Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

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RogerE
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Index [1-500] Stamps and languages

Post by RogerE »

Stamps and Languages Cumulative Index (1–500)
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To access a post, paste or type its number into the url at the top of this page, to replace the number '500'

Examples:
• To go to the first post on Catalan, listed here as Catalan 261, modify
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=500
so that it becomes
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=261

• To go to the post on Mongolian numerals, listed here as Mongolian numerals 466, enter
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=466

• To go to the Local Index for the posts 151–250 on this thread, enter
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=250

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Announcing
.
Free Giveaway
to celebrate the reaching of
500 Posts
on this thread:
Stamps Motivate us to Engage with Languages

The giveaway thread is called

Free Prizes to Celebrate
500 Stamps and Languages Posts


and it begins at

https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=12&t=92430

..ooOOOoo..
.
It is already up and running, and will close at midnight on Sunday, 1 Nov 2020.
The first post in the thread shows you the prizes, and the Rules for entering.

Happy posting!

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

A really fascinating thread to begin with RogerE and an excellent idea to put up a linguistically,filatelically orientated competition. Only another 498 posts and you can do it again.
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Waffle. Already the posts are accumulating fast at

https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=12&t=92430

Thanks to all early participants!
We will have a nice vocabulary list as a result.

/RogerE :D


An item on eBay:
.
Australia, 2019, International Year of Indigenous Languages
Australia, 2019, International Year of Indigenous Languages

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Sign Language on Stamps

As with Braille for the visually impaired, so with Sign Language for the hearing impaired:
these are not separate languages, but systems of communicating in a particular language,
incorporating many of the characteristic features of that language.

Even for a particular language, such as English, there can be multiple Sign Language systems
in use in various countries or cultural groups. These may not be mutually intelligible.

For example, English may be communicated in
Auslan = Australian Sign Language
BSL = British Sign Language
ASL = American Sign Language (also used in Anglophone Canada*)
NZSL = New Zealand Sign Language (includes Māori terminology and concepts)
SASL = South African Sign Language

(*) Francophone Canada uses LSQ = la langue des signes québecoise = Quebec Sign Language

It is estimated that there are around 300 sign languages in use in various parts of the world!
A detailed listing, discussion, and taxonomy of these languages is given in this Wikipedia article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sign_languages

.<br />Great Britain, 1981, British Sign Language <br />spelling the word DEAF
.
Great Britain, 1981, British Sign Language
spelling the word DEAF
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Sign Language on Stamps cont.

I was motivated to start posting on Sign Languages by Puffin's opening post today in the Happy Day thread:

.<br />USA, 20 Sep 1993, American Sign Language, se tenant pair
.
USA, 20 Sep 1993, American Sign Language, se tenant pair
.
Here is a First Day Cover for the same issue:
.
.<br />USA, 20 Sep 1993, American Sign Language, se tenant pair on First Day Cover
.
USA, 20 Sep 1993, American Sign Language, se tenant pair on First Day Cover
.
Notice that although Sign Languages for English (and various other languages) include signs for the
letters of the relevant alphabet, they also include a vast vocabulary of signs for words and phrases,
enabling skilled signers to communicate at speeds equivalent to ordinary speech. Unfamiliar words,
such as Family Names, can be spelled out letter by letter, but most communication will be by efficient
use of "shorthand" signing. :D

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Sign Language on Stamps cont.

A deservedly famous American user of sign language was Robert Panara (1920-2014)

.<br />USA, 11 Apr 2017, Robert Panara <br />signing the word &quot;Respect&quot;.<br />Diecut self-adhesive, 2oz rate (70¢), MUH
.
USA, 11 Apr 2017, Robert Panara
signing the word "Respect".
Diecut self-adhesive, 2oz rate (70¢), MUH
.
The USPS website gives us a capsule biography of Robert Panara, making clear his achievements and great
expertise in promoting access to, and excellence in, Drama, Literature and the Arts for the hearing impaired.
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-06 at 2.18.25 pm.png
https://store.usps.com/store/product/buy-stamps/robert-panara-S_114004
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Sign Language on Stamps cont.

In 2015 Israel issued five stamps celebrating and promoting wider awareness of Israeli Sign Language.
.
.<br />Israel, 1 Jan 2015, Israeli Sign Language <br />booklet pane on First Day Cover
.
Israel, 1 Jan 2015, Israeli Sign Language
booklet pane on First Day Cover
.
.<br />Israel, 1 Jan 2015, Israeli Sign Language <br />sheetlet on First Day Cover
.
Israel, 1 Jan 2015, Israeli Sign Language
sheetlet on First Day Cover
_________________________________
.
שפת הסימנים הישראלית
[safat hasimanim hayisraelit]
Israeli Sign Language
שָׂפָה [safah] — Language
סִימָן, סִימָנים [siman, simanim] — Sign, signs
______
.
Mauve: תוֹדָה [todah] — Thankyou
Green: נְשִׁיקָה [nishikah] — Kiss
Deep Blue: חֲבֵרוּת [Haverut] — Friendship
Red: אַהֲבָה [ahevah] — Love
Pale Blue: לְהִתְרָאוֹת [ləhitraot] — Goodbye/Au revoir
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Sign Language on Stamps cont.

In 2013 Singapore issued five stamps celebrating and promoting wider awareness of Singapore Sign Language = SgSL.

.<br />Singapore, 2013, Strip of five stamps promoting <br />use of Singapore Sign Language
.
Singapore, 2013, Strip of five stamps promoting
use of Singapore Sign Language
.
.<br />Singapore, 2013, Booklet of the set of five stamps promoting <br />use of Singapore Sign Language<br />The cover shows the signs for the alphabet and numerals
.
Singapore, 2013, Booklet of the set of five stamps promoting
use of Singapore Sign Language
The cover shows the signs for the alphabet and numerals
.
Singapore Sign Language (SgSL) is our native sign language recognised and accepted by the Deaf community in Singapore. SgSL comprises a combination of Shanghainese Sign Language (SSL), American Sign Language (ASL), Signing Exact English (SEE) and locally developed signs.
https://sadeaf.org.sg/sgsl-course/
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Sign Language on Stamps cont.

On 7 June 2018 Hong Kong issued six stamps promoting wider awareness and use of "Inclusive Communication".

Each stamp design features a word or phrase in Chinese script, English, and Sign Language. If you look carefully at the text on each stamp, you may notice a pattern of dots overlaying the text: this is actually the same message in Braille. :D

Notice that the Chinese characters are traditional script. Where the simplified script differs markedly, I have also shown it in the language notes below.

.<br />Hong Kong, 7 June 2018, Thank You maxicard (vertical format)
.
Hong Kong, 7 June 2018, Thank You maxicard (vertical format)
.
.<br />Hong Kong, 7 June 2018, Thank You maxicard (horizontal format)
.
Hong Kong, 7 June 2018, Thank You maxicard (horizontal format)
.
謝謝 [Xièxiè] — Thank you [Traditional]
谢谢 [Xièxiè] — Thank you [Simplified]
.
s-l1600.jpg
.
$2.00: 朋友 [Péngyǒu] — Friend
$2.60: 早晨 [Zǎochén] — Good morning
$3.40: 你好 [Nǐ hǎo] — Hello
$3.70: 加油 [Jiāyóu] — Come on!/Keep it up!
$4.90: [Ài] — Love
$5.00: 謝謝 [Xièxiè] — Thank you [Traditional]
$5.00: 谢谢 [Xièxiè] — Thank you [Simplified]
.
s-l1600.png
.
$20.00: 共融溝通 [Gòngróng gōutōng] — Inclusive communication [Traditional]
$20.00: 共融沟通 [Gòngróng gōutōng] — Inclusive communication [simplified]
平等 [Píngděng] — Equality
關懷 [Guānhuái] — Caring [Traditional]
关怀 [Guānhuái] — Caring [Simplified]
尊重 [Zūnzhòng] — Respect
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Sign Language on Stamps cont.

In 2012 Uruguay issued a set stamps featuring "Sign Language". Such stamps issues raise public awareness of sign language, and promote social acceptance of its use.

In fact, the alphabets of two quite distinct sign languages were shown — the hand sign language alphabet used for hearing impaired communication, and the maritime flag alphabet used for visual communication in maritime situations.

.<br />Uruguay, 2012, Sign Language stamps, Yv&amp;T 2540 et seq
.
Uruguay, 2012, Sign Language stamps, Yv&T 2540 et seq
.
Wikipedia wrote:Uruguayan Sign Language, or Lengua de señas uruguaya = LSU [Spanish], is the deaf sign language of Uruguay, used since 1910. It is not [mutually] intelligible with neighbouring languages, though it may have historical connections with Paraguayan Sign Language.

In 2001, LSU was recognised as an official language of Uruguay under Law 17.378.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uruguayan_Sign_Language
Apparently Uruguay issued a full set of LSU alphabet stamps, but I have only been able to find images of these six. Perhaps another Stampboarder will be able to show us more of the set...

The maritime flag alphabet, part of the International Code of Signals = ICS, is coupled on these stamps with the alphabet of LSU hand sign language. The ICS has been seen previously in this thread.

ICS-flags.png
.
As usual, Wikipedia provides us with detailed helpful information:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Code_of_Signals
.
Note that while both LSU and ICS have alphabets, their use in practice seldom needs to spell words letter by letter. There are agreed "shorthand" signals which allow much more efficient communication of words and phrases. For example, the ICS flag for C ["Charlie"] used by itself means "Affirmative".

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Japanese language

Let us begin to look at the Japanese language.

.<br />Japan, 1871, 100 mon imperf, used
.
Japan, 1871, 100 mon imperf, used
.
.<br />Japan, 1871, 200 mon imperf, used
.
Japan, 1871, 200 mon imperf, used
.
Many of the early stamps of Japan have been forged. Perhaps an expert
will tell us whether these examples are genuine or forged.


The quoted information in this post is all sourced from the authoritative Wikipedia article at
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_language
Wikipedia wrote:Japanese 日本語 [Nihongo] /ɲihoŋɡo/ is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic (or Japanese-Ryukyuan) language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated...
Origins of Japanese
Wikipedia wrote:Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period (794–1185), Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese. Late Middle Japanese (1185–1600) included changes in features that brought it closer to the modern language, and the first appearance of European loanwords. The standard dialect moved from the Kansai region to the Edo (modern Tokyo) region in the Early Modern Japanese period (early 17th century–mid-19th century). Following the end of Japan's self-imposed isolation in 1853, the flow of loanwords from European languages increased significantly. English loanwords, in particular, have become frequent, and Japanese words from English roots have proliferated.
Characteristics of the Japanese language

Here is a compact, precise description of some major characteristics of the Japanese language. After the first quotation I add a few explanatory notes about several technical linguistic terms used.
Wikipedia wrote:Japanese is an agglutinative, mora-timed language with simple phonotactics, a pure vowel system, phonemic vowel and consonant length, and a lexically significant pitch-accent.
agglutinative — An agglutinative language adds affixes to words to add precision to their meaning, and each affix has just one grammatical role. Esperanto is an excellent example of an agglutinative language. Agglutinative languages tend to have multiple affixes per word, and consequently tend to be very regular. Thus, Japanese is regarded as having only two irregular verbs. Here is an example of agglutination in Japanese:
The basic word 書く kaku to write,
can be affixed with ます masu [affix for politeness verb]
and to[affix for past tense marker]
to become 書きました kakimashita I have written.

mora-timed — In speech, the duration of every mora is equal. In Japanese, a V or CV syllable [that is, a syllable consisting of a single V (vowel), or a single C (consonant) followed by a single V (vowel)] takes up one timing unit [mora]. Japanese does not have vowel length or diphthongs but does have double vowels, so CVV takes twice as much time as CV. A final /N/ also takes as much time as a CV syllable.
Thus, 日本 NihonJapan is Ni-ho.n = CV-CV./N/ so takes 3 time units [morae] when correctly pronounced.
Also 切手 kittestamp is ki-tte = CV-C.CV so takes 3 time units [morae] to pronounce, because of the double consonant.
Again, おはようございます OhayōgozaimasuGood morning
is O-ha-yō-go-za-i-ma-su = V-CV-CV.V-CV-CV-V-CV-CV, so takes 9 time units [morae] to pronounce (because ō = V.V).

simple phonotactics — Phonotactics studies the rules governing the possible phoneme sequences in a language. Phonotactic constraints are highly language-specific. For example, in Japanese, consonant clusters like /st/ do not occur.

pure vowel system— A vowel sound whose quality does not change over the duration of the vowel is called a pure vowel. (Such vowels are monophthongs, contrasting with diphthongs.)

phonemic vowel and consonant length — There are pairs of words with different meaning, but in pronunciation they differ only in whether a vowel is short or long, or a consonant is short or long.

lexically significant pitch-accent — Pitch-accent refers to a kind of word-prosodic prominence of syllables in languages such as Japanese, where pitch change is the only cue to accent. [This contrasts with stress, where amplitude and duration are significant cues.] One syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a contrasting pitch (linguistic tone) rather than by loudness, as in a stress-accent language. (In contrast, in a fully tonal language like Chinese each syllable has its own tone.)
Japanese word order is normally subject–object–verb [SVO] with particles marking the grammatical function of words, and sentence structure is topic–comment. Sentence-final particles are used to add emotional or emphatic impact, or make questions. Nouns have no grammatical number or gender, and there are no articles. Verbs are conjugated, primarily for tense and voice, but not person. Japanese equivalents of adjectives are also conjugated. Japanese has a complex system of honorifics with verb forms and vocabulary to indicate the relative status of the speaker, the listener, and persons mentioned.
Japanese scripts

Japanese uses three scripts. Each has its own conventions and appropriate use, and typically the first two (and often all three) appear within a single article or document.
Wikipedia wrote:Japanese has no clear genealogical relationship with Chinese, although it makes prevalent use of Chinese characters, or kanji 漢字, in its writing system, and a large portion of its vocabulary is borrowed from Chinese. Along with kanji, the Japanese writing system primarily uses two syllabic scripts: hiragana ひらがな [= 平仮名] and katakana カタカナ [= 片仮名]. Latin script is used in a limited fashion, such as for imported acronyms, and the numeral system uses mostly [Western] Arabic numerals alongside traditional Chinese numerals.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Japanese language cont.

