Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

zilch-04-maths4v-NEW.jpg
Nichtsburg & Zilchstadt 2004 Mathematics and Zero set.


Back in 2004, I was approached by Mr Erik McRea, who had created a phantasy land, Nichtsburg & Zilchstadt, and produced coins for these entities. He sought to add stamps to his repetoire, and I was able to help him with these ones, celebrating the invention of "zero".

Nicht means "nothing" as does zilch, so the land is a zero-focused entity!


View their website for more details, or to buy their stamps and coins.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

RogerE wrote:
24 Jul 2020 03:31
Thank you Panterra, that significantly advances our understanding of the inscriptions on the stamps. I assume that the inscriptions in the lower side panels of all but the last stamp you showed must be /k/ for kopek, while those in the last (green) stamp must be /r/ for rouble.

I have just now found a Wikipedia page on Mongolian script.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolian_script

It is extensive, and I've only had time to take in a little of the early portion.
Here is the title panel. The two words below "Mongolian Script" repeat that title in the Mongolian script.
The "sample text" appears to be given basically for visual information — I have not located a translation.
.
Image
.
. . .

/RogerE :D

Mongolian Film Studios (in collaboration with Tashkent Film Studios and Leningrad Film Studios) in 1942 made an amazing movie "His Name is Sukhe Bator" about the life and career of Damdin Sukhe Bator, the leader of the Mongolian revolution.

Fortuitously, the film has survived, and can be viewed free on Youtube, here:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zp_25pz5KM8


Mongolia-88-sukheBaator.jpg
Mongolia 1988 Damdin Sukhebaator, father of the republic.



The film is all in Russian, but if you like to read up about the life of Sukhe Bator, and examine the photos of him, you can see that the film seems very close to actuality. The actor who plays Sukhe Bator looks uncannily like the actual guy too. Of course, the main audiences for the film would be in Mongolia and Tuva, so the film-makers had to stick to facts, as the audience would be familiar with the details. Scenes such as Hsu Shu-Cheng, the Chinese general who occupied Mongolia after World War I, the court of the Mongolian khan, His Holiness Bogdo Gegeen Ezen Khan and him being carried on sedan chair through the crowds and distributing coins to the crowds, and Sukhe Bator's hiding the secret paper inside his walking stick before he journeyed to Russia to meet Lenin, are all shown. As is the final scene of a monk poisoning him, under the pretence of treating him for some illness.

The poisoning of Sukhe Bator does not appear in conventional histories, and may have been an "official invention" to give an excuse to crack down on the monks and monasteries, which controlled Mongolia before the revolution.

Anyway, I am digressing a lot here, but was very impressed with the film, and recommend you view it, for a good look at Mongolia in the 1920s. The reason I post the details here is that I was particularly intrigued by the 1920s views of street scenes in the capital, Nisleel Khuree (now renamed after Sukhe as Ulaan Baator). Above the streets can be seen large banners with the shop or building names in Mongolian vertical script, along with a smaller (horizontal) sign with the same detail in Russian. I noted "Telegraph Office" but there may have been others.

I wonder if the "Telegraph Office" was the same as the "Post Office"?

Mongolia has consistently kept up token usage of its beautiful vertical script by showing the currency units on its stamps, and on its banknotes, in this script. See the Sukhe Bator 1988 stamp shown above as an example.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

A note on Zero and Panterra's Nichtsburg & Zilchstadt stamp images:

German: nichtsnothing
Ich habe nichts gesagtI said nothing
The 's' is important. Without it: nichtnot
Ich habe nicht gesprochenI didn't speak

