- Mongolia: 20,000 tögrög banknote
- Mongolia: 10 mongö banknote
- Mongolia: 20 mongö banknote
- Mongolia: 50 mongö banknote
- Mongolia: 10 tugrik banknote
- Mongolia: 20 tugrik banknote
- Mongolia: 50 tugrik banknote
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In fact, there have been several earlier posts on Mongolian script and philately in this thread, the first of them initiated by Panterra hisself Fickler 'n fickler...
(*) Note: "Clear" script [Tot bichig] for Mongolian (and related languages) is a phonetic script, conceptually akin to bopomofo for Chinese and related languages.Wikipedia wrote:Mongolian numerals are numerals developed from Tibetan numerals and used in conjunction with the Mongolian and Clear(*) script. They are still used on Mongolian tögrög banknotes.
The main sources of reference for Mongolian numerals are mathematical and philosophical works of Janj khutugtu A.Rolbiidorj (1717-1766) and D. Injinaash (1704-1788). Rolbiidorj exercises with numerals of up to 10^66, the last number which he called setgeshgui — unimaginable, referring to the concept of infinity. Injinaash works with numerals of up to 10^59. Of these two scholars, the Rolbiidorj’s numerals, their names and sequencing are commonly accepted and used today, for example, in the calculations and documents pertaining to the Mongolian Government budget.
/RogerEMongolian: Тод бичиг, ᠲᠣᠳᠣ ᠪᠢᠴᠢᠭ [tod bichig] /tɔt bit͡ʃək/,
is an alphabet created in 1648 by the Oirat Buddhist monk Zaya Pandita for the Oirat language. It was developed on the basis of the Mongolian script with the goal of distinguishing all sounds in the spoken language, and to make it easier to transcribe Sanskrit and the Tibetic languages.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindu%E2%80%93Arabic_numeral_systemThe Hindu–Arabic numeral system or Indo-Arabic numeral system (also called the Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system) is a positional decimal numeral system, and is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world.
It was invented between the 1st and 4th centuries by Indian mathematicians. The system was adopted in Arabic mathematics (also called Islamic mathematics) by the 9th century. Influential were the books of Al-Khwārizmī — On Calculation with Hindu [Indian] Numerals (c. 825)(*) and Al-Kindi — On the Use of Hindu [Indian] Numerals (c. 830)(**). The system later spread to medieval Europe by the High Middle Ages.
The system is based upon ten (originally nine) glyphs. The symbols (glyphs) used to represent the system are in principle independent of the system itself. The glyphs in actual use are descended from Brahmi numerals and have split into various typographical variants since the Middle Ages.
These symbol sets can be divided into three main families: Western Arabic numerals used in the Greater Maghreb and in Europe, Eastern Arabic numerals (also called "Indic numerals") used in the Middle East, and the Indian numerals in various scripts used in the Indian subcontinent.
The Hindu-Arabic or Indo-Arabic numerals were invented by mathematicians in India. Persian and Arabic mathematicians called them "Hindu numerals", where "Hindu" meant Indian. Later they came to be called "Arabic numerals" in Europe because they were introduced to the West by Arab merchants
All of these are listed under "Mongolian" in the Index for Posts 251-351:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DevanagariWikipedia wrote:Devanagari, /ˌdeɪvəˈnɑːɡəri/ DAY-və-NAH-gər-ee; देवनागरी, IAST: Devanāgarī (Sanskrit pronunciation: [deːʋɐˈnaːɡɐɽiː]), also called Nagari नागरी [Nāgarī] is a left-to-right abugida/alphasyllabary based on the ancient Brāhmī script, used in the Indian subcontinent. It was developed in ancient India from the 1st to the 4th century CE and was in regular use by the 7th century CE. The Devanagari script, composed of 47 primary characters including 14 vowels and 33 consonants, is the fourth(*) most widely adopted writing system in the world, being used for over 120 languages.