Characteristics of the Japanese language

In the previous post I mistyped the symbolic abbreviation for subject-object-verb word order. It should be:
Wikipedia wrote:Japanese word order is normally subject–object–verb [SOV] with particles marking the grammatical function of words, and sentence structure is topic–comment...

Nouns have no grammatical number or gender, and there are no articles. Verbs are conjugated, primarily for tense and voice, but not person. Japanese equivalents of adjectives are also conjugated.
Here are some simple sentences, as examples of the subject-object-verb [SOV] word order:
(Note: I am a novice with respect to Japanese, so corrections from anyone with advanced knowledge would be appreciated.)

女性は切手を収集します [Josei wa kitte o shūshū shimasu]
The lady collects stamps
女性は切手を集めました [Josei wa kitte o atsumemashita]
The lady collected stamps
男はたくさんの切手を集めました [Otoko wa takusan no kitte o atsumemashita]
The man collected many stamps

Analysis of those examples:

女性 [Josei] — Female/lady
[wa] — [Affix marking subject]
切手 [kitte] — stamp/stamps
[o] — [Affix marking object]
収集 [shūshū] — collect/accumulate/gather up
[shi] — [Affix marking present tense]
ます [masu] — [Affix for verb politeness]
[shū] — collect/accumulate/gather up
[me (pronounced "may")] — [Affix marking humility (of speaker)]
[otoko] — the man
たくさん [takusan = ta-ku-sa-/n/] — many/lots
[no (pronounced "noh")] — [Affix attributing to following noun/"of"]
ました [mashita] — [Affixes for polite past tense]
Wikipedia wrote: Sentence-final particles are used to add emotional or emphatic impact, or make questions.
Some illustrative sentences:

彼らは東京に行きます [Karera wa Tōkyō ni ikimasu]
They are going to Tokyo.
彼らは東京に行かない [Karera wa Tōkyō ni ikanai]
They are not going to Tokyo.
行かないで! [Ikanaide!] — Do not go!
彼らは東京に行きますか? [Karera wa Tōkyō ni ikimasu ka?]
Are they going to Tokyo?

Analysis of those examples:

彼ら [Karera] — They
[wa] — [Affix for subject]
東京 [Tōkyō] — Tokyo
[ni] — [Affixes for direction/"to", "towards"]
行く [iku] — to go
行きます [ikimasu] — are going
行かない [ikanai] — don't go
[de] — [Sentence-final emphatic particle]
か? [ka?] — [Sentence-final question particle]*

(*) Compare か? with the Esperanto question particle Ĉu/ĉu — where it is sentence-initial ; also compare か? with the Chinese question particle 嗎? / 吗? (traditional script / simplified script) [ma] — where it is sentence-final.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Japanese language cont.

My information for this post includes several quotes and screenshots, from the user-friendly site
http://japanese-lesson.com/characters/hiragana/index.html
Some brief use is also made of several Wikipedia articles, ever helpful for additional information.


Scripts used for Japanese language

Three scripts are in everyday use for the Japanese language. (For accuracy, it can be said that written Japanese uses three component scripts.) They are:
.
Kanji 漢字, pronounced /kaɲdʑi/ [IPA]
Kanji — the adopted logographic Chinese characters, that is, the word-designating characters adopted from Chinese script (with basic meaning retained, but now with their Japanese pronunciation, typically unrelated to their Chinese pronunciation).

Kanji is used together with two Kana, which are syllabic scripts (kana 仮名 /kana/):
.
Hiragana 平仮名, pronounced /çiɾaɡaꜜna/ [IPA]
Hiragana — a Japanese syllabary, derived as simplified versions of selected Chinese characters. The word hiragana literally means "ordinary" or "simple" kana.
.
Katakana 片仮名, pronounced /katakaꜜna/ [IPA]
Katakana — a Japanese syllabary, is used for Japanese words not covered by kanji and for grammatical inflections. Its use is quite similar to italics in English: it is used to transcribe foreign-language words and loan words; for emphasis; to represent onomatopoeia; for technical and scientific terms; and for names of plants, animals, minerals and often Japanese companies. The word katakana means "fragmentary kana", as the katakana characters are derived from components or fragments of more complex kanji.

Transcription of Japanese language into romanised script

The Roman [Latin] script, known as Rōmaji, also has a place in writing Japanese.
Lingodeer wrote:It was the Jesuit missionaries from Portugal that initially introduced Roman [Latin] script to the Japanese in the mid-16th century. In 1548, a Japanese Catholic named Yajiro developed the Romaji writing system, which was soon put into print by the Jesuit missionaries. Romaji grew less popular during the isolationist period, but made a comeback when Japan shed its isolationist policies and worked towards becoming a global player in the Meiji Period.
.
In fact there are three different versions of romanised script.
The version most widely used in the Hepburn version of Rōmaji.
In the Hepburn system the long vowels (long a u e o) are written with a bar (macron): ā ū ē ō.
.
Japanese students learn Rōmaji in elementary school in order to spell their names with English letters, which makes it easier for them to fit into the international environment.
You may also see Rōmaji interspersed throughout an article, advertisement, or graphic design. (One of the advantages of having so many different writing systems in one language is the diverse functionality of each one. Rōmaji can be used to draw the eye to the word and emphasise it, adding nuance of surprise, sophistication, or stylishness.)
The other inevitable reality of existing in the internet age is that website URLs are always written with the English alphabet. [Keyboard entry of Japanese may also be achieved using Rōmaji.]
https://blog.lingodeer.com/what-is-romaji/


Hiragana script

In modern Japanese, there are 46 basic Hiragana characters.
This set of characters is known as the gojū-on, 五十音 the 50 sounds.

Traditionally, basic syllables are organized in the form of a table with 5 columns x 10 rows.
This table is called 五十音図 gojū-on zu table of 50 sounds.

Compare this name with ""A.B.C." /ˌeɪ. biːˈ siː/ in English, "bopomofo" in Chinese, and "äbugida" in [Classical] Ethiopic. Each term refers to the standard format in which the set of characters is arranged, by which learners are introduced to the list.
(In fact, in modern linguistic terms, Hiragana script is classified as an abugida script.)

The fact that the 46 basic characters of Hiragana (and Katakana) are called the 50 sounds reflects the phonology of Japanese underlying the systematic layout of the characters by logical arrangement of the sounds, accommodating four combinations not normally occurring in Japanese. (Various conventions are used to "fill in the blanks".)

In addition to the 46 gojūon characters, there are modified forms to describe more sounds - 20 dakuon, 5 handakuon, 36 yōon, 1 sokuon and 6 special characters, making a total of 114.

Examples showing how hiragana script was derived from kanji
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-11 at 3.11.09 pm.png
.
The hiragana gojū-on table
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-11 at 5.41.27 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-11 at 5.42.10 pm.png
http://japanese-lesson.com/characters/hiragana/index.html
.
• The characters い, う and appear more than once in the table. These 5 duplicates (grey coloured) are usually skipped or ignored.

• Another syllable is included. It doesn't belong to any row or column.

• The first row — あ /a/, い /i/, う /u/, え /e/ and お /o/ are five vowels of the Japanese language.

• The characters and represent the same sound /o/. is used only as the particle in a sentence.

( /o/ serves as an affix marking the object of a sentence. Examples of its use are included in the previous post. It is functionally analogous to the affix -n used in Esperanto to indicate the object of a sentence.)

[More about hiragana in a later post :D ]

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Japanese language cont.

Let's look some more at Japanese hiragana script.

The Hiragana Gojū-on (50 Sounds)

Here is the basic 5 column x 10 row table of hiragana characters (plus /n/)
without the Romaji versions of their sounds. This is the way the table would
be presented to learners in Japan.
.
hg01_gojuon.gif
.
Each column of the table contains the characters with particular vowel sound.
The character for the stand-alone vowel heads its column, and each later row contains the combinations with a particular initial consonant. (For details, check the table in the previous post.)
.
The Hiragana vowels
.
The vowels come it two groups: the short vowels (one time unit = one mora in length)
and the long vowers (two time units = two morae in length).
In hiragana script the long vowels are denoted by writing the short vowel character twice
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-12 at 7.22.51 pm.png

The five short vowels are: あ, い, う, え, お
The five long vowels are: ああ, いい, うう, ええ, おお .

In Rōmaji
the short vowels are denoted a, i, u, e, o
and the long vowels are denoted ā, ii, ū, ē, ō
with i doubled, or with a bar (macron) over a, u, e, o.
.
How to write the hiragana vowels

The order of the strokes, their shape, and the direction in which they are drawn, are all important.
The "not so good" examples show, by contrast, the preferred stroke shapes.
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-12 at 9.03.33 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-12 at 9.04.36 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-12 at 9.05.02 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-12 at 9.05.18 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-12 at 9.06.27 pm.png
.
The partially truncated note under [ i ] says:
A little extension of the end of Line 1 is naturally drawn when you write quickly.
You don't have to draw it intentionally.
.
Similar guides for writing the rest of the hiragana characters are given in later pages of the website
http://japanese-lesson.com/characters/hiragana/index.html
Any interested reader of this post is referred to that website to access that further information,

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Japanese language cont.

Let us now look at the Katakana, the second syllabic script used for the Japanese language.
We noted previously:
.
Katakana 片仮名, pronounced /katakaꜜna/ [IPA]
Katakana — a Japanese syllabary, is used for Japanese words not covered by kanji and for grammatical inflections. Its use is quite similar to italics in English: it is used to transcribe foreign-language words and loan words; for emphasis; to represent onomatopoeia; for technical and scientific terms; and for names of plants, animals, minerals and often Japanese companies. The word katakana means "fragmentary kana", as the katakana characters are derived from components or fragments of more complex kanji.

Examples showing how katakana script was derived from kanji
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-13 at 1.21.53 am.png


Katakana script

In modern Japanese, there are 46 basic Katakana characters. This set of characters is known as the
gojū-on zu, 五十音図 the 50 sounds table for katakana.

It follows the same 5 column x 10 row traditional format that we have seen for hiragana, and the same set of syllables is represented.

Screen Shot 2020-10-12 at 11.39.21 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-12 at 11.40.14 pm.png
.
• The first row — ア /a/, イ /i/, ウ /u/, エ /e/, オ /o/ are five vowels of the Japanese language.
They indicate the vowel part of each syllable in their column.

• The characters /i/, /u/, and /e/ appear more than once in the table. These five duplicates (coloured in grey) are usually skipped or ignored. (They are simply space-fillers.)

• Another character /n/ is included. It doesn't belong to any row or column.

In addition to the 46 gojūon characters, there are modified forms to represent more sounds - 20 dakuon, 5 handakuon, 36 yōon, 1 sokuon and 6 special characters, making a total of 114.

Long vowels in katakana script

Along vowel is indicated by the short vowel followed by a horizontal stroke, .
Examples:
カーテン [kāten] — curtain
ビール [biiru] — beer
ユーロ [yūro] — Euro
ケーキ [kēki] — cake
コート [kōto] — coat
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Japanese language cont.

