin [Roman] script is ⟨Ellēnikḗ Dēmokratía⟩. The name for Russia in Cyrillic script, "Россия", is usually transliterated as ⟨Rossija⟩.

Transliteration is not primarily concerned with representing the sounds of the original but rather with representing the characters, ideally accurately and unambiguously. Thus, in the Greek above example, ⟨λλ⟩ is transliterated ⟨ll⟩ though it is pronounced [ l ], ⟨Δ⟩ is transliterated ⟨D⟩ though pronounced [ ð ], and ⟨η⟩ is transliterated ⟨ē⟩, though it is pronounced [ i ], exactly like ⟨ι⟩, and is not long.

[On the other hand] transcription notes the sounds rather than the orthography of a text. So "Ελληνική Δημοκρατία" could be transcribed as [elinikí ðimokratía], which does not specify which of the [ i ] sounds are written with the Greek letter ⟨η⟩ and which with ⟨ι⟩.

Angle brackets may be used to set off transliteration, as opposed to slashes and square brackets for phonetic transcription.

Angle brackets may also be used for the set of characters in the original script. Conventions and author preferences vary.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transliteration
Generally, transliterating a language from one script to another, or transcribing it in a phonetic script, are serious undertakings, not to be undertaken lightly or without considerable knowledge, experience and careful developmental work. How apt is the target script? Can it be reproduced readily by letterpress or typographically or electronically? Does it really represent the full range of graphemes or phonemes, as required? Is it unambiguous? Is it graphically elegant? Is it robust, so that two different people will produce the same end-product from a given initial text? And so on.


International Phonetic Alphabet = IPA

In 1886 the French linguist Paul Passy, with a group of French and British language teachers, initiated work to create a phonetic alphabet. From 1897 the group adopted the name l'Association phonétique internationale (the International Phonetic Association). Their original alphabet was based on the Romic alphabet, a proposed spelling reform for English. Eventually the character set was modified and extended to represent, in principle, every phoneme in any human language. Today that is the International Phonetic Alphabet.
Wikipedia wrote:The International Phonetic Alphabet = IPA is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin [Roman] alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardised representation of the sounds of spoken language.

The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, linguists, speech-language pathologists, singers, actors, constructed language creators and translators.

The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes, intonation and the separation of words and syllables...

IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics. The sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ , for example, may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter [t], or with a letter plus diacritic, such as [t̺ʰ], depending on how precise one wishes to be. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Thus /t/ is less specific than [t̺ʰ] or [t], , and could refer to either, depending on the context and language.

Occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association (*). As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Phonetic_Alphabet
(*) Footnote: Extensions to the IPA for speech pathology were created in 1990. In 1994 they were adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association.


Transliteration of Indian languages which use Devanagari script

Several adaptations of the Latin [Roman] alphabet have been devised for transliteration of Devanagari script. Their use is sometimes called romanisation. The most important and most used of these is the lossless IAST notation.
Wikipedia wrote: International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration = IAST is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romaniSation of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that emerged during the nineteenth century from suggestions by Charles Trevelyan, William Jones, Monier Monier-Williams and other scholars, and formalised by the Transliteration Committee of the Geneva Oriental Congress, in September 1894. IAST makes it possible for the reader to read the Indic text unambiguously, exactly as if it were in the original Indic script. It is this faithfulness to the original scripts that accounts for its continuing popularity amongst scholars.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Alphabet_of_Sanskrit_Transliteration
.
Devanagari characters and corresponding IAST characters


Devanagari vowels (stand alone and diacritic forms) and codas
.
Screen Shot 2020-08-08 at 9.28.10 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-08 at 9.29.03 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-08 at 10.45.24 pm.png


Devanagari consonants
.
Screen Shot 2020-08-08 at 9.30.49 pm.png


The diacritics used for IAST allow capitalisation. The capital variants of letters never occurring word-initially (Ṇ Ṅ Ñ Ṝ) are useful only when writing in all-caps.