https://www.britannica.com/topic/Urdu-languageEncyclopedia Britannica wrote:Their distinction is most marked in terms of writing systems: Urdu uses a modified form of Perso-Arabic script known as Nastaliq, nastaʿlīq, while Hindi uses Devanagari script.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NastaliqWikipedia wrote:Nastaʼlīq, /ˈnæstəˌliːk/, Persian: نستعلیق IPA: /næsˈtæʔliːq/, is one of the main calligraphic hands used in writing the Persian alphabet and the Urdu alphabet, and traditionally the predominant style in Persian calligraphy. It was developed in Persia [= Iran] in the 14th and 15th centuries. It is sometimes used to write Arabic language text (where it is mainly used for titles and headings), but its use has always been more popular in the Persian, Urdu and Turkic sphere of influence. Nastaliq remains very widely used in Iran, Afghanistan and the Indian Subcontinent and other countries for written poetry and as a form of art.
A less elaborate version of Nastaliq serves as the preferred style for writing in Kashmiri and Urdu and it is often used alongside Naskh for Pashto. In Persian [Farsi], it is used for poetry only.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bengali%E2%80%93Assamese_scriptThe Bengali–Assamese script, commonly known as Bengali script, also known as Eastern Nagari script, is a modern eastern Brahmic script...
There are three major modern alphabets in this script: Tirhuta, Bengali, and Assamese. Modern Assamese is very similar to modern Bengali though Tirhuta is more different from both Assamese and Bengali. Assamese has at least one extra letter, ৱ, that Bengali does not. It also uses a separate letter for the sound 'ro' ৰ different from the letter used for that sound in Bengali র and the letter ক্ষ is not a conjunct as in Bengali, but a letter by itself...
The Bengali—Assamese script was originally not associated with any particular regional language, but was prevalent as the main script in the eastern regions of Medieval India for Old- and Middle-Indo-Aryan including Sanskrit. Epics of Hindu scripture, including the Mahabharata or Ramayana, were written in older versions of the Eastern Nagari script in this region...
While efforts at standardising the script for the Bengali language continue in such notable centers as the Bangla Academy at Dhaka (Bangladesh) and Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi at Kolkata (West Bengal, India), it is still not quite uniform as yet, as many people continue to use various archaic forms of letters, resulting in concurrent forms for the same sounds. Among the various regional variations within this script, only the Bengali and Assamese variations exist today in the formalised system.
The language is Hindi, not Marathi.
https://mathshistory.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Indian_numerals/J J O'Connor & E F Robertson wrote:To see clearly the early Indian fascination with large numbers, we can take a look at the Lalitavistara, which is an account of the life of Gautama Buddha. It is hard to date this work since it underwent continuous development over a long period but dating it to around the first or second century CE is reasonable. Lalitavistara recounts that Gautama, when he is a young man, is examined on mathematics. He is asked to name all the numerical ranks beyond a koti, which is 10^7.
. He lists the powers of 10 up to 10^53.
. Taking this as a first level, he then carries on to a second level and gets eventually to 10^421.
. Gautama's examiner says: — You, not I, are the master mathematician.
Rather than just being "cinderellas", these stamps were actually used, and the Indian Post Office permitted mail bearing the stamps to be delivered throughout India. After some years, this came to the attention of the commissars in Beijing, and strenuous protests were made to India. To keep the peace, India asked the Tibetans to desist from using Tibet stamps. Mint and CTO ones are now widely available, but postally-carried covers are the gem that every Tibet collector seeks.Wikipedia wrote:The Central Tibetan Administration (Tibetan: བོད་མིའི་སྒྲིག་འཛུགས་, translated as Exile Tibetan People's Organisation) is Tibet's elected parliamentary government based in Dharamshala, India. It is composed of a judiciary branch, a legislative branch, and an executive branch. The Central Tibetan Administration is also referred to as the Tibetan Government in Exile. Since its formation in 1959, the Central Tibetan Administration has not been officially recognized by China. The Tibetan diaspora and refugees support the Central Tibetan Administration by voting for members of Parliament, the President and by making annual financial contributions through the use of the "Green Book." The Central Tibetan Administration also receives international support from organizations and individuals.