It was noted earlier that both hiragana and katakana syllabaries extend to more than double the
basic 50 sounds (Gojū-on). Let's look at the extra hiragana characters, to notice the sounds that
they accommodate. Once again, my source is the user-friendly site
[url]http://japanese-lesson.com/characters/hiragana/index.html[/url]

The supplementary Hiragana characters

Some of the supplementary characters correspond to syllables with "voiced consonants"
rather than "breathed consonants".
For example, compare "ka/ga", "ko/go", "ta/da".
The Dakuon sounds modify certain sounds in the basic gojūon50 sounds to give "voiced" analogues,
or similar modifications, as shown in this 5 column x 4 row table:
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-13 at 12.05.20 pm.png
.
Another row to the extended hiragana table adds "p-" syllables, by modifying the "h-" row.
These are called Handakuon sounds:
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-13 at 12.06.22 pm.png
.
The last group which we will note here are the Yōon syllables, which insert a 'y' between
the initial consonant and the final vowel of the syllable:
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-13 at 12.07.59 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-13 at 12.09.19 pm.png
.
The truncated example at the end of the last line shows き+ や = きゃ [ki + ya = kya]
.
A hiragana punctuation mark (silent character), Sakuon, is used to indicate the doubling of
the following consonant. The doubled consonant is indicated in speech by a one unit pause
(= one silent mora) mediated by the Sakuon.
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-13 at 12.13.44 pm.png
.
さっき [sakki] — a while ago
ひっしに [hisshi ni] — in the end
いった [itta] — said
やっぱり [yappari] — after all
.
To type these words I used the Hiragana option on the Lexilogos Multilingual Keyboard:
https://www.lexilogos.com/keyboard/hiragana.htm

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Japanese language cont.

Let us look at the further Katakana characters, to parallel the previous post extending the listing of hiragana characters beyond the gojū-on 五十音 the 50 sounds.
As before, the screen shots and information (if not otherwise acknowledged) come from the user-friendly site
http://japanese-lesson.com/characters/katakana/index.html

Recall that the basic table and its extensions have five columns, based on the vowels ア /a/, イ /i/, ウ /u/, エ /e/, オ /o/.

Dakuon, the voiced syllables
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-14 at 12.39.30 pm.png
.
Handakuon, the semivoiced syllables
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-14 at 12.40.04 pm.png
.
Yōon, the syllables with internal 'y'
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-14 at 12.40.45 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-14 at 12.41.46 pm.png
.
NOTE: Too late to replace these two screenshots, I just noticed that they overlap. The upper screenshot should end with the mya row, and the katakana characters for that row are above their Roman/Latin script representations.
The lower screenshot should begin with the rya row, and the katakana characters for that row are above their Roman/Latin script representations.
(The katakana script for the rya row is inadvertently duplicated as the last katakana line of the upper screenshot and the first katakana line of the lower screenshot. Apologies for that oversight! :( )
.
Sokuon, the punctuation mark indicating double consonant

In my previous post I misspelled Sokuon (as "sakuon") in a couple of places. Fortunately the screenshot gave the correct spelling.
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-14 at 12.42.23 pm.png
.
サッカー [sakkā] — sucker
メッセージ [messēji] — message
ポケット [poketto] — pocket
カップ [kappu] — cup
.
Additional Katakana characters to accommodate foreign language sounds
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-14 at 1.14.01 pm.png
.
Examples of Katakana script used for modern Chinese loan words

Japanese has adopted numerous loan words, not only from European languages, but also from languages closer at hand, such as Chinese. Typically these loan words are written in katakana script.
.
Wikipedia examples
Wikipedia examples
Wikipedia wrote:The very common Chinese loanword rāmen, written in katakana as ラーメン,
is rarely written with its kanji (拉麺).

There are rare instances where the opposite has occurred, with kanji forms created from words originally written in katakana. An example of this is コーヒー [kōhī] — coffee, which can alternatively be written as
珈琲. This kanji usage is occasionally employed by coffee manufacturers or coffee shops for novelty.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katakana
_______________
Reflection/Footnote:

There are parallels in English: In my childhood it was common for essays and "serious" writing in English to be liberally sprinkled with phrases from other languages, especially Latin. Those phrases were usually written in italics, and almost never accompanied by a translation.

I cannot speak for the "subtext" of use of katakana in Japanese, but I can make a personal observation about the use of Latin phrases within an English essay. The implied message was that a "good education" would have taught you these phrases, and the writer must have benefitted from such a "good education", so was entitled to the appropriate level of respect.

That kind of one-upmanship has largely disappeared (perhaps because a "good education" now seldom includes the learning of Latin). However, a contemporary analogue in English involves the overuse of acronyms without explaining them, conveying the message that the writer is "across" the important political or technological subjects involved, and a "well-informed" reader must be too. This is a new kind of one-upmanship.

.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Japanese language cont.

I have almost reached the end of my current sequence of posts about Japanese.

The three basic scripts (Kanji, Hiragana, Katakana) have been described. The two
syllabaries, Hiragana and Katakana, have each been discussed in some detail — the
characters by which they represent the "50 sounds", with the supplementary sets of
about 60 further characters to represent other, less frequently encountered, sounds.

It remains to look at Kanji in some detail. Because each Kanji character is a logogram(*),
the Kanji character set is necessarily much more extensive than a syllabary, and this makes it
more challenging to treat adequately in a compact post. However, some content is better than
none, so I hope this post is helpful.
(*) Note: Logograms (and ideograms and pictograms) were discussed in the post at:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=265

The information and screen shots which follow come from:
http://japanese-lesson.com/characters/kanji/index.html


Some Kanji still reflect the pictographs from which they developed
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-14 at 6.25.22 pm.png
.
[yama] — mountain
[kawa] — river
[ki] — tree


Kanji comprise a radical plus a "main component"
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-14 at 6.23.44 pm.png
.
Kanji = radical + "main component"
[otoko] — man = [ta] — field, [chikara] — power, strength
[mori] — forest, woods = 3x [ki] — ftree
[hatara] — to work = [hito] — man, [ugo] — to move


Some pairs of Kanji form single Japanese words
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-14 at 6.23.10 pm.png
.
Kanji + kanji = "word"
[ao] — blue, [sora] — sky = 青空 [aozora] — blue sky
[umi] — sea, [soto] — outside = 海外 [kaigai] — overseas
[toki] — time, [kei] — to measure = 時計 [tokei] — clock


The extent of the kanji character set

It is estimated that there are some 50,000 Kanji. Around 2,500 characters are regarded as sufficient (along with mastery of the hiragana and katakana syllabaries) for reading essentially all written Japanese. The Japanese Ministry of Education specifies a list of 1945 Kanji characters which are appropriate for use in everyday life, and the school curriculum specifies the timing for the learning of these characters.
.
Wikipedia wrote:The jōyō kanji 常用漢字 /dʑoːjoːkaꜜɲdʑi/ — regular-use Chinese characters, is the guide to kanji characters and their readings, announced officially by the Japanese Ministry of Education.
Screen Shot 2020-10-14 at 6.15.03 pm.png
(JLPT = Japanese Language Proficiency Test)
.
Here is a "glimpse" of the first few rows of the 1945 Jōyō Kanji table:
.
... and so on.  This is just the first 12% of the whole table.
... and so on. This is just the first 12% of the whole table.
The full table can be viewed at
http://japanese-lesson.com/characters/kanji/index.html


An introductory set of Kanji characters
.
人 日 月 火 水 木 金 土 今 何
.
[hito] — man
[hi] — day
tsuki] — month
[hi] — fire
[mizu] — water
[ki] — tree
[kin] — money
[tsuchi] — soil
[ima] — now
[nani] — what
.
The kanji numerals are also simple characters that can be learnt early.
.
一 二 三 四 五 六 七 八 九 十
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-14 at 6.31.26 pm.png
.
In practice, the (Western) Arabic numerals are in common use in Japan. However, the Kanji numerals
are used on currency and in other prestigious or traditional contexts.
(For example, we have seen 五十音 [gojū-on] — the 50 sounds).
Note also that the Kanji character for zero is quite complex; it is seldom used in written Japanese;
it is normally written either in katakana, or with the (Western) Arabic numeral 0.
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

RogerE wrote:
15 Oct 2020 00:31
Japanese language
Image
. . .
/RogerE :D

Thanks for this illuminating look at Japanese, Roger. Your remarks are very helpful, and were it not for covid, I would be tempted to travel to Japan. But for now, I will settle for collecting their stamps.

Another land I enjoy collecting is Mengkiang, a country heavily influenced by Japan (in fact, many call it a "Japanese puppet state")*, discussed on another thread. When I first began collecting that land, I was perplexed by the apparent lack of a denomination shown on the 1944 8f commemorative issue. But of course, the "8" is shown, but as a Japanese digit, 八.

Mengkiang-44-blastfurnace.JPG
Mengkiang 1944 8 fen Blast Furnace, issued to commemorate the Productivity Campaign.


I believe the grand plan was that Australia, Norfolk Island, and New Zealand would also change to using Japanese speech and writing, had the Emperor's troops prevailed in the war. I shudder to imagine all the time that students in these three lands would spend memorising those 50,000 kanji characters plus all the hiragana and katakana, rather than the mere 26 letters we had to learn!

When I learned Egyptian hieroglyphic, I initially thought that would be hard, memorising 860 signs. But it was easy, and besides, most of the signs are clearly evident for what they represent, e.g.


Egyptian-Alphabet.jpg
The basic Egyptian alphabet. If they had just used these throughout, it would be
a piece of cake. But mostly they used other signs or ligatures (two signs combined together)
to represent complete words or several syllables, and disdain to bother with such letters as these,
except to add emphasis to whatever ligature was shown.




hiero-ex-pge421-Gardiner.jpg
Some "typical" Egyptian. Observe that most hieroglyphs in this piece are
not those shown in the "basic alphabet" list shown above, and this fact hindered
the deciphering of hieroglyphs for hundreds of years.
(This extract from the textbook Egyptian Grammar by Sir Alan Gardiner.)



Hieroglyphics were discussed earlier on this thread, starting here.

______

* But aren't nearly all countries (apart from the few Superpowers) a "puppet state" of another?

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Japanese language cont.

This is the last of my current sequence of posts about the Japanese language.

Recall that Japanese uses three character sets, kanji, hiragana and katakana.
They are typically interspersed, and the conventions dictating which one is used
for any particular syllable or word are intricate:
.
Wikipedia wrote:In modern Japanese, kanji are used to write parts of the language (usually content words) such as nouns, adjective stems, and verb stems, while hiragana are used to write inflected verb endings and adjective endings, and as phonetic complements to disambiguate readings (okurigana), particles, and miscellaneous words which have no kanji or whose kanji is considered obscure or too difficult to read or remember. Katakana are mostly used for representing onomatopoeia, non-Japanese loanwords (except those borrowed from ancient Chinese), the names of plants and animals (with exceptions), and for emphasis on certain words.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanji
Okurigana

Hiragana characters occurring within the "running text", and written at the same size as the kanji, are okurigana.
Wikipedia wrote:Okurigana 送り仮名 /okɯɾigana/ — accompanying characters are kana suffixes following kanji stems in Japanese written words. They serve two purposes: to inflect adjectives and verbs, and to force a particular kanji to have a specific meaning and be read a certain way. For example, the plain verb form 見る mirusee inflects to past tense 見た mita, saw, where is the kanji stem, and and are okurigana, written in hiragana script.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okurigana
Furigana

Hiragana characters occurring beside the "running text", and written in smaller font, are furigana.
Wikipedia wrote: Furigana 振り仮名 = ふりがな, /ɸɯɾigaꜜna/ is a Japanese reading aid, consisting of smaller kana or syllabic characters, printed next to kanji or other characters to indicate their pronunciation... Furigana is also known as yomigana 読み仮名 and rubi ルビ, /ɾɯꜜbi/ in Japanese. In modern Japanese, it is usually used to gloss rare kanji, to clarify rare, nonstandard or ambiguous kanji readings, or in children's or learners' materials.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furigana
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-15 at 11.46.03 pm.png
.
Furigana pronunciation aids, accompanying vertical and horizontal text
kan is written in hiragana as かん
ji is written in hiragana as
Examples of text

My source for the Furigana examples given here is https://jisho.org/
.
きのう
昨日
KinōYesterday
.
きのう・きょう・あした
昨日・今日・明日
Kinō, kyō, ashitaYesterday, today, tomorrow
.
きのうのともはきょうのてき
昨日の友は今日の敵
Kinō no tomo wa kyō no teki
“A friend today may turn against you tomorrow” [Proverb]
lit. Yesterday's friend today's foe.
.
とも

TomoFriend
.
てき

TekiEnemy
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Japanese philately
.
The standard catalogue for Japanese philately is the Sakura catalogue.
The catalogue appears in a new edition annually.
Summary blurb:
— catalogue of the postage stamps of Japan, colour images, also includes quantities issued, FDC & stamp booklets, more than 360 pp in colour, Japanese text with English headings, features introduction & general catalogue information in English
Now that diligent reading of the previous several posts has given us some
basic acquaintance with the Japanese language, we can look at the catalogue
with a modest level of engagement with its text.

Sakura Catalogue of Japanese Stamps, <br />2005 edition
Sakura Catalogue of Japanese Stamps,
2005 edition
.
Note the cherry blossom at the top of the cover illustration
Sakura is the Japanese name for ornamental cherry blossom trees and their blossoms.