A range of languages already briefly encountered in this thread:
.
nothing versus zero:
.
French: rien vs zéro
Italian: niente vs zero
Catalan: res vs zero
Spanish & Portuguese: nada vs cero
Romanian: nimic vs zero
Esperanto: nenio vs nulo
German: nichts vs null
Danish: intet vs nul
Swedish: ingenting vs noll
Finnish: ei mitään vs nolla
Hungarian: semmi vs nulla
Czech: nic vs nula
Slovak: nič vs nula
Polish: nic vs zero
Russian: ничего [nichevo] vs ноль [nol']
Greek: τίποτα [tipota] vs μηδέν [midén]
Turkish: hiçbir şey vs sıfır
Arabic: لا شيئ [la shayy] vs صفر [sifr]
Hebrew: שום דבר [shum davar] vs אֶפֶס [efes]
Maltese: xejn vs żero
Hindi: कुछ भी तो नहीं [kuchh bhee to nahin] vs शून्य [shoonya]
Bengali: কিছুই না [kichu'i nā] vs শূন্য [śūn'ya]
Thai: ไม่มีอะไร [mị̀mī xarị] vs ศูนย์ [ṣ̄ūny̒]
Chinese: 没有 [méiyǒu] vs [líng]
Japanese: 何も [nani mo] vs ゼロ [zero]
Korean: 아무것도 [amugeosdo] vs 제로 [jelo]
Malay: tidak ada vs sifar
Indonesian: tidak ada vs nol
Māori: kahore vs kore
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Mongolian Script, revisited

Mongolian has featured in several earlier posts in this thread, beginning with
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=324
Related posts can be found by replacing '324' in that url with numbers in the ranges 325, 335-7, 455-6, 466.

More on Mongolian script
The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was in the most widespread use until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.

It is traditionally written in vertical lines, from left to right across the page. Derived from the Old Uyghur(*) alphabet, Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. The Mongolian script has been adapted to write languages such as Oirat and Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian and Xibe.

Computer operating systems have been slow to develop support for the Mongolian script, and incomplete support or other text rendering difficulties are typical...

Traditional Mongolian is written vertically from top to bottom, flowing in lines from left to right. The Old Uyghur(*) script and its descendants, of which traditional Mongolian is one (among Oirat Clear, Manchu, and Buryat) are the only known vertical scripts written from left to right. This developed because the Uyghurs rotated their Sogdian-derived script, originally written right to left, 90 degrees counterclockwise to emulate Chinese writing, but without changing the relative orientation of the letters...

Traditional Mongolian script is known by a wide variety of names. Because of its similarity to the Old Uyghur(*) alphabet, it became known as the Uighurjin Mongol script. During the communist era, when Cyrillic became the official script for the Mongolian language, the traditional script became known as the Old Mongol script, in contrast to the New script, referring to Cyrillic. The name Old Mongol script stuck, and it is still known as such among the older generation, who didn't receive their education in the new script.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolian_script
.
Note on case suffixes in Mongolian script
.
All case suffixes, as well as any plural suffixes consisting of one or two syllables are separated by a preceding and hyphen-transliterated gap.
Single-letter vowel suffixes appear with the final-shaped forms of a/e, i, or u/ü, as in
ᠭᠠᠵᠠᠷ ᠠ γaǰar‑ato the country
ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠡ edür‑eon the day
ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠢ ulus‑ithe state
The two-letter suffix  
 ᠤᠨ ‑un/‑ün
is exemplified in this newspaper logo:
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-24 at 1.08.46 am.png
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongolian_script
.
(*) Old Uyghur alphabet
.
The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in Turfan/Turpan and Gansu that is the ancestor of the modern Western Yugur language...

The Uyghur adopted this script from local inhabitants when they migrated into Turfan after 840C.E. It was an adaptation of the Aramaic alphabet used for texts with Buddhist, Manichaean and Christian content for 700–800 years in Turpan. The last known manuscripts are dated to the 18th century. This was the prototype for the Mongolian and Manchu alphabets. The Old Uyghur alphabet was brought to Mongolia by Tata-tonga.

The Old Uyghur script was used between the 8th and 17th centuries primarily in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, located in present-day Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It is a cursive-joining alphabet with features of an abjad and is written vertically. The script flourished through the 15th century in Central Asia and parts of Iran, but it was eventually replaced by the Arabic script in the 16th century. Its usage was continued in Gansu through the 17th century...