The Central Tibetan Administration's internal structure is governmental; it has stated that it is "not designed to take power in Tibet"; rather, it will be dissolved "as soon as freedom is restored in Tibet" in favor of a government formed by Tibetans inside Tibet. In addition to political representation, it authors reports and press releases, and it administers a network of schools and other cultural activities for Tibetans in India. On 11 February 1991, the Central Tibetan Administration became a founding member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) at a ceremony held at the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands.
The Bikram SambatThe numbers after one hundred, e.g., the hundreds, the thousands, are named in a regular way, e.g., "ek saye char" /104/, "dui hajar tin saye" /2300/. Every new term greater than a thousand is one hundred times larger than the previous term. Thus, lakh means a hundred thousand, karod means a hundred lakh, and so on...
• Decimal mark: A dot "." is used as decimal mark to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form.
• Digit grouping: For ease of reading, numbers with many digits are divided into groups using commas as separators. The separators are only employed to the left of the decimal mark. The rightmost three digits are grouped together, but then two digits are grouped together thereafter, e.g., 1,23,45,67,890.
Bikram Samwat/ Bikram Sambat, Devanagari:बिक्रम संवत, abbreviated: B.S., is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya. It is the official calendar of Nepal. In addition to Bikram Samwat, the Gregorian calendar and the Newari calendar, Nepal Sambat, are also used in Nepal.
The Bikram Sambat is a solar calendar based on ancient Hindu tradition. The calendar is 56.7 years ahead (in count) of the solar Gregorian calendar. For example, the year 2056 BS began in AD 1999 and ended in AD 2000. The calendar starts with the first day of the month Baisakh, which usually falls on the 13th or 14th of April in the Gregorian calendar.
The basic formula of conversion:
Nepali Date to Western: Subtract - 56 Years - 8 Months - 17 Days
Western Date to Nepali Date: Add - 56 Years - 8 Months - 17 Days
Clue 1: The word actually appears on several stamp series, issued in 1884, 1897, 1911, 1933 and 1941.
Thank you Joy, that is exactly the cause of the problem I had with the year numerals on the Nepali stamps.
Manipuri language, Manipuri Meiteilon, also called Meitei (Meetei), a Tibeto-Burman language spoken predominantly in Manipur, a northeastern state of India. Smaller speech communities exist in the Indian states of Assam, Mizoram, and Tripura, as well as in Bangladesh and Myanmar (Burma).
Writing system: Meitei script.
Sylheti (ꠍꠤꠟꠐꠤ / • ছিলটী)
Sylheti is an eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Sylhet ( ꠍꠤꠟꠐ / সিলেট) region of Bangladesh, and the neighbouring Barak Valley in the Indian state of Assam. There are also speakers of Sylheti in the Indian states of Meghalaya, Tripura and Manipur, as well as in the USA and UK. In 2007 there were about 11 million speakers of Sylheti.
.Maithili /ˈmaɪtɪli/, Maithilī [ˈməi̯tʰɪli], is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent, mainly spoken in India and Nepal. In India, it is spoken in the states of Bihar and Jharkhand and is one of the 22 recognised Indian languages.
• First, let's note the variety of Romanised spellings: Datiya = Duttiah = Datia (and probably there are more!)
• Fourth, let's look at currency:Wikipedia wrote:Datia is the district headquarters of the Datia District in north central Madhya Pradesh, a state of Central India. It is an ancient town, mentioned in the Mahabharata ruled by King 'Dantavakra'. The town is 69 km from Gwalior, 325 km south of New Delhi and 320 km north of Bhopal. About 15 km from Datia is Sonagiri, a sacred Jain hill. Datia is also about 34 km from Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh and 52 km from Orchha. The nearest airport is at Gwalior. It was formerly the seat of the eponymous princely state in the British Raj. Datia is situated near Gwalior and on the border with Uttar Pradesh (U.P.).