Transliteration examples: Devanagari script to IAST
Let us take texts from https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=384

श्री एकलिङ्गजी
Diacritics —> separated ligatures, stand-alone vowels —> IAST
श्री —> श र ई —> ś r ī —> śrī
एकलिङ्गजी —> ए क ल इ ङ् ग ज ई —> e k l i ṅ g j ī —> ekliṅgjī
Capitalised IAST text
Śrī Ekliṅgjī
___________________________
.
जो दृढ़ रकखे धर्म को. तिहिं रकखे करतार।
Diacritics —> separated ligatures, stand-alone vowels —> IAST characters
जो —> ज ओ —> j o —> jo
दृढ़ —> द ऋ ढ़ अ —> d ṛi ṛh a —> dṛiṛha
रकखे —> र अ क ख ए —> r a k kh e —> rakkhe
धर्म —> ध अ र् म अ —> dh a r m a —> dharma
को —> क ओ —> k o —> ko
तिहिं —> त इ ह इ ँ —> t i h i ˜ —> tihĩ
करतार —> क अ र त आ र —> k a r t ā r —> kartār
Capitalised IAST characters
Jo dṛiṛha rakkhe Dharma ko,
Tihĩ rakkhe kartār.

___________________________
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

RogerE, please keep up this thread. I have learnt so much about language in general, although I have to admit you have lost me in the languages of India and Asia.I freely admit, that my schooling was inadequate but my immersion in stamps of the Baltic has been an eye and brain opener. Wait until we get to Estonia( Essti) and Latvia(Latvija) but sadly not Lieutiva(Lithuania for Anglophiles) The cruises did not get that far.

What I most like about language, is the ability to sit in a resturaunt and order food and wine in something like ability or more correctly an approximation of the local language. I can do it in German/French and Italian. Thank goodness in VietNam, the menus had and English print.
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Stewie1980 »

Waffle wrote:
09 Aug 2020 17:29
RogerE, please keep up this thread. I have learnt so much about language in general, although I have to admit you have lost me in the languages of India and Asia.I freely admit, that my schooling was inadequate but my immersion in stamps of the Baltic has been an eye and brain opener. Wait until we get to Estonia( Essti) and Latvia(Latvija) but sadly not Lieutiva(Lithuania for Anglophiles) The cruises did not get that far.
Looks like you have been lost in Baltic languages too... ;)

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by turtle-bienhoa »

Waffle wrote:
09 Aug 2020 17:29
Thank goodness in Vietnam, the menus had and English print.
:lol: :lol: :lol:
Searching for musical instruments, Lions International, Rotary International, the sport of cricket, round and triangular stamps, and PIGS. OINK!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Prosody — a linguistic category

Prompted by the latest comments on this thread, I intend to add some posts about Vietnamese. One of the characteristics of Vietnamese is that it is a tonal language, and its romanised script incorporates diacritics which indicate the tone of each syllable/word. In preparation for discussing the tones, an indispensable part of the script and the spoken language, I need to set the context. Let us briefly consider some relevant linguistic concepts, which come under the general category of prosody.


Suprasegmental elements of language

The phonemes of a language are the sound elements used to form the words of that language. But the phonemes alone do not tell everything about how the language is spoken. Correct pronunciation in English requires appropriate stress on the main syllable of a polysyllabic word, and perhaps the correct placement of secondary stress if there are sufficiently many syllables. A rising tone at the end of a sentence in spoken English usually indicates a question, while slowing down the pace of a sentence may serve to build anticipation and excitement in the telling of a story. Such linguistic features are called suprasegmentals, because they apply to whole syllables, words or even sentences, not the phonemes themselves. To make a chemical analogy, the phonemes are like elements, whereas syllables, words and sentences are like molecules and compounds: suprasegmentals are like properties of the molecules and compounds, not of the component elements.
Wikipedia wrote:In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm. Such elements are known as suprasegmentals.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prosody_(linguistics)
.
What are the various suprasegmental types?
There is no agreed number of prosodic variables. In auditory terms, the major variables are:
• the pitch of the voice (varying between low and high)
• length of sounds (varying between short and long)
• loudness, or prominence (varying between soft and loud)
• timbre or voice quality (quality of sound)
The objective physical basis for each of these variables can be described as follows:
In acoustic terms, these correspond reasonably closely to:
• fundamental frequency (measured in hertz, or cycles per second)
• duration (measured in time units such as milliseconds or seconds)
• intensity, or sound pressure level (measured in decibels)
• spectral characteristics (distribution of energy at different parts of the audible frequency range)
A clear function of suprasegmentals is to assist in conveying information clearly.
It is believed that prosody assists listeners in parsing continuous speech and in the recognition of words, providing cues to syntactic structure, grammatical boundaries and sentence type. Boundaries between intonation units are often associated with grammatical or syntactic boundaries; these are marked by such prosodic features as pauses and slowing of tempo, as well as "pitch reset" where the speaker's pitch level returns to the level typical of the onset of a new intonation unit. In this way potential ambiguities may be resolved.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prosody_(linguistics)