Sakura
(kanji), (old kanji), さくら (hiragana), サクラ (katakana)
.
The latest edition<br />Sakura Catalogue of Japanese Stamps<br />2021 edition
The latest edition
Sakura Catalogue of Japanese Stamps
2021 edition
,
さくら日本切手カタログ2021年版
Sakura Nihon kitte katarogu 2021-nenban
Sakura Japan Stamp Catalogue 2021 Edition

.
Categories under which the catalogue lists Japanese stamps
(in catalogue order)

特殊切手
Tokushu kitte
Commemorative/special stamps

グリーティング切手
Gurītingu kitte
Greetings stamps

ふるさと切手
Furusato kitte
Prefecture stamps

公園切手
Kōen kitte
National Park stamps

年賀切手
Nenga kitte
New Year’s Greetings stamps

普通切手
Futsū kitte
Definitive stamps

ステーショナリー
Sutēshonarī
Postal stationery
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by OldDuffer1 »

I well remember one of the Japanese stamps shown from my childhood stamp collection!


Kabuki actor Ichikawa Ebizō (Ichikawa Danjūrō V) as Takemura Sadanoshin in the play "The Colored Reins of a Loving Wife" by Tōshūsai Sharaku, 1794
Kabuki-actor-Ichikawa-Ebizō-by-Tōshūsai-Sharaku-1794.jpg
Sg:JP 759 (1956)

Have sometimes been tempted to collect these Ukiyo-e art stamps for their striking designs. Often have nice FDCs as well.
725_001.jpg

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thank you OldDuffer1 for those beautiful images!

Here are some more, to tempt you further ;)

.<br />Japan, 1957, Stamp Collecting Week, First Day Cover
.
Japan, 1957, Stamp Collecting Week, First Day Cover
.
.<br />Japan, 1958, Stamp Collecting Week, First Day Cover
.
Japan, 1958, Stamp Collecting Week, First Day Cover
.
.<br />Japan, 1979, Stamp Collecting Week, se tenant pair, MUH
.
Japan, 1979, Stamp Collecting Week, se tenant pair, MUH
.
切手収集週間
Kitte shūshū shūkan
Philatelic Week = Stamp Collecting Week
.
切手
kitte
stamp
.
収集
shūshū
collecting
.
週間
shūkan
week
.
日本郵便
Nippon'yūbin
Japan Post
(shown in ornate style kanji on the stamps)

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thai Language and Script

Our main philatelic encounters with Thai are with the inscriptions on stamps
and postal stationery, so this post will look at the script and its romanisation.

.<br />Thailand 1941, 10 baht definitive, MH
.
Thailand 1941, 10 baht definitive, MH
.
.<br />Thailand, revenue stamp: <br />Part of the attraction of revenue stamp collecting<br />is the challenge of finding out relevant information<br />.
.
Thailand, revenue stamp:
Part of the attraction of revenue stamp collecting
is the challenge of finding out relevant information
.
.
.<br />.<br />Thailand, 1907 ussage of postcard, Bangkok to Steglitz, Germany
.
.
Thailand, 1907 ussage of postcard, Bangkok to Steglitz, Germany
.
Thai script: introductory note

Thai script shares many of its characteristics with Devanagari script, familiar from written Hindi.
Wikipedia wrote:Although commonly referred to as the "Thai alphabet", the script is in fact not a true alphabet but an abugida, a writing system in which the "full" characters represent consonants with diacritical marks for vowels; the absence of a vowel diacritic gives an implied 'a' or 'o'. Consonants are written horizontally from left to right, with vowels arranged above, below, to the left or to the right of the corresponding consonant, or in a combination of positions.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thai_script
Romanised transcription of Thai script

The official romanisation of Thai script is abbreviated as RTGS.
The Royal Thai General System of Transcription = RTGS is the official system for rendering Thai words in the Latin [Roman] alphabet. It was published by the Royal Institute of Thailand.

It is used in road signs and government publications and is the closest method to a standard of transcription for Thai, but its use, even by the government, is inconsistent.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Thai_General_System_of_Transcription
The main features of RTGS are rather familiar to speakers of English:
Wikipedia wrote: • It uses only unmodified letters from the Latin alphabet without diacritics.
• It spells all vowels and diphthongs with vowel letters: ⟨a⟩, ⟨e⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩.
• Single letters ⟨a⟩, ⟨e⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩ are monophthongs (simple vowels), with the same value as in the International Phonetic Alphabet = IPA.
• Digraphs with trailing ⟨e⟩ are monophthongs; ⟨ae⟩, ⟨oe⟩, ⟨ue⟩ sound like /ɛ, ɤ, ɯ/ respectively and are perhaps chosen for their similarity to IPA ligatures /æ, œ, ɯ/.
• Digraphs with trailing ⟨a⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨o⟩ are diphthongs and are indicated by IPA /a, j, w/ respectively.

RTGS uses consonants as in IPA except as follows:
• Digraphs ⟨ph⟩, ⟨th⟩, ⟨kh⟩ are aspirated /pʰ, tʰ, kʰ/ consonants to distinguish from unaspirated ⟨p⟩, ⟨t⟩, ⟨k⟩.
• It uses ⟨ng⟩ for /ŋ/, as in English.
• It uses ⟨ch⟩ for /t͡ɕʰ/ and /t͡ɕ/, somewhat like English.
• It uses ⟨y⟩ for /j/, as in English.
• Final consonants are transcribed according to pronunciation, not Thai orthography.
• Vowels are transcribed in the position in the word where they are pronounced, not as in Thai orthography. Implied vowels, which are not written in Thai orthography, are transcribed as pronounced.
Thai script

In this section my main sources are
Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thai_script
Omniglot: https://omniglot.com/writing/thai.htm
Wikipedia wrote:The Thai script (Thai: อักษรไทย, RTGS: akson thai) is the abugida used to write Thai, Southern Thai and many other languages spoken in Thailand. It has 44 consonant symbols (พยัญชนะ, phayanchana), 16 vowel symbols (สระ, sara) that combine into at least 32 vowel forms and four tone diacritics (วรรณยุกต์ or วรรณยุต, wannayuk or wannayut) to create characters mostly representing syllables.
Consonants พยัญชนะ, phayanchana
Wikipedia wrote:There are 44 consonant letters representing 21 distinct consonant sounds. Duplicate consonants either correspond to sounds that existed in Old Thai at the time the alphabet was created but no longer exist (in particular, b d g v z), or different Sanskrit and Pali consonants pronounced identically in Thai. There are in addition four consonant-vowel combination characters not included in the tally of 44.
.
Here is an analysed sample of how the script works in practice:
.
ประเทศไทย
Pratheṣ̄thịy = Prathet Thai
Thailand

"po pla" = /p/
ระ = ร + •ะ "ro ruea"+"a" = /ra/
เท = ท + เ• "tho thahan"+"e" = /tʰe:/
"so sala" = /s/—>/t/
ไท = ท + ไ• = "tho thahan"+"ai" = /tʰai/
= "yo yak" = /y/
ไทย = ท + ไ• + ย = /tʰaiy/—>/thai/
.
Thailand /ˈtaɪlænd/ TY-land, or /ˈtaɪlənd/ TY-lənd;
Thai: ประเทศไทย, RTGS: Prathet Thai, /pratʰêːt tʰaj/,
officially the Kingdom of Thailand, ราชอาณาจักรไทย,
RTGS: Ratcha-anachak Thai /râːtt͡ɕʰaʔaːnaːt͡ɕàk tʰaj/,
formerly known as Siam สยาม, RTGS: Sayam /sajǎːm/.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thailand
.
Wikipedia wrote:To aid learning, each consonant is traditionally associated with an acrophonic Thai word
that either starts with the same sound, or features it prominently.
Example: The name of the consonant is kho khai ข ไข่, in which kho is the sound it represents,
and khai ไข่ is a word which starts with the same sound and means "egg".
You will notice that in Thailand the chicken comes before the egg. :D
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-19 at 2.45.31 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-19 at 2.46.00 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-19 at 2.46.38 pm.png
.
Did you hear the owl calling at the end of the list?
Wikipedia wrote:Equivalents for romanisation are shown in the table. Many consonants are pronounced differently at the beginning and at the end of a syllable. The entries in columns "initial" and "final" indicate the pronunciation for that consonant in the corresponding positions in a syllable. Where the entry is '-', the consonant may not be used to close a syllable. Where a combination of consonants ends a written syllable, only the first is pronounced. Possible closing consonant sounds are limited to 'k', 'm', 'n', 'ng', 'p' and 't'.
Here is an alternative presentation of the consonants พยัญชนะ, phayanchana, from Omniglot:
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-19 at 3.54.16 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-19 at 3.54.45 pm.png
.
Omniglot wrote:Consonants are divided into three classes: low (เสียงต่ำ), mid (เสียงกลาง) and high (เสียงสูง), which help to determine the tone of a syllable.
• The sounds represented by some consonants change when they are used at the end of a syllable (indicated by the letters on the right of the slash). Some consonants can only be used at the beginning of a syllable.
• Duplicate consonants represent different Sanskrit and Pali consonants sounds which are pronounced identically in Thai.
•The letter o ang [second last in the table] acts as a silent vowel carrier [a "void consonant"] at the beginning of words that start with a vowel.
.
Vowels สระ, sara shown here with "o ang" , the "void consonant".
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-19 at 4.24.56 pm.png
.
Diphthongs
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-19 at 4.25.54 pm.png
.
Tone diacritics
.
Thai is a tonal language, with four tones, able to be represented explicitly in the script.
The tones make spoken Thai very recognisable to those of us who come from different language cultures.
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-19 at 4.27.17 pm.png
.
Numerals

From a philatelic viewpoint, Thai numerals are important because they are frequently
encountered on stamps, not always with their (Western) Arabic equivalents.
Notice that some numeral names are similar to the Chinese names for the same numerals,
especially "three" and "four".
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-19 at 4.27.53 pm.png
.
Thanks to Omniglot for making these very clear tables available to us. :D

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by OldDuffer1 »

RogerE wrote:
15 Oct 2020 00:31

Note also that the Kanji character for zero is quite complex; it is seldom used in written Japanese;
it is normally written either in katakana, or with the (Western) Arabic numeral 0.

/RogerE :D
Presumably this is because the concept of "zero" did not reach China until the 8th Century- and presumably Japan even later?

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Notes about Zero

The concept of zero has two distinct aspects:
(1) As a measure of quantity, it refers to absence of anything.
(2) As a digit, it serves as a placeholder numeral in a place-value number system.

The comment by OldDuffer1 was probably correct. On the other hand, we should
bear in mind that the notion of zero as a numeral in fact came to Europe much later
than it came to China.
KRISTEN MCQUILLIN, in Scientific American (2007) wrote:The first recorded zero appeared in Mesopotamia around 3rd Cent. B.C. The Mayans invented it independently circa 4th Cent. A.D. It was later devised in India in the mid-5th Cent., spread to Cambodia near the end of the 7th Cent., and into China and the Islamic countries at the end of the 8th Cent. Zero reached western Europe in the 12th Cent.
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-is-the-origin-of-zer/
Wikipedia wrote:The word zero came into the English language via French zéro from Italian zero, an Italian contraction of the Venetian zevero form of Italian zefiro via ṣafira or ṣifr.

In pre-Islamic time, the Arabic صفر ṣifr had the meaning empty.. Sifr evolved to mean zero when it was used to translate the Sanskrit शून्य śūnya from India. The first known English use of zero was in 1598.[10]

The Italian mathematician Fibonacci (c. 1170–1250), who grew up in North Africa and is credited with introducing the decimal system to Europe, used the term zephyrum. This became zefiro in Italian, and was then contracted to zero in Venetian. The Italian word zefiro was already in existence (meaning west wind from Latin and Greek zephyrus) and may have influenced the spelling when transcribing Arabic ṣifr.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/0
In British English, zero is sometimes called a cipher.
Cipher comes from the Arabic sifr, which means "nothing" or "zero." The word came to Europe along with the Arabic numeral system.
https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/cipher
• An alternative (rarer) spelling of "cipher" is "cypher" (in British English).
Two rather uncommon related meanings (in British English):
• The verb "to cipher" can mean "to calculate, to perform arithmetic".
• A "cipher" can also mean a "person of no consequence".

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

zilch-04-maths4v-NEW.jpg
Nichtsburg & Zilchstadt 2004 Mathematics and Zero set.


Back in 2004, I was approached by Mr Erik McRea, who had created a phantasy land, Nichtsburg & Zilchstadt, and produced coins for these entities. He sought to add stamps to his repetoire, and I was able to help him with these ones, celebrating the invention of "zero".

Nicht means "nothing" as does zilch, so the land is a zero-focused entity!


View their website for more details, or to buy their stamps and coins.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

RogerE wrote:
24 Jul 2020 03:31
Thank you Panterra, that significantly advances our understanding of the inscriptions on the stamps. I assume that the inscriptions in the lower side panels of all but the last stamp you showed must be /k/ for kopek, while those in the last (green) stamp must be /r/ for rouble.

I have just now found a Wikipedia page on Mongolian script.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolian_script

It is extensive, and I've only had time to take in a little of the early portion.
Here is the title panel. The two words below "Mongolian Script" repeat that title in the Mongolian script.
The "sample text" appears to be given basically for visual information — I have not located a translation.
.
Image
.
. . .