For example, in Hindi:Wikipedia wrote:An anna (or ānna) was a currency unit formerly used in British India, equal to 1⁄16 of a rupee. It was subdivided into four (old) Paisa or twelve pies (thus there were 192 pies in a rupee). When the rupee was decimalised and subdivided into 100 (new) paise, one anna was therefore equivalent to 6.25 paise...
• Fifth, let's check on manuscript versions of Hindi numerals:Wikipedia wrote:Notation: The first number is the number of rupees, the second is the number of annas (1/16), the third is the number of paise (1/64), and the fourth is the number of pies (1/192).
Example: Rs 1/15/3/2 = Rs 1.9947
[My calculation: 1+15/16+3/64+2/192 = 1.99479... which actually rounds to 1.9948]
en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Indian_anna
Well Roger, I thought you were disinterested when I saw you jumping to Kalimantan proboscis monkey and orang utan.RogerE wrote: ↑26 Sep 2020 16:33Thanks Joy. Not that I was uninterested in your Bod = Tibbat challenge, but I simply didn't have time to go searching for the solution — it turns out that there are several areas of specialised knowledge involved, and I don't think I would have solved it even if I had put in more time...
The script in the top panel of Jammu and Kashmir 1897 2A Hiscocks 16/SG T16 is Ṭākrī.
Here is the standard Ṭākrī character set, followed by the Devanagari character set in the same format.Wikipedia wrote:The Takri alphabet ... is found mainly in the Hill States such as Chamba, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand and surrounding areas, where it is called Chambyali, and in Jammu Division, where it is known as Dogri. The local Takri variants got the status of official scripts in some of the Punjab Hill States, and were used for both administrative and literary purposes until the 19th century. After 1948, when Himachal Pradesh was established as an administrative unit, the local Takri variants were replaced by Devanagari.
RogerE wrote: ↑26 Sep 2020 16:33A suggested answer to Joy's challenge
It does not look like Devanagari numerals are being used (so far as indicated by the handwritten samples above), so my guess is that the "simplified" notation in the Datia postage due marking is more like tally marks than Devanagari numerals.
Based on the information gathered, I am guessing that the handwritten amount of postage due is 1/1 = 1 anna + 1 paisa = 5 paise = 1.25 anna.
From his vantage point of expert knowledge and relevant reference works, Joy will be able to comment, correct and reveal all for us.
The horizontal strokes in merchants' notations developed from Brāhmī numerals and its evolved variants.RogerE wrote: ↑28 Sep 2020 02:55The horizontal "tally marks" to the left of 'J' work similarly, but now like Chinese numerals 一, 二, 三 (which also originated the same way), and here a vertical "tally mark" I is conventionally the count of four horizontal marks (for brevity). Because 16 annas = 1 rupee, 15 = 3x4+3 = III三 is the greatest number of annas that needs to be represented (and the problem of representing four vertical "tally marks" does not arise!).
(2) Recognising the language and scriptBamra State or Bamanda State, covering an area of 5149 sqkm, was one of the princely states of India during the period of the British Raj, its capital was in Debagarh/Deogarh. Bamra State acceded to India in 1948...
The state was one of the five Orissa Tributary States which were transferred from the Central Provinces to Bengal on the reconstitution of that province in October 1905...
The Bengal-Nagpur Railway passed through the northeastern part of Bamra, with two stations in the state: Bamra Road and Garpos. The state was under the political control of the Commissioner of the Chhattisgarh Division of the Central Provinces until 1905, under the Bengal Presidency until 1912, under the Bihar and Orissa Province until 1936 and under Orissa Province until it ceased to be a princely state. On 1 January 1948 Bamra's last princely ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union.
(3) Odia/Oriya script, with numeralsChrister Brunström wrote:The State of Bamra's imperforate stamps had a very simple design with two lines in English, the third line with the denomination in the Odia/Oriya language and finally an ornament which is supposed to depict an elephant's trunk holding a stick.