Old Uyghur tended to use matres lectionis(**) for the long vowels as well as for the short ones. The practice of leaving short vowels unrepresented was almost completely abandoned. Thus, while ultimately deriving from a Semitic abjad, the Old Uyghur alphabet can be said to have been largely "alphabetised".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Uyghur_alphabet
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-24 at 12.15.47 am.png
Old Uyghur alphabet
.
(**)Note: Matres lectionis
.
Matres lectionis (Latin "mothers of reading", singular form: mater lectionis, from Hebrew: אֵם קְרִיאָה‎ [em kəriʾa]) are consonants that are used to indicate a vowel, primarily in the writing down of Semitic languages such as Arabic, Hebrew and Syriac. The letters that do this in Hebrew are aleph א‎, he ה‎, waw ו‎ and yod י‎, and in Arabic, ... they are ʾalif ا‎, wāw و‎ and yāʾ ي‎. The yod and waw in particular are more often vowels than they are consonants. The original value of the matres lectionis corresponds closely to what is called glides or semivowels in modern linguistics.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mater_lectionis
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Hindi revisited

This nice Indian minisheet has just been posted in the Happy Day thread by sagi2917:
.
Indian masks series, minisheet, 1974
Indian masks series, minisheet, 1974
.
भारतीय मुखौटों की श्रृंखला
bhaarateeya mukhauton kee shrrnkhala
Indian masks series
.
भारतीय
bhaarateeya
Indian
.
मुखौटों
mukhauton
masks

श्रृंखला
shrrnkhala
series

की
kee
"of"
Here: qualifying "series", not "masks", so "series of"

Compare the word for "masks" with
मुंह
munh
mouth
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by chashmebuddoor »

This was the second MS ever to be released by India Post !
Sun and Moon,you already may be knowing.
Narsimha is one of the avatars of Lord Vishnu and Ravana is the demon king whom Lord Rama fought & slayed.
A beautiful set of stamps...wish India Post issued more such releases.
RogerE wrote:
24 Oct 2020 10:51
Hindi revisited

This nice Indian minisheet has just been posted in the Happy Day thread by sagi2917:
.
Image
.
भारतीय मुखौटों की श्रृंखला
bhaarateeya mukhauton kee shrrnkhala
Indian masks series
.
भारतीय
bhaarateeya
Indian
.
मुखौटों
mukhauton
masks

श्रृंखला
shrrnkhala
series

की
kee
"of"
Here: qualifying "series", not "masks", so "series of"

Compare the word for "masks" with
मुंह
munh
mouth
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

More about Thai

A recent post focussed on Thai script.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=524

Let us now add a little context, with some notes on the language, and some example short sentences.

Thai language
Thai, Central Thai, ภาษาไทย [P̣hās̄ʹā thịy](*), is the national language of Thailand and de facto official language. It is the first language of the Central Thai people and most Thai Chinese, depending on age.

It is a member of the Tai group of the Kra–Dai language family, and one of over 60 languages of Thailand. Over half of Thai vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon[6] and Old Khmer. It is a tonal and analytic language, similar to Chinese and Vietnamese.

Thai has a complex orthography and system of relational markers. Depending on standard sociolinguistic factors such as age, gender, class, spatial proximity, and the urban/rural divide, spoken Thai is partly mutually intelligible with Lao, Isan, and some fellow Southwestern Tai languages. These languages are written with slightly different scripts but are linguistically similar and effectively form a dialect continuum.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thai_language
.
ภาษาไทย
P̣hās̄ʹā thịy = pʰasa:tʰai
Thai language

32: = ph, ภา = phā
39: = s, ษา = sā
23: = th, ไท = thai
34: = y
Numbers refer to the position in the standard list of consonants


Etymology: Note these cognate words for "language"
Language
ภาษา [P̣hās̄ʹā] [Thai]
भाषा [bhaasha] [Hindi]
ভাষা [bhāṣā] [Bengali]
ભાષા [bhāṣā] [Gujarati]
bahasa [Malay, Indonesian]
basa [Javanese]
etc.
Presumably these forms have descended from
वचनम् [vacanam] [Sanskrit]
.
Some sample Thai sentences

Two romanisations are given, using two different systems.
.
วันนี้อากาศดี
wan níː aː-kàːt diː = wạn nī̂ xākāṣ̄ dī
The weather is nice today

Analysis:
37: = w, วั = wa
25: = n,
25: นี = ni: นี้ = nì: (falling tone)
44: = [], อา = a:
1: กา = k, กา = ka:
38: = t,
40: = d, ดี = di:
___________
.
กระเป๋าใบนี้หนัก
krà-pǎw baj níː nàk = krapěā bı nī̂ h̄nạk
This bag is heavy