/RogerE :D

Mongolian Film Studios (in collaboration with Tashkent Film Studios and Leningrad Film Studios) in 1942 made an amazing movie "His Name is Sukhe Bator" about the life and career of Damdin Sukhe Bator, the leader of the Mongolian revolution.

Fortuitously, the film has survived, and can be viewed free on Youtube, here:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zp_25pz5KM8


Mongolia-88-sukheBaator.jpg
Mongolia 1988 Damdin Sukhebaator, father of the republic.



The film is all in Russian, but if you like to read up about the life of Sukhe Bator, and examine the photos of him, you can see that the film seems very close to actuality. The actor who plays Sukhe Bator looks uncannily like the actual guy too. Of course, the main audiences for the film would be in Mongolia and Tuva, so the film-makers had to stick to facts, as the audience would be familiar with the details. Scenes such as Hsu Shu-Cheng, the Chinese general who occupied Mongolia after World War I, the court of the Mongolian khan, His Holiness Bogdo Gegeen Ezen Khan and him being carried on sedan chair through the crowds and distributing coins to the crowds, and Sukhe Bator's hiding the secret paper inside his walking stick before he journeyed to Russia to meet Lenin, are all shown. As is the final scene of a monk poisoning him, under the pretence of treating him for some illness.

The poisoning of Sukhe Bator does not appear in conventional histories, and may have been an "official invention" to give an excuse to crack down on the monks and monasteries, which controlled Mongolia before the revolution.

Anyway, I am digressing a lot here, but was very impressed with the film, and recommend you view it, for a good look at Mongolia in the 1920s. The reason I post the details here is that I was particularly intrigued by the 1920s views of street scenes in the capital, Nisleel Khuree (now renamed after Sukhe as Ulaan Baator). Above the streets can be seen large banners with the shop or building names in Mongolian vertical script, along with a smaller (horizontal) sign with the same detail in Russian. I noted "Telegraph Office" but there may have been others.

I wonder if the "Telegraph Office" was the same as the "Post Office"?

Mongolia has consistently kept up token usage of its beautiful vertical script by showing the currency units on its stamps, and on its banknotes, in this script. See the Sukhe Bator 1988 stamp shown above as an example.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

A note on Zero and Panterra's Nichtsburg & Zilchstadt stamp images:

German: nichtsnothing
Ich habe nichts gesagtI said nothing
The 's' is important. Without it: nichtnot
Ich habe nicht gesprochenI didn't speak

A range of languages already briefly encountered in this thread:
.
nothing versus zero:
.
French: rien vs zéro
Italian: niente vs zero
Catalan: res vs zero
Spanish & Portuguese: nada vs cero
Romanian: nimic vs zero
Esperanto: nenio vs nulo
German: nichts vs null
Danish: intet vs nul
Swedish: ingenting vs noll
Finnish: ei mitään vs nolla
Hungarian: semmi vs nulla
Czech: nic vs nula
Slovak: nič vs nula
Polish: nic vs zero
Russian: ничего [nichevo] vs ноль [nol']
Greek: τίποτα [tipota] vs μηδέν [midén]
Turkish: hiçbir şey vs sıfır
Arabic: لا شيئ [la shayy] vs صفر [sifr]
Hebrew: שום דבר [shum davar] vs אֶפֶס [efes]
Maltese: xejn vs żero
Hindi: कुछ भी तो नहीं [kuchh bhee to nahin] vs शून्य [shoonya]
Bengali: কিছুই না [kichu'i nā] vs শূন্য [śūn'ya]
Thai: ไม่มีอะไร [mị̀mī xarị] vs ศูนย์ [ṣ̄ūny̒]
Chinese: 没有 [méiyǒu] vs [líng]
Japanese: 何も [nani mo] vs ゼロ [zero]
Korean: 아무것도 [amugeosdo] vs 제로 [jelo]
Malay: tidak ada vs sifar
Indonesian: tidak ada vs nol
Māori: kahore vs kore
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Mongolian Script, revisited

Mongolian has featured in several earlier posts in this thread, beginning with
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=324
Related posts can be found by replacing '324' in that url with numbers in the ranges 325, 335-7, 455-6, 466.

More on Mongolian script
The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was in the most widespread use until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.

It is traditionally written in vertical lines, from left to right across the page. Derived from the Old Uyghur(*) alphabet, Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. The Mongolian script has been adapted to write languages such as Oirat and Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian and Xibe.

Computer operating systems have been slow to develop support for the Mongolian script, and incomplete support or other text rendering difficulties are typical...

Traditional Mongolian is written vertically from top to bottom, flowing in lines from left to right. The Old Uyghur(*) script and its descendants, of which traditional Mongolian is one (among Oirat Clear, Manchu, and Buryat) are the only known vertical scripts written from left to right. This developed because the Uyghurs rotated their Sogdian-derived script, originally written right to left, 90 degrees counterclockwise to emulate Chinese writing, but without changing the relative orientation of the letters...

Traditional Mongolian script is known by a wide variety of names. Because of its similarity to the Old Uyghur(*) alphabet, it became known as the Uighurjin Mongol script. During the communist era, when Cyrillic became the official script for the Mongolian language, the traditional script became known as the Old Mongol script, in contrast to the New script, referring to Cyrillic. The name Old Mongol script stuck, and it is still known as such among the older generation, who didn't receive their education in the new script.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolian_script
.
Note on case suffixes in Mongolian script
.
All case suffixes, as well as any plural suffixes consisting of one or two syllables are separated by a preceding and hyphen-transliterated gap.
Single-letter vowel suffixes appear with the final-shaped forms of a/e, i, or u/ü, as in
ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠ γaǰar‑ato the country
ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠡ edür‑eon the day
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ulus‑ithe state
The two-letter suffix  
 ᠤᠨ ‑un/‑ün
is exemplified in this newspaper logo:
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-24 at 1.08.46 am.png
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolian_script
.
(*) Old Uyghur alphabet
.
The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in Turfan/Turpan and Gansu that is the ancestor of the modern Western Yugur language...

The Uyghur adopted this script from local inhabitants when they migrated into Turfan after 840C.E. It was an adaptation of the Aramaic alphabet used for texts with Buddhist, Manichaean and Christian content for 700–800 years in Turpan. The last known manuscripts are dated to the 18th century. This was the prototype for the Mongolian and Manchu alphabets. The Old Uyghur alphabet was brought to Mongolia by Tata-tonga.

The Old Uyghur script was used between the 8th and 17th centuries primarily in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, located in present-day Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It is a cursive-joining alphabet with features of an abjad and is written vertically. The script flourished through the 15th century in Central Asia and parts of Iran, but it was eventually replaced by the Arabic script in the 16th century. Its usage was continued in Gansu through the 17th century...

Old Uyghur tended to use matres lectionis(**) for the long vowels as well as for the short ones. The practice of leaving short vowels unrepresented was almost completely abandoned. Thus, while ultimately deriving from a Semitic abjad, the Old Uyghur alphabet can be said to have been largely "alphabetised".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Uyghur_alphabet
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-24 at 12.15.47 am.png
Old Uyghur alphabet
.
(**)Note: Matres lectionis
.
Matres lectionis (Latin "mothers of reading", singular form: mater lectionis, from Hebrew: אֵם קְרִיאָה‎ [em kəriʾa]) are consonants that are used to indicate a vowel, primarily in the writing down of Semitic languages such as Arabic, Hebrew and Syriac. The letters that do this in Hebrew are aleph א‎, he ה‎, waw ו‎ and yod י‎, and in Arabic, ... they are ʾalif ا‎, wāw و‎ and yāʾ ي‎. The yod and waw in particular are more often vowels than they are consonants. The original value of the matres lectionis corresponds closely to what is called glides or semivowels in modern linguistics.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mater_lectionis
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Hindi revisited

This nice Indian minisheet has just been posted in the Happy Day thread by sagi2917:
.
Indian masks series, minisheet, 1974
Indian masks series, minisheet, 1974
.
भारतीय मुखौटों की श्रृंखला
bhaarateeya mukhauton kee shrrnkhala
Indian masks series
.
भारतीय
bhaarateeya
Indian
.
मुखौटों
mukhauton
masks

श्रृंखला
shrrnkhala
series

की
kee
"of"
Here: qualifying "series", not "masks", so "series of"

Compare the word for "masks" with
मुंह
munh
mouth
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by chashmebuddoor »

This was the second MS ever to be released by India Post !
Sun and Moon,you already may be knowing.
Narsimha is one of the avatars of Lord Vishnu and Ravana is the demon king whom Lord Rama fought & slayed.
A beautiful set of stamps...wish India Post issued more such releases.
RogerE wrote:
24 Oct 2020 10:51
Hindi revisited

This nice Indian minisheet has just been posted in the Happy Day thread by sagi2917:
.
Image
.
भारतीय मुखौटों की श्रृंखला
bhaarateeya mukhauton kee shrrnkhala
Indian masks series
.
भारतीय
bhaarateeya
Indian
.
मुखौटों
mukhauton
masks

श्रृंखला
shrrnkhala
series

की
kee
"of"
Here: qualifying "series", not "masks", so "series of"

Compare the word for "masks" with
मुंह
munh
mouth
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

More about Thai

A recent post focussed on Thai script.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=524

Let us now add a little context, with some notes on the language, and some example short sentences.

Thai language
Thai, Central Thai, ภาษาไทย [P̣hās̄ʹā thịy](*), is the national language of Thailand and de facto official language. It is the first language of the Central Thai people and most Thai Chinese, depending on age.

It is a member of the Tai group of the Kra–Dai language family, and one of over 60 languages of Thailand. Over half of Thai vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon[6] and Old Khmer. It is a tonal and analytic language, similar to Chinese and Vietnamese.

Thai has a complex orthography and system of relational markers. Depending on standard sociolinguistic factors such as age, gender, class, spatial proximity, and the urban/rural divide, spoken Thai is partly mutually intelligible with Lao, Isan, and some fellow Southwestern Tai languages. These languages are written with slightly different scripts but are linguistically similar and effectively form a dialect continuum.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thai_language
.
ภาษาไทย
P̣hās̄ʹā thịy = pʰasa:tʰai
Thai language

32: = ph, ภา = phā
39: = s, ษา = sā
23: = th, ไท = thai
34: = y
Numbers refer to the position in the standard list of consonants


Etymology: Note these cognate words for "language"
Language
ภาษา [P̣hās̄ʹā] [Thai]
भाषा [bhaasha] [Hindi]
ভাষা [bhāṣā] [Bengali]
ભાષા [bhāṣā] [Gujarati]
bahasa [Malay, Indonesian]
basa [Javanese]
etc.
Presumably these forms have descended from
वचनम् [vacanam] [Sanskrit]
.
Some sample Thai sentences

Two romanisations are given, using two different systems.
.
วันนี้อากาศดี
wan níː aː-kàːt diː = wạn nī̂ xākāṣ̄ dī
The weather is nice today

Analysis:
37: = w, วั = wa
25: = n,
25: นี = ni: นี้ = nì: (falling tone)
44: = [], อา = a:
1: กา = k, กา = ka:
38: = t,
40: = d, ดี = di:
___________
.
กระเป๋าใบนี้หนัก
krà-pǎw baj níː nàk = krapěā bı nī̂ h̄nạk
This bag is heavy

Analysis:
1: = k,
35: = r, ระ = ra
27: = p, เป๋า = pao [rising tone]
34: = b, ใบ = bai
25: = n, นี้ = ni: [falling tone]
41: = h,
25: = n, นั = na, นัก = nak.
___________
.
เราไม่ใช่คนรวย
raw mâj tɕʰâj kʰon ruaj = reā mị̀chı̀ khnrwy
We are not rich

Analysis:
35: = r, เรา = rao
33: = m, ไม่ = mai [low tone]
10: = ch, ใช่ = chai [low tone]
4: = kʰ, kʰo
25: = n,
35: = r, รว = rua
34: = y.
___________
.
Sample sentences sourced from:
https://ai.glossika.com/language/learn-thai

.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Communication for the deafblind

Various forms of Braille and sign language have been discussed on this thread.

The first post on Braille is at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=43
and later posts are accessible by replacing '43' by any of 47, 120, 410 (and 46 briefly).

The first post on sign language is at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=504
and later posts are accessible by replacing '504' by any number from 505, ..., 510.