It turns out that ମାସୁଲ [māsul] here corresponds to "postage", and the denomination
The Indian rupee sign (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the currency symbol for the Indian rupee, the official currency of India. Designed by Udaya Kumar, it was presented to the public by the Government of India on 15 July 2010, following its selection through an "open" competition among Indian residents.
Niue is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,400 kilometres northeast of New Zealand. Niue's land area is about 261 square kilometres.
It is known for its limestone cliffs and coral-reef dive sites. Migrating whales swim in Niue's waters between July and October. In the southeast is the Huvalu Forest Conservation Area, where trails through fossilised coral forests lead to the Togo and Vaikona chasms. The northwest is home to the rock pools of Avaiki Cave and the naturally formed Talava Arches.
That Wikipedia article is the source of all further quotes in this post.Niuean /njuˈeɪən/, ko e vagahau Niuē, is a Polynesian language, belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of the Austronesian languages. It is most closely related to Tongan and slightly more distantly to other Polynesian languages such as Māori, Samoan, and Hawaiian.
.The traditional alphabet order, given with the traditional names of the letters, is
ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, fā, gā, hā, kā, lā, mō, nū, pī, tī, vī, rō, sā.
Note that rō and sā, as introduced letters, are ordered at the end.
Niuean orthography is largely phonemic; that is, one letter stands for one sound and vice versa.
As with many languages, writing was brought to Niue in connection with religion, in this case with Christianity by missionaries educated in Samoa. This has led to some Samoan influences in morphology and grammar and also to a noticeable influence in spelling: as in Samoan, the sound /ŋ/ is written g, rather than ng as in Tongan and some other Polynesian languages.
Niuean sentence structureNiuean pronouns are differentiated by person and number. Furthermore, first person dual and plural pronouns distinguish inclusive and exclusive forms (including and excluding the listener, respectively). However, they are not differentiated by gender or case; for example, ia means both he and she, him and her. Inanimates ['it'] are not usually pronominalised. The Niuean pronouns are:
Again, using numbers:Compare
Kua kitia e ia e kalahimu
TENSE see AGENT he ARTICLE crab
— The crab was seen by him = He saw the crab
Kua kitia e kalahimu
TENSE see ARTICLE crab
— The crab was seen
/RogerENe taha e fufua moa i loto he kato
PAST one ART egg chicken LOC inside GEN basket
— There was one egg in the basket
Literally: "Was one an egg inside the basket"
Tolu e tama fuata ne oatu ke takafaga
three ART child youth REL go GOAL hunt
— Three young men went out hunting
Literally: "Three (were) the young men who went out to hunt"
Tokelau includes three atolls in the South Pacific Ocean between longitudes 171° and 173° W and between latitudes 8° and 10° S, about midway between Hawaii and New Zealand.
It has a combined land area of 10.8 sq.km. The atolls each have a number of coral islands, where the villages are situated. The highest point of Tokelau is just 5 metres above sea level
From Atafu in the north to Fakaofo in the south, Tokelau extends for less than 200 km. The atolls lie about 500 kilometres north of Samoa.
That Wikipedia link is the source for the quoted material in the remainder of this post.Tokelauan /toʊkəˈlaʊən/ is a Polynesian language spoken in Tokelau and on Swains Island (or Olohega) in American Samoa. It is closely related to Tuvaluan and is related to Samoan and other Polynesian languages. Tokelauan has a co-official status with English in Tokelau.
Tokelauan is mutually intelligible with the Tuvaluan language. Samoan literature is recognised mostly due to the early introduction of Christian Samoan missionaries to which the Samoan language was held as the language of instruction at school and at church. It also has marked similarities to the Niuafo'ou language of Tonga.
Tokelauan numbersIts alphabet consists of 5 vowels: a /a/, e /e/, i /i/, o /o/ and u /u/.
and 10 consonants: /p t k f v h m n ŋ l/, Note that /ŋ/ is spelled g
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