Analysis:
1: = k,
35: = r, ระ = ra
27: = p, เป๋า = pao [rising tone]
34: = b, ใบ = bai
25: = n, นี้ = ni: [falling tone]
41: = h,
25: = n, นั = na, นัก = nak.
___________
.
เราไม่ใช่คนรวย
raw mâj tɕʰâj kʰon ruaj = reā mị̀chı̀ khnrwy
We are not rich

Analysis:
35: = r, เรา = rao
33: = m, ไม่ = mai [low tone]
10: = ch, ใช่ = chai [low tone]
4: = kʰ, kʰo
25: = n,
35: = r, รว = rua
34: = y.
___________
.
Sample sentences sourced from:
https://ai.glossika.com/language/learn-thai

.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Communication for the deafblind

Various forms of Braille and sign language have been discussed on this thread.

The first post on Braille is at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=43
and later posts are accessible by replacing '43' by any of 47, 120, 410 (and 46 briefly).

The first post on sign language is at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=504
and later posts are accessible by replacing '504' by any number from 505, ..., 510.

What about communication for people with both hearing and visual impairment?
In the English-speaking world the inspiring example of Helen Keller springs to mind.
An Italian stamp posted by Waffle (with his caption) has prompted me think about this.
.
IMG_20200810_0003 (20).jpg
Stamp of Italy (2004): Francobollo celebrativo della Lega del Filo D'Oro
Commemorative stamp on Sign Language (Alfabeto Malossi)
Issued 9 Oct 2004 Designer S. Lazzarini.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=92287&start=157

.
Malossi Alphabet: method in which the hand is used as a communication tool, used as if it were a typewriter; in fact, each part of it corresponds to a letter of the alphabet which, when touched or pinched lightly, allows you to compose words and phrases. This method is generally used by people who have learned reading and writing before becoming deafblind.
Screen Shot 2020-10-26 at 1.06.18 pm.png
Alfabeto Malossi: metodo nel quale viene utilizzata la mano come strumento di comunicazione, usata come fosse una macchina da scrivere; a ogni parte di essa corrisponde, infatti, una lettera dell’alfabeto che, toccata o pizzicata leggermente, permette di comporre parole e frasi. 
Questo metodo è utilizzato generalmente dalle persone che hanno appreso la lettura e la scrittura prima di diventare sordocieche.
https://www.legadelfilodoro.it/chi-aiutiamo/io-dentro-il-mondo/la-comunicazione/il-malossi
Deafblindness

Searching the internet for information about the Lega del Filo d’OroGolden Thread league has led me to conclude that it focusses on assisting those with deafblindness — that is, both hear deficiency and visual deficiency, with deafness and blindness being the extremes of these two handicaps.

Of course, this is not confined to Italy, but here is relevant information from the Lega del Filo d’Oro:
A person is considered deafblind when they have a total or partial loss of vision and hearing. Multisensory disabilities occur when visual and auditory deficits are compounded by other impairments (motor, intellectual, neurological damage, organic pathologies, etc.). These disabilities can cause severe limitations in communications, personal autonomy and learning, as well as serious difficulties in both interpersonal relationships and perceptions of the surrounding environment.

Deafblindness can be congenital or acquired. The causes vary, and include premature birth, sensory loss with age, or rare syndromes like Usher and CHARGE, which compound severe medical and developmental issues with loss of vision and hearing.

In 2015, Lega del Filo d’Oro sponsored Italy’s first comprehensive census of people affected by problems related to both vision and hearing. According to the study, 189,000 people — or about .03% of the Italian population – are affected by problems related to vision and hearing. This is much higher than previous estimates of 3,000 to 11,000 people.
https://www.friendsoflfo.org/about-deafblindess/
Survey of deafblindness in the Italian population (2015), by the Lega del Filo d’Oro
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-26 at 11.28.34 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-26 at 11.29.47 am.png
.
Here is an extract from the Official Journal of the European Union:
At the same time it is fair to say that the main impairment groups facing accessibility difficulties in Information Communication Technology [= ICT](*) are: persons with cognitive and learning disabilities, persons with sensory disabilities (deaf and hard of hearing, blind and visually impaired persons, deafblind persons, persons with speech disabilities) and persons with physical disabilities.