What about communication for people with both hearing and visual impairment?
In the English-speaking world the inspiring example of Helen Keller springs to mind.
An Italian stamp posted by Waffle (with his caption) has prompted me think about this.
.
IMG_20200810_0003 (20).jpg
Stamp of Italy (2004): Francobollo celebrativo della Lega del Filo D'Oro
Commemorative stamp on Sign Language (Alfabeto Malossi)
Issued 9 Oct 2004 Designer S. Lazzarini.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=92287&start=157

.
Malossi Alphabet: method in which the hand is used as a communication tool, used as if it were a typewriter; in fact, each part of it corresponds to a letter of the alphabet which, when touched or pinched lightly, allows you to compose words and phrases. This method is generally used by people who have learned reading and writing before becoming deafblind.
Screen Shot 2020-10-26 at 1.06.18 pm.png
Alfabeto Malossi: metodo nel quale viene utilizzata la mano come strumento di comunicazione, usata come fosse una macchina da scrivere; a ogni parte di essa corrisponde, infatti, una lettera dell’alfabeto che, toccata o pizzicata leggermente, permette di comporre parole e frasi. 
Questo metodo è utilizzato generalmente dalle persone che hanno appreso la lettura e la scrittura prima di diventare sordocieche.
https://www.legadelfilodoro.it/chi-aiutiamo/io-dentro-il-mondo/la-comunicazione/il-malossi
Deafblindness

Searching the internet for information about the Lega del Filo d’OroGolden Thread league has led me to conclude that it focusses on assisting those with deafblindness — that is, both hear deficiency and visual deficiency, with deafness and blindness being the extremes of these two handicaps.

Of course, this is not confined to Italy, but here is relevant information from the Lega del Filo d’Oro:
A person is considered deafblind when they have a total or partial loss of vision and hearing. Multisensory disabilities occur when visual and auditory deficits are compounded by other impairments (motor, intellectual, neurological damage, organic pathologies, etc.). These disabilities can cause severe limitations in communications, personal autonomy and learning, as well as serious difficulties in both interpersonal relationships and perceptions of the surrounding environment.

Deafblindness can be congenital or acquired. The causes vary, and include premature birth, sensory loss with age, or rare syndromes like Usher and CHARGE, which compound severe medical and developmental issues with loss of vision and hearing.

In 2015, Lega del Filo d’Oro sponsored Italy’s first comprehensive census of people affected by problems related to both vision and hearing. According to the study, 189,000 people — or about .03% of the Italian population – are affected by problems related to vision and hearing. This is much higher than previous estimates of 3,000 to 11,000 people.
https://www.friendsoflfo.org/about-deafblindess/
Survey of deafblindness in the Italian population (2015), by the Lega del Filo d’Oro
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-26 at 11.28.34 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-26 at 11.29.47 am.png
.
Here is an extract from the Official Journal of the European Union:
At the same time it is fair to say that the main impairment groups facing accessibility difficulties in Information Communication Technology [= ICT](*) are: persons with cognitive and learning disabilities, persons with sensory disabilities (deaf and hard of hearing, blind and visually impaired persons, deafblind persons, persons with speech disabilities) and persons with physical disabilities.

Tuttavia in tale ambito i disabili che incontrano le maggiori difficoltà d'accesso alle Tecnologia dell'informazione e della comunicazione [= TIC](*) sono le persone con difficoltà cognitive o di apprendimento, le persone con disabilità sensoriali (non udenti e ipoudenti, non vedenti e ipovedenti, persone sorde e cieche e persone con difficoltà di parola) e le persone con disabilità fisiche.
https://www.linguee.com/english-italian/translation/deafblind.html
(*) Note: Information and Communication Technologies [= ICT] is a broader term for Information Technology [= IT], which refers to all communication technologies, including the internet, wireless networks, cell phones, computers, software, middleware, video-conferencing, social networking, and other media applications and services.
http://aims.fao.org/information-and-communication-technologies-ict


Deafblind in Australia

There is an Australian website entitled Deafblind Information Australia
https://www.deafblindinformation.org.au/

Here is information about a communication device described on that website:
Deafblind Communicator
For people who are able to read Braille, using technology may be an option to increase communication opportunities. [Presumably DB = deafblind in the following text.]

A portable device consisting of a DB-Phone and DB-BrailleNote (with QWERTY or Perkins keyboard).

A sighted person types their message into the DB-Phone and sends to the DB-BrailleNote where the deafblind person receives and reads the message reading through Braille output.

The deafblind person types and then sends their message back to the DB-Phone for the sighted person to read the display on screen or listen through speech output. Conversations can go back and forth via this method.

• Enables a person who is deafblind to communicate with hearing people
• The DB-Phone can be used for SMS Texting and with TTY
• Uses Braille output
• Communication takes place wirelessly via Bluetooth
• Software available for additional features
https://www.deafblindinformation.org.au/living-with-deafblin ... municator/
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

Thank you RogerE. A very comprehensive report, triggered by such a small stamp. Very shortly on my Italian stamp thread, there will be posted, a stamp dedicated to Braille. The Italians seem to be on the ball here re visual and hearing disabilities.
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

ᠷᠣ᠋ᠵᠠ ᠶᠠ‍ᠭᠢ‍‍ᠯᠢ‍ᠲᠢ‍‍ᠨᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ


Image
Mongolia 1932: some of the pictorial set, with Mongol vertical script correctly used for the locals, and English to satisfy the UPU and collectors abroad.
The late great leader Sukhe Bator is shown on the 40 mung, and his monument on the 50 mung.


. . . but the Mongol vertical script does have a few problems, such as the inability of typewriters to quickly produce a standardised version. So the new Mongolian government began to introduce the Latin alphabet in the 1930s: the 20 mung stamp here shows crowds assemble to learn the new alphabet.

Mongolian stamps show the country name in English to this day, though their first issue of 1924 neglected to show the country name at all, and was harshly criticised by the UPU for such carelessness.



Mongolia-24-10c-U.jpg
Mongolia 1924 10c from the first issue. SG 4.
The country name is conspicuous by its absence!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

More on Mongolian script

This post follows my recent post on Mongolian language and script at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=530
Wikipedia wrote:When the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party was founded in 1921, the Tuvan People's Republic was also founded in the same year. The party held single-party control over its government as a vanguard party.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuvan_People%27s_Revolutionary_Party
As another example of the way case suffixes follow the modified word with a small space, but are transliterated in romanised script as a hyphenated suffix, notice how the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party is rendered in Mongolian vertical script, and how it is romanised:
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-27 at 1.29.55 am.png
Tangnu Tuva-yin arad-un qubisγal-tu nam
Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party
.
Notice how the main part of this script looks when rendered horizontally (in a different font):
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-27 at 1.32.16 am.png
Let's rotate that horizontal screeenshot to vertical, for the "proper" orientation.
Notice that although the suffixes are not joined to the words they modify, in this font each suffix
begins with a diacritical glyph effectively "corresponding" to a hyphen.
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-27 at 1.32.16 am.png
.
When Google Translate is asked to render Tanna Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party into Mongolian, it produces the Cyrillic ["New script"] version:
.
Тангу Тувагийн Ардын хувьсгалт нам
Tangu Tuvagiin Ardyn khuvisgalt nam
.
Compare with the earlier:
Tangnu Tuva-yin arad-un qubisγal-tu nam
.
Ардын [ardyn = arad-un] — People's
Xувьсгалт [khuvisgalt = qubisγal-tu] — Revolutionary
нам [nam] — Party
.
Mongolian greeting
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-27 at 3.14.53 am.png
say᠋in bay᠋in-a uu
Hello, how are you? [Formal greeting]

Cyrillic script = "New script"
сайн байна уу
sajn bajna uu
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

I've discovered how to compose in Mongolian vertical script, since Mister Googletranslate only offers Cyrillic when you ask him for a translation.

You go to the Mongol script page on Wikipedia, copy each letter, then paste it in here, and re-size and re-colour. Be sure to use the correct form of each letter: initial if it is the starting letter of a word, medial if it is an interior letter, and final if it ends the word.

ᠷᠣ᠋ᠵᠠ ᠶᠠ‍ᠭᠢ‍‍ᠯᠢ‍ᠲᠢ‍‍ᠨᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Braille in Italy

A recent post, motivated by a 2004 Italian stamp, looked at the deafblind, and the
Malossi hand-touch alphabet.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=534

Waffle has now added a post showing a 2004 Italian stamp celebrating Louis Braille's alphabet
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=92287&start=167
.
Italy, 2004, commemoratives:<br />Louis Braille; Saint Lucia
Italy, 2004, commemoratives:
Louis Braille; Saint Lucia
.
Italy, 2004, Postal card for the Louis Braille alphabet stamp
Italy, 2004, Postal card for the Louis Braille alphabet stamp
.
The First Day Cover [Busta Primo Giorno] shows the Braille alphabet, and two strikes of the
pictorial first day of issue [giorno di emissione] cancellation.
.
Italy, 6 Nov 2004, First Day Cover, <br />celebrating Louis Braille's alphabet
Italy, 6 Nov 2004, First Day Cover,
celebrating Louis Braille's alphabet
The Braille inscription

A close look at the Braille stamp (especially on the First Day Cover) shows that it has a Braille text.
Here is my transcription:
.
E [digit sign] 0 . 4 5
E [digit sign] 0 . 4 5
.
It simply states the face value of the stamp.

Saint Lucia

On the same day, 6 Nov 2004, Italy issue the Saint Lucia commemorative. What is the connection?
The link is explained in Wikipedia (and is clearer in Italian than English, as luce = light ). (Compare: English words lucid, and Lucifer.)
Wikipedia wrote:Saint Lucia is traditionally invoked as a protector of sight due to the Latin etymology of her name (Lux, light)

... per tradizione è invocata come protettrice della vista a motivo dell'etimologia latina del suo nome (Lux, luce).

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Lucia
Let's finish with a variation on the Braille theme, also from Italy:

An Italian cover for the blind

The idea of embossed or debossed dots to carry a message accessible to the blind is not entirely restricted to Braille, though that is the well-established standard.
Here is a 1933 cover (currently on eBay) sent within Turin, showing a different method:
.
1933 IMPERIALE c.2 ISOLATO in tariffa CIECHI lettera scrittura BRAILLE
1933 IMPERIALE c.2 ISOLATO in tariffa CIECHI lettera scrittura BRAILLE
1933 IMPERIAL c.2 solo franking, at special rate for the BLIND.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

Wow Roger, your search engines manage to drag out some excellent philatelic material!!! I don't know where you manage to find it. Brilliant.
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Sinhala

Sri Lanka
Official name: Republic of Sri Lanka
.
ශ්‍රී ලංකා
Sinhala: [Śrī Laṅkā]
இலங்கை
Tamil: [Ilaṅkai]
.
.<br />Sri Lanka, 1973, Commemorative stamps
.
Sri Lanka, 1973, Commemorative stamps


Sinhala and Tamil are the official languages of Sri Lanka.
Here we look at Sinhala. An earlier post on this thread focusse on Tamil:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=365

Sinhala සිංහල [Siṃhāla] — Sinhala, the Sinhalese language
Sinhala is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 16 million Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka. It also used as a second language by another 3 million people belonging to other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, where it is one of the official and national languages, along with Tamil...

The native name of the language is සිංහල [Siṃhāla], which comes from Sanskrit and could be translated as "lion-seizer", "lion-killer" or "lion blood", referring to the legendary founder of the Sinhala people, Prince Vijaya, a descendant of Sinhabahu/Sīhabāhu ("Lion-arms"), the son of a princess of the Vanga Kingdom and a lion...

The Sinhala script, a descendent of the Brahmi script, started to appear in Prakrit inscriptions during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE. Both the script and the language have changed considerably since then. The earliest surviving literature in Sinhala dates from the 9th century CE.

In Sri Lanka the Sinhala script is also used to write Pali and Sanskrit.
https://omniglot.com/writing/sinhala.htm
Sinhala script

The Sinhala script is an abugida. The consonants are the principal characters, and the vowels are added diacritics around the consonants.
The screenshots here presenting the characters are taken from Omniglot, at
https://omniglot.com/writing/sinhala.htm

Consonants, and special conjunct consonants
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-29 at 10.40.57 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-29 at 10.44.47 pm.png
xx
.
Vowels as diacritics with ka ක, and stand-alone vowels
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-29 at 10.42.20 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-29 at 10.43.33 pm.png
.
Numerals
The Sinhala numerals are now obsolete, having been superseded by [Western] Arabic numerals.
However, their forms are still of interest and historical/cultural value.
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-29 at 10.45.26 pm.png
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thai Hill Tribes

A set of stamps of Thailand depicting Thai Hill Tribes gives us another opportunity to study Thai script,
and learn a little more about the cultural and linguistic complexities of Thailand.
This post was motivated by Eli, who showed the 1972 stamp set in Folklore on Stamps thread:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=72459&hilit=Mountainous+tribes&start=274
.
.<br />Thailand, 1972, commemorative set of four,<br /> Thai Hill Tribes (Sc 620-3)
.
Thailand, 1972, commemorative set of four,
Thai Hill Tribes (Sc 620-3)
.
อีก้อ
[īk̂]
Akha = Iko

มูเซอ
[Mūse]
Musoe

เย้า
[Yêā]
Yao

เเม้ว
[Mæ̂w]
Maeo
.
Thai Hill Tribes
Wikipedia wrote:Thai Hill Tribe (Thai: ชาวดอย, ชาวเขา, คนเขา [tɕʰāːw.dɔ̄ːj, tɕʰāːw.kʰǎw, kʰōn.kʰǎw]; Northern Thai: จาวดอย, คนดอย [t͡ɕāːw.dɔ̄ːj, xōn.dɔ̄ːj] — mountain people/folk is a term used in Thailand for all of the various ethnic groups who mostly inhabit the high mountainous northern and western regions of Thailand, including both sides of the border areas between northern Thailand, Laos and Burma, the Phi Pan Nam Range, the Thanon Range (a southern prolongation of the Shan Hills), as well as the Tenasserim Hills in Western Thailand. These areas exhibit mountainous terrain which is in some areas covered by thick forests, while in others it has been heavily affected by deforestation.