Tone
Wikipedia wrote:Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning — that is, to distinguish or to inflect words. All verbal languages use pitch to express emotional and other paralinguistic information and to convey emphasis, contrast, and other such features in what is called intonation, but not all languages use tones to distinguish words or their inflections, analogously to consonants and vowels.
In a tonal language the tone is an intrinsic characteristic of a syllable or word, and there exist pairs of spoken words which have distinct meanings but phonically differ only in the tone with which they are pronounced.
Most languages use pitch as intonation to convey prosody ... but this does not make them tonal languages. In tonal languages each syllable has an inherent pitch contour, and thus minimal pairs (or larger minimal sets) exist between syllables with the same segmental features (consonants and vowels) but different tones.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tone_(linguistics)

Extreme phrases or sentences have been constructed in tonal languages to play with their tonal features. For example, a Vietnamese "tongue twister" playing with tone distinctions of the language is
Bấy nay bây bày bảy bẫy bậy.
IPA: [ɓʌ̌i̯ nai̯ ɓʌi̯ ɓʌ̂i̯ ɓa᷉i̯ ɓʌ̌ˀi̯ ɓʌ̂ˀi̯]
Translation: 'All along you've set up the seven traps incorrectly!'
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by turtle-bienhoa »

Here's another story with all syllables beginning with "b", let alone a sentence, still having the dark humor theme:

Story:
Bà Bình béo bán bún bò, bánh bèo, bánh bao, bánh bò bên bờ bùng binh bên bãi biển . Bà bị bắn bể bụng bởi bồ Bảo "bắn bìu". Bảo "bắn bìu" bảo bồ bắn Bà Bình béo bởi bánh bao bả bưng bị bể, bởi bả bể bẫy bắt ba ba Bảo. Bả bực, bỏ bán bún bò, bánh bèo, bánh bao, bánh bò.

Translation:
Fat Lady Binh sells beef vermicelli, bánh bèo, dumplings, and bánh bò on the beachside roundabout. She was shot in her stomach by "dickhead-shooter" Bảo's girlfriend. "Dickhead-shooter" Bảo told his girlfriend to shoot fat Lady Binh because the dumplings she brought to him were broken, and she broke his softshell turtle trap. Gotten mad, she quit selling beef noodles, banh beo, dumplings, and beef cakes.


END OF STORY.


P/S: I think that the IPA in the previous post should be three IPAs, coresponding to the three main diferent accents of Vietnam.
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Well, I don't blame that lady for quitting after that treatment!

Let's remember that posts in this thread are intended to help readers learn, so explaining added information as clearly as possible, rather than including unexplained comments, needs to be encouraged.

So, turtle-bienhoa, it would be helpful if you would clarify your remark: "I think that the IPA in the previous post should be three IPAs, corresponding to the three main different accents of Vietnam." Your expertise would be very welcome.

(Please take the role of the good teacher, not the class "clever clogs".)

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Suprasegmental — revisited

Meanwhile, there has been a post about "suprasegmental" in the Happy Day thread, where a rather unhelpful dictionary definition was cited. Dictionary definitions can be notoriously abstruse. Better dictionaries include examples which illuminate the definition. Encyclopedic dictionaries usually do better, and encyclopedias usually do better still.

An example of a discussion which makes a better effort to clarify and explain is the following quote from Encyclopedia Britannica:
Suprasegmental, also called prosodic feature, in phonetics, a speech feature such as stress, tone, or word juncture that accompanies or is added over consonants and vowels; these features are not limited to single sounds but often extend over syllables, words, or phrases. In Spanish the stress accent is often used to distinguish between otherwise identical words: término means “term,” termíno means “I terminate,” and terminó means “he terminated.” In Mandarin Chinese, tone is a distinctive suprasegmental: shih pronounced on a high, level note means “to lose”; on a slight rising note means “ten”; on a falling note means “city, market”; and on a falling–rising note means “history”(*). English “beer dripped” and “beard ripped” are distinguished by word juncture.
https://www.britannica.com/topic/suprasegmental
(*) Note: the Mandarin examples refer to the tones standardly classified as the first, second, third and fourth tone, respectively.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Vietnamese

Vietnamese now mostly uses a script based on the Latin [Roman] alphabet. This romanised script is known as chữ quốc ngữNational language script. In earlier times Vietnamese was written in a script using Chinese characters (chữ hán) for Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary and an adapted set of characters for purely Vietnamese vocabulary.