The hill dwelling peoples have traditionally been primarily subsistence farmers who use slash-and-burn agricultural techniques to farm their heavily forested communities. Popular perceptions that slash and burn practices are environmentally destructive, governmental concerns over borderland security, and population pressure, have caused the government to forcibly relocate many hill tribe peoples. Traditionally, hill tribes were a migratory people, leaving land as it became depleted of resources. Cultural and adventure travel tourism resulting in visits to the tribal villages, is an increasing source of income for the hill tribes...

In the 19th century, the tribes living in the mountain ranges were the largest non-Buddhist group in Thailand. Their mountain locations were then considered remote and difficult to access. In Thai official documents, the term hill tribe [chao khao] began to appear in the 1960s. This term highlights a "hill and valley" dichotomy that is based on ancient social relationships existing in most of northern and western Thailand...

The seven major hill tribes in Thailand are the Akha, Lahu, Karen, Hmong/Miao, Mien/Yao, Lisu, and Palaung, each with a distinct language and culture.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hill_tribe_(Thailand)
.
.<br />Thailand, 1975, Anti-Tuberculosis Foundation,<br />cinderella sheetlet depicting members of Hill Tribes
.
Thailand, 1975, Anti-Tuberculosis Foundation,
cinderella sheetlet depicting members of Hill Tribes
The tribes represented, in order, are:
Yang, Lahai Nyi, Yao, Meo, Karen
Lisu, Akha, Yao, Karen, Akha

The year of issue is 2518 BE = 1975 CE (*)
.
(*) Conversion of years between Buddhist Era [= BE] and Christian Era [= CE]
follows the formula BE = CE + 543 (Jan-early May)/544 (late May-Dec). The
actual transition depends on the time of the full moon in May (Vesak Day).
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

More on the
Mongolian vertical script.



ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
First Day of Issue.


It has taken me a while to find out an easy way to compile texts in Mongol script. If you go to a "normal" translation site (such as Google Translate) and enter a phrase in English, it converts it to Mongolian cyrillic, as this has been the official script of Mongolia since World War 2.

Today, the Mongol vertical script is widely used in Inner Mongolia, presently a Chinese-ruled region. So it makes sense that the higher education institutes there would be more interested in conversion to this script.

And yes! Indeed they do. The Inner Mongolian University's computer college has set up a website which will allow you to take text already in standard (cyrillic) Mongolian, and have it converted into Mongol vertical script. It even outputs it correctly as vertical, but when I copy this to paste it here, it sadly gets changed to horizontal lines.

ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠰᠥᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠭᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ

For every dark night there’s a brighter day.






ᠪᠡᠷᠰ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠲᠠᠢ᠃
Bruce enjoys Mongolian philately.





ᠮᠠᠷᠺᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠮᠪᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃
Stampboards is amazing.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Bruce = Panterra for those latest updates on Mongolian traditional script.

May I make a request/suggestion? When posting in any script other than a Latin/Roman based script,
it would be very helpful to accompany it with a romanised transcription. If you look over posts by others
in this thread, and in the "Celebrating 500 Posts" thread, you will see that this has helpfully been the
standard, reader-friendly practice. Thanks (in anticipation)!

While I understand the hesitancy to include the "New script" alongside the traditional Mongolian
script, giving both as well as the romanised transcription would be even more inclusive for a range of
present and future readers of these posts...


Inner Mongolia University

I have visited the Wikipedia entry on Inner Mongolia University, using the link in your post:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inner_Mongolia_University

It gives the university's name in English, Chinese and Mongolian, and includes romanised transcriptions
of the latter two:
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-01 at 2.56.19 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-01 at 2.57.34 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-01 at 2.58.10 am.png
Note that the last transliteration is described as "SASM/GNC". Here is what that acronym means:
The former State Administration of Surveying and Mapping [= SASM], Geographical Names Committee [= GNC] and former Script Reform Committee [= SRC] of the People's Republic of China have adopted several romanisations for Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan and Uyghur, officially known as pinyin, Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages and Orthography of Chinese Personal Name in Hanyu Pinyin Letters. These systems may be referred to as SASM/GNC/SRC transcriptions or SASM/GNC romanizations.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SASM/GNC_romanization#Mongolian
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Burmese/Myanmar script
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-02 at 11.34.00 pm.png
.
.<br />Myanmar, 2012, Commemorative for the second TELSOM-ATEC Leaders Meeting, Sc390
.
Myanmar, 2012, Commemorative for the second TELSOM-ATEC Leaders Meeting, Sc390
Most of the content of this post comes from the Wikipedia article
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_alphabet
The Burmese script: မြန်မာအက္ခရာ [mjəmà ʔɛʔkʰəjà] is an abugida used for writing Burmese. It is also used for the liturgical languages of Pali and Sanskrit...
Burmese is written from left to right and requires no spaces between words, although modern writing usually contains spaces after each clause to enhance readability.

Burmese calligraphy originally followed a square format but the cursive format took hold from the 17th century when popular writing led to the wider use of palm leaves and folded paper known as parabaiks(*). A stylus would rip these leaves when making straight lines.

The alphabet has undergone considerable modification to suit the evolving phonology of the Burmese language.
(*) Parabaik
Parabaik ပုရပိုက် [pəɹəbaiʔ]) is a type of paper, made of thick sheets of paper that are blackened, glued and folded together. Along with paper made from bamboo and palm leaves, parabaiks were the main medium for writing and drawing in early modern Burma/Myanmar.
4252_10_-991x736.jpg
.
Two pages in a Burmese parabaik on mulberry bark paper, sold by London antiquarians Michael Blackman Ltd
The script is Shan or Mon, which has influenced Burmese/Myanmar script.
https://www.michaelbackmanltd.com/archived_objects/burmese-f ... h-century/
.
Consonants in Burmese/Myanmar script

Being an abugida means that the main characters of the script are consonants, and
the vowels are "add ons" indicated by diacritical marks added in various positions
around the consonants. Here are the 33 consonants, in traditional order.
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 12.25.20 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 12.26.12 am.png
.
There is a correct direction and order for writing the strokes in each consonant:
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 1.24.06 am.png
.
Romanised transcription of Burmese/Myanmar script usually follows the
MLCTS = Myanmar Language Commission Transcription System (1980),
sometimes abbreviated as the MLC Transcription System. It is an official
transliteration system for rendering Burmese in the Latin/Roman alphabet.

Diacritics for Medial Consonants in Burmese/Myanmar script

Adding a second consonant in the middle of a syllable (that is, a medial consonant) is indicated by the following special diacritical marks:
{Compare with adding a medial 'y' as in Japanese Yōon syllables
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=516
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=517
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 1.17.25 am.png
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Diacritics for Vowels in Burmese/Myanmar script

Adding vowels is illustrated by the following list with diacritics combined with က [k]
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 1.47.19 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 1.50.10 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 1.53.09 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 1.56.20 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 2.01.27 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 2.04.23 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 2.13.18 am.png
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Diacritics as Special Modifiers in Burmese/Myanmar script

The following diacritics modify syllables in special ways:
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 2.17.23 am.png
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Biurmese/Myanmar language

In the previous post we looked at Burmese/Myanmar scripy.
Here we look at the language itself.
Burmese မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: [mranmabhasa], IPA: /mjəmà bàðà/ is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Myanmar, where it is an official language and the language of the Bamar people, the country's principal ethnic group.

Although the Constitution of Myanmar officially recognises the English name of the language as the Myanmar language, most English speakers continue to refer to the language as Burmese, after Burma, the previous name for Myanmar. In 2007, it was spoken as a first language by 33 million, primarily the Bamar (Burman) people and related ethnic groups, and as a second language by 10 million, particularly ethnic minorities in Myanmar...

Burmese belongs to the Southern Burmish branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages, of which Burmese is the most widely spoken of the non-Sinitic languages. Burmese was the fifth of the Sino-Tibetan languages to develop a writing system, after Chinese characters, the Pyu script, the Tibetan alphabet, and the Tangut script...

The majority of Burmese speakers, who live throughout the Irrawaddy River Valley, use a number of largely similar dialects, while a minority speak non-standard dialects found in the peripheral areas of the country...

Despite vocabulary and pronunciation differences, there is mutual intelligibility among Burmese dialects, as they share a common set of tones, consonant clusters, and written script. However, several Burmese dialects differ substantially from standard Burmese...

Spoken Burmese is remarkably uniform among Burmese speakers, particularly those living in the Irrawaddy valley, all of whom use variants of Standard Burmese. The standard dialect of Burmese (the Mandalay-Yangon dialect continuum) comes from the Irrawaddy River valley. Regional differences between speakers from Upper Burma, such as the Mandalay dialect, called အညာသား [anya tha] and speakers from Lower Burma, such as the Yangon dialect, called အောက်သား [auk tha] largely occur in vocabulary choice, not in pronunciation.
The quoted information is from the Wikipedia article
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_language

Analysis of the terms:
MLCTS = Myanmar Language Commission Transcription System

Let us analyse the script for the three linguistic terms given above.
The row and entry number locate each consonant in standard position
as in the table in the previous post: e.g. န (4,5) is in row 4, position 5.
.
မြန်မာဘာသာ
[mranmabhasa]
Burmese/Myanmar language
မ m, mə (5,5), မြ mr, mra /mjə/;
န n, nə (4,5), န် nan /nə/;
မ m, mə (5,5), မာ ma /mà/;
ဘ b, bə (5,4), ဘာ ba /bà/;
သ ð, ðə (6,5), သာ ða /ðà/

အညာသား
[anya tha]
Northern dialect
အ {glottal stop} /?/ (7,3);
ည gn, gnə (2,5), ညာ gna /gna/;
သ ð, ðə (6,5), သာ ða သား ðá:

အောက်သား
[auk tha]
Southern dialect
အ {glottal stop} /?/ (7,3), အေ ?e, အော ?au:, အောက် ?auk;
သ ð, ðə (6,5), သာ ða, သား ða:
အောက်သား
.
The quoted information is from the Wikipedia article
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_language

Compact linguistic description
Burmese is a tonal, pitch-register, and syllable-timed language, largely monosyllabic and analytic, with a subject–object–verb = SOV word order.
Two registers
Burmese is a diglossic language with two distinguishable registers (or diglossic varieties):

Literary High (H) form မြန်မာစာ [mranma ca]: the high variety, formal and written, used in literature (formal writing), newspapers, radio broadcasts, and formal speeches.
Spoken Low (L) form မြန်မာစကား [mranma ca.ka:]: the low variety, informal and spoken, used in daily conversation, television, comics and literature (informal writing).

The literary form of Burmese retains archaic and conservative grammatical structures and modifiers (including particles, markers, and pronouns) no longer used in the colloquial form. Literary Burmese, which has not changed significantly since the 13th century, is the register of Burmese taught in schools. In most cases, the corresponding grammatical markers in the literary and spoken forms are totally unrelated to each other. Examples of this phenomenon include the following lexical terms:
"this" (pronoun): HIGH ဤ i → LOW ဒီ di
"that" (pronoun): HIGH ထို htui → LOW ဟို hui
"at" (postposition): HIGH ၌ hnai. [n̥aɪʔ] → LOW မှာ hma [m̥à]
plural (marker): HIGH များ mya: → LOW တွေ twe
possessive (marker): HIGH ၏ i. → LOW ရဲ့ re.
"and" (conjunction): HIGH နှင့် hnang. → LOW နဲ့ ne.
"if" (conjunction): HIGH လျှင် hlyang → LOW ရင် rang
Historically the literary register was preferred for written Burmese on the grounds that "the spoken style lacks gravity, authority, dignity". In the mid-1960s, some Burmese writers spearheaded efforts to abandon the literary form, asserting that the spoken vernacular form ought to be used...

Although the literary form is heavily used in written and official contexts (literary and scholarly works, radio news broadcasts, and novels), the recent trend has been to accommodate the spoken form in informal written contexts. Nowadays, television news broadcasts, comics, and commercial publications use the spoken form or a combination of the spoken and simpler, less ornate formal forms.
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-06 at 2.31.31 am.png
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Burmese has politeness levels and honorifics that take the speaker's status and age in relation to the audience into account. The particle ပါ pa is frequently used after a verb to express politeness. Moreover, Burmese pronouns relay varying degrees of deference or respect. In many instances, polite speech (e.g., addressing teachers, officials, or elders) employs feudal-era third person pronouns or kinship terms in lieu of first- and second-person pronouns.