.<br />Vietnam (South), 1955, Turtle set of three stamps
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Vietnam (South), 1955, Turtle set of three stamps


Introduction of a romanised Vietnamese script
.
Modern romanised script used for Vietnamese is based on the Portuguese alphabet, with some digraphs and the addition of nine diacritics — four of them to create sounds, and the other five to indicate tone. These diacritics, often two on the same vowel, are a characteristic of written Vietnamese distinguishing it from romanised scripts for other languages in the region.
Encyclopedia Britannica wrote: The Vietnamese language script chữ quốc ngữ was devised in the mid 17th century by Portuguese missionaries who modified the Roman alphabet with accents and signs to suit the particular consonants, vowels, and tones of Vietnamese. It was further modified by a French missionary, Alexandre de Rhodes. At first used only in Vietnamese Christian communities, it was made compulsory by the French administration in 1910. It is now universally used in Vietnam and is the official writing system.
https://www.britannica.com/topic/Quoc-ngu
.
The six tones of Vietnamese Quốc ngữ
.
• The name of each tone is pronounced in its own tone.
• The contour of each tone is described and diagrammatically represented by one, two or three characters, each comprising a horizontal stroke (representing pitch) and a vertical stroke (a duration end-marker). These characters are suprasegmentals.
• The [English] name of the diacritic used to denote the tone. For the diacritic itself see the name of the tone.

Screen Shot 2020-08-09 at 10.46.59 pm.png
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The 12 vowels, with the tone diacritics.
,
Screen Shot 2020-08-09 at 10.48.04 pm.png
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The individual letters of Chữ quốc ngữ
.
• The 29 letters, in upper and lower case.
• The names of the letters in Quốc ngữ.
• IPA pronunciation of the names of the letters, in Hanoi [northern] and Saigon [southern] "accents", with suprasegmental symbols included to denote the tone of the name.
.
Screen Shot 2020-08-09 at 10.56.45 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-11 at 11.33.17 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-09 at 10.59.02 pm.png
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The consonant graphemes of Chữ quốc ngữ
.
• The 27 consonant graphemes, in upper and lower case.
• IPA pronunciation of each grapheme in word-initial position, northern and southern "accents".
• IPA pronunciation of each grapheme in word-final position, northern and southern "accents".
.
Screen Shot 2020-08-11 at 11.34.59 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-11 at 11.35.23 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-08-11 at 11.36.10 pm.png
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnamese_alphabet
.
(Because the pronunciation of the graphemes is not independent of their position in a word, and is not generally the pronunciation of the component letters taken separately, the orthography is not truly phonetic. Its depth is intermediate — of similar depth to Portuguese, the "source" of the script, and definitely not nearly as deep as English orthography, for example.)
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by turtle-bienhoa »

Adding more information:

1. The adapted set of characters for purely Vietnamese vocabulary is called "chữ nôm".

2. And for the inventor of chữ quốc ngữ (Alexandre de Rhodes), here's some information from Wikipedia:
Alexandre de Rhodes, S.J. (15 March 1591 – 5 November 1660) was an Avignonese Jesuit missionary and lexicographer who had a lasting impact on Christianity in Vietnam. He developed an early Vietnamese alphabet based on work by earlier Portuguese missionaries such as Gaspar do Amaral, António Barbosa and Francisco de Pina. De Rhodes compiled a catechism, Phép giảng tám ngày, and a trilingual dictionary and grammar, Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum.
Image


Philatelic appearances: Alexandre de Rhodes was commemorated on 8 stamps, 2 during French Indochina times, 2 same as the previous but with an overprint and a series of 4 issued by South Vietnam on September 5th, 1961.
Image


Image


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Image
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

In the thread about Corona Virus stamps there is a recent post showing a slogan cancel from Kolkata:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=89900&start=211
.
Screen Shot 2020-08-12 at 1.19.39 am.png
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This reminds us that at the national level, India's two administrative languages are Hindi and English.
It gives us another opportunity to exercise our ability to read the Devanagari script:
.
कोरोना कोविद 19 से बचें
koronā kovid 19 se baceṃ [c = tʃ] — avoid corona covid 19
कोरोना = क k/kə, को ko; र r/rə, रो ro;न n/nə, ना nā
कोविद = क k/kə, को ko; व v/və. वि vi; द d/də
से बचें = स s/sə, से se; ब b/bə = ba; च c/cə [tʃə], चे ce [tʃe], चें ceṃ [tʃə̃]
से बचने [se bacane] — to avoid

कोलकाता
kolkātā — Kolkata [formerly Calcutta]
कोलकाता = क k/kə, को ko; ल l/lə; क k/kə, का kā; त t/tə, ता tā
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Stamp collector »

Just wanted to say that its कोविड not कोविद

Otherwise, I am amazed to read about so many languages you gone through.
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