Furthermore, with regard to vocabulary choice, spoken Burmese clearly distinguishes the Buddhist clergy (monks) from the laity (householders), especially when speaking to or about bhikkhus (monks). The following are examples of varying vocabulary used for Buddhist clergy and for laity:

"sleep" (verb): ကျိန်း kyin: [tɕẽ́ʲ] for monks vs. အိပ် ip [eʲʔ] for laity
"die" (verb): ပျံတော်မူ pyam tau mu [pjã̀ dɔ̀ mù] for monks vs. သေ se [t̪è] for laity
I will take up some more aspects of the language in a later post.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Burmese/Myanmar language (cont.)

(Apologies for the "fat-finger" typing in the heading of the previous post — noticed too late to edit.)
_________________
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The information quoted in this post is sourced from the Wikipedia article at
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_language

Screen Shot 2020-11-06 at 6.12.03 pm.png
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Vocabulary of Burmese
Burmese primarily has a monosyllabic received Sino-Tibetan vocabulary. Nonetheless, many words, especially loanwords from Indo-European languages like English, are polysyllabic... Burmese loanwords are overwhelmingly in the form of nouns.

Here is a sample of loan words found in Burmese:

suffering: ဒုက္ခ [dowʔkʰa̰], from Pali dukkha
radio: ရေဒီယို [ɹèdìjò], from English radio
method: စနစ် [sənɪʔ], from Mon
eggroll: ကော်ပြန့် [kɔ̀pjã̰], from Hokkien 潤餅 (jūn-piáⁿ)
wife: ဇနီး [zəní], from Hindi jani
noodle: ခေါက်ဆွဲ [kʰaʊʔ sʰwɛ́], from Shan ၶဝ်ႈသွႆး [kʰāu sʰɔi]
foot (unit of measurement): ပေ [pè], from Portuguese pé
flag: အလံ [əlã̀], Arabic: علم‎ ʿalam
storeroom: ဂိုဒေါင် [ɡòdã̀ʊ̃], from Malay gudang
Because of the multiple sources for Burmese vocabulary, Burmese includes sets of synonyms, each having certain usages, such as formal, literary, colloquial, and poetic. One example is the word "moon", which can be လ la̰ (native Tibeto-Burman), စန္ဒာ/စန်း [sàndà]/[sã́] (derivatives of Pali canda 'moon'), or သော်တာ [t̪ɔ̀ dà] (Sanskrit).
1. Vocabulary derived from Pali
Historically, Pali, the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism, had a profound influence on Burmese vocabulary. Burmese has readily adopted words of Pali origin because of phonotactic similarities between two languages alongside the fact that the script used for Burmese can reproduce Pali spellings with complete accuracy. Pali loanwords are often related to religion, government, arts, and science.

Burmese loanwords from Pali primarily take four forms:

Direct loan: direct import of Pali words with no alteration in orthography:
"life": Pali ဇီဝ jiva → Burmese ဇီဝ jiva

Abbreviated loan: import of Pali words with accompanied syllable reduction and alteration in orthography, usually by means of a placing a diacritic, called အသတ် [athat] — 'nonexistence', atop the last letter in the syllable to suppress the consonant's inherent vowel:
"karma": Pali ကမ္မ kamma → Burmese ကံ kam
"dawn": Pali အရုဏ aruṇa → Burmese အရုဏ် aruṇ
"merit": Pali ကုသလ kusala → Burmese ကုသိုလ် kusuil

Double loan: adoption of two different terms derived from the same Pali word:
Pali မာန māna → Burmese မာန [màna̰] ('arrogance') and မာန် [mã̀] ('pride')

Hybrid loan (neologisms or calques): construction of compounds combining native Burmese words with Pali or combine Pali words:
"aeroplane": လေယာဉ်ပျံ [lè jɪ̀m bjã̀], lit. 'air machine fly',
လေယာဉ်ပျံ ← လေ (native Burmese, 'air') + ယာဉ် (from Pali yana, 'vehicle') + ပျံ (native Burmese word, 'fly').
2. Vocabulary derived from Mon
Burmese has also adapted plenty of words from Mon, traditionally spoken by the Mon people, who until recently formed the majority in Lower Burma. Most Mon loanwords are so well assimilated that they are not distinguished as loanwords, because Burmese and Mon were used interchangeably for several centuries in pre-colonial Burma. Mon loan words are often related to flora, fauna, administration, textiles, foods, boats, crafts, architecture, and music.
3. Vocabulary derived from English
As a natural consequence of British rule in Burma, English has been another major source of vocabulary, especially with regard to technology, measurements, and modern institutions. English loanwords tend to take one of three forms:

Direct loan: adoption of an English word, adapted to the Burmese phonology:
"democracy": English democracy → Burmese ဒီမိုကရေစီ

Neologism or calque: translation of an English word using native Burmese constituent words:
"human rights": English 'human rights' → Burmese လူ့အခွင့်အရေး (လူ့ 'human' + အခွင့်အရေး 'rights')

Hybrid loan: construction of compound words by native Burmese words to English words:
'to sign': ဆိုင်းထိုး [sʰã́ɪ̃ tʰó] ← ဆိုင်း (English, sign) + ထိုး (native Burmese, 'inscribe').
4. Vocabulary derived from other languages
To a lesser extent, Burmese has also imported words from Sanskrit (religion), Hindi (food, administration, and shipping), and Chinese (games and food). Burmese has also imported a handful of words from other European languages such as Portuguese.
5. Movement against English loanwords
Since the end of British rule, the Burmese government has attempted to limit usage of Western loan words, especially from English, by coining new words (neologisms).

For instance, for the word "television," Burmese publications are mandated to use the term ရုပ်မြင်သံကြား (lit. 'see picture, hear sound') in lieu of တယ်လီဗီးရှင်း, a direct English transliteration.(*)

Another example is the word "vehicle", which is officially ယာဉ် [jɪ̃̀] (derived from Pali) but ကား [ká] (from English car) in spoken Burmese.(**)

Some previously common English loanwords have fallen out of usage with the adoption of neologisms. An example is the word "university", formerly ယူနီဗာစတီ jùnìbàsətì], from English university, now တက္ကသိုလ် [tɛʔkət̪ò], a Pali-derived neologism recently created by the Burmese government and derived from the Pali spelling of Taxila (တက္ကသီလ Takkasīla), an ancient university town in modern-day Pakistan.(***)
Script analysis of several words

For further practice with the script, let us analyse several words mentioned in the above quote.
Identification of consonants is indicated thus: ရ y,yə (6,2) is the consonant in row 6, position 2
of the standard list of 33 consonants, given in the earlier post at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=545

(*) "television"
ရုပ်မြင်သံကြား

[rotemyinsankyarr]
"see picture, hear sound" (television)
ရ y,yə (6,2), ရု yu. ; ပ p,pə (5,1), ပ် p, ရုပ် yup;
မ m,mə (5,5), မြ mr, မြင် mrang;
သ θ,θə (6,5), သံ θam;
က k,kə (1,1), ကြ kyə, ကြာ kya, ကြား kya:
.
တယ်လီဗီးရှင်း
[taalle bee shinn]
television
တ t,tə (4,1); ယ y,ye (6,1), ယ် ya; တယ် tai;
လ l,lə (6,3), လီ li;
ဗ b,bə (5,3), ဗီ bi, ဗီး bi:;
ရ y,yə (6,2), ရှ hr /ʃ/; ရှင်း ʃang:
.
(**) "vehicle"
ယာဉ်
[jɪ̃̀] [yarin]
vehicle
ယ g,gə (1,4), ယာ ga, ယာဉ် gany.

ကား
[ká] [karr]
car
က k, kə (1,1), ကာ ka, ကား ka:
.
(***) "university"
တက္ကသိုလ်

[tɛʔkət̪ò] [takkasol]
university
တ t, tə (4,1), က k,kə (1,1), က္က kke, တက္က takkə;
သ θ,θə (6,5), သိ θi., သို θum; လ l, lə (6,3), လ် la ; သိုလ် θul.

ယူနီဗာစတီ
[jùnìbàsətì] [yuu ne bar sə te]
university
ယ y, yə (6,1), ယူ yu;
န n,nə (4,5), နီ ni;
ဗ b,bə (5,3), ဗာ ba;
စ s,sə (2,1);
တ t,tə (4,1), တီ ti.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Burmese/Myanmar language (cont.)

.<br />Union of Burma, 1962, map stamp 15p.
.
Union of Burma, 1962, map stamp 15p.
.

ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံ

[Pyihtaunghcu Myanmar Ninengan] [Google translate]

ပြည်ထောင်စု မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်‌

[Pyidaunzu Myăma Nainngandaw]
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-independence_Burma,_1948%E2%80%931962]
Union of Burma

ပ p, pə (5,1), ပြ pya;
ည ng, ngə (2,5), ည် ngay;
ထ d, də (4,2), ထေ de, ထော dau:, ထောင် daung;
စ z, zə (2,1), စု zu;
မ m, mə (5,5), မြ my;
န n, nə (4,5), န် nay;
မ m, mə (5,5), မာ ma;
န n, nə (4,5), နိ ni., နို num;
င ng, ngə (1,5), င် ang, င်ငံ angngi.;
တ t, tə (4,1), တေ te, တော tau:, တော် taung
.
The following quotes are excerpts from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_language

Burmese/Myanmar tones
Burmese is a tonal language, which means phonemic contrasts can be made on the basis of the tone of a vowel. In Burmese, these contrasts involve not only pitch, but also phonation, intensity (loudness), duration, and vowel quality. However, some linguists consider Burmese a pitch-register language like Shanghainese.

In spoken Burmese, some linguists classify two real tones (there are four nominal tones transcribed in written Burmese), "high" (applied to words that terminate with a stop or check, high-rising pitch) and "ordinary" (unchecked and non-glottal words, with falling or lower pitch), with those tones encompassing a variety of pitches. The "ordinary" tone consists of a range of pitches. Linguist L. F. Taylor concluded that "conversational rhythm and euphonic intonation possess importance" not found in related tonal languages and that "its tonal system is now in an advanced state of decay."

There are four contrastive nominal tones in Burmese. In the following table, the tones are shown marked on the vowel /a/ as an example.
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-08 at 12.42.09 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-08 at 12.44.58 am.png
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Burmese/Myanmar language (cont.)

A Note on Tones

The four tones of Burmese/Myanmar (or five tones, according to some authorities)
are a "technical feature" which has attracted the attention of many linguists.

From a practical viewpoint, it appears that spoken [= low register] Burmese/Myanmar
uses two tones (high and low) or perhaps three (including creaky), whereas written,
especially literary [= high register] Burmese/Myanmar incorporates four tones (the
additional two being creaky and checked). Hence, in the written, high register form
of the language the tones play a role which is primarily grammatical.

The term "creaky" was a surprise for me when I first encountered it, and I have tried to
get a little more understanding of it. The information available tends to be couched in
specialised linguistic terminology and discussions, but as a layman considering some of
that material I have found that it is possible to get some insights. For interested readers,
I share the following:

(1) Here is the abstract of the article
Anatomy of a grammatical tone: The case of “Induced Creaky Tone” in Burmese,
January 2018, Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 41(2):192-218
DOI: 10.1075/ltba.18007.tia Author: Mimi Tian
Induced Creaky Tone (ICT)” is a grammatical tone in Burmese. It is the result of a process by which Low or High tone is changed into Creaky tone. This alternation is multifunctional, and one of its functions is possessor marking. This paper demonstrates several well-distinguished conditions of different nature and different domain for this tonal alternation. ICT is primarily induced by syntax, varies due to pragmatic factors, occurs only on the shared right boundary of phrases and stem forms, and its phonological condition has a domain stretching to the left boundary of the prosodic word. A comprehensive account of such conditions provides the basis for a grammatical analysis which tests the theoretical options for representing a tonal morpheme in the morpho-syntactic structure of a sentence. It also sheds light on other issues such as the interfaces between phonology and grammar, and between tonal morphology and tonal syntax.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330820534_Anatomy_o ... in_Burmese
(2) Two posts (2013) on WordReference.com Language Forums by Johnnypolyglot contribute.
https://forum.wordreference.com/threads/burmese-creaky-checked-tone.2757966/
After studying the creaky and checked tones, it appears that they are merged. Both have short vowels with an abrupt end (glottal stop).

In Shan language, there is only one tone with an abrupt end (creaky). Shan doesn't have both (creaky) and (checked) like Burmese. Shan just has (creaky) as its only tone with a glottal stop.

So the question is this, are creaky and checked tones merged in Burmese? ...

Note: I do believe there was a difference in the past. However, I am just hearing 1) creaky 2) low and 3) high and that is it. So I am wondering how this "checked tone" fits into the "3 tone system"? It would seem to me that the "checked" is merged with the "creaky"...
Screen Shot 2020-11-08 at 11.14.35 am.png
.
/RogerE :D

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