Tuttavia in tale ambito i disabili che incontrano le maggiori difficoltà d'accesso alle Tecnologia dell'informazione e della comunicazione [= TIC](*) sono le persone con difficoltà cognitive o di apprendimento, le persone con disabilità sensoriali (non udenti e ipoudenti, non vedenti e ipovedenti, persone sorde e cieche e persone con difficoltà di parola) e le persone con disabilità fisiche.
https://www.linguee.com/english-italian/translation/deafblind.html
(*) Note: Information and Communication Technologies [= ICT] is a broader term for Information Technology [= IT], which refers to all communication technologies, including the internet, wireless networks, cell phones, computers, software, middleware, video-conferencing, social networking, and other media applications and services.
http://aims.fao.org/information-and-communication-technologies-ict


Deafblind in Australia

There is an Australian website entitled Deafblind Information Australia
https://www.deafblindinformation.org.au/

Here is information about a communication device described on that website:
Deafblind Communicator
For people who are able to read Braille, using technology may be an option to increase communication opportunities. [Presumably DB = deafblind in the following text.]

A portable device consisting of a DB-Phone and DB-BrailleNote (with QWERTY or Perkins keyboard).

A sighted person types their message into the DB-Phone and sends to the DB-BrailleNote where the deafblind person receives and reads the message reading through Braille output.

The deafblind person types and then sends their message back to the DB-Phone for the sighted person to read the display on screen or listen through speech output. Conversations can go back and forth via this method.

• Enables a person who is deafblind to communicate with hearing people
• The DB-Phone can be used for SMS Texting and with TTY
• Uses Braille output
• Communication takes place wirelessly via Bluetooth
• Software available for additional features
https://www.deafblindinformation.org.au/living-with-deafblin ... municator/
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

Thank you RogerE. A very comprehensive report, triggered by such a small stamp. Very shortly on my Italian stamp thread, there will be posted, a stamp dedicated to Braille. The Italians seem to be on the ball here re visual and hearing disabilities.
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

ᠷᠣ᠋ᠵᠠ ᠶᠠ‍ᠭᠢ‍‍ᠯᠢ‍ᠲᠢ‍‍ᠨᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ


Image
Mongolia 1932: some of the pictorial set, with Mongol vertical script correctly used for the locals, and English to satisfy the UPU and collectors abroad.
The late great leader Sukhe Bator is shown on the 40 mung, and his monument on the 50 mung.


. . . but the Mongol vertical script does have a few problems, such as the inability of typewriters to quickly produce a standardised version. So the new Mongolian government began to introduce the Latin alphabet in the 1930s: the 20 mung stamp here shows crowds assemble to learn the new alphabet.

Mongolian stamps show the country name in English to this day, though their first issue of 1924 neglected to show the country name at all, and was harshly criticised by the UPU for such carelessness.



Mongolia-24-10c-U.jpg
Mongolia 1924 10c from the first issue. SG 4.
The country name is conspicuous by its absence!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

More on Mongolian script

This post follows my recent post on Mongolian language and script at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=530
Wikipedia wrote:When the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party was founded in 1921, the Tuvan People's Republic was also founded in the same year. The party held single-party control over its government as a vanguard party.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuvan_People%27s_Revolutionary_Party
As another example of the way case suffixes follow the modified word with a small space, but are transliterated in romanised script as a hyphenated suffix, notice how the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party is rendered in Mongolian vertical script, and how it is romanised:
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-27 at 1.29.55 am.png
Tangnu Tuva-yin arad-un qubisγal-tu nam
Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party
.
Notice how the main part of this script looks when rendered horizontally (in a different font):
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-27 at 1.32.16 am.png
Let's rotate that horizontal screeenshot to vertical, for the "proper" orientation.
Notice that although the suffixes are not joined to the words they modify, in this font each suffix
begins with a diacritical glyph effectively "corresponding" to a hyphen.
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-27 at 1.32.16 am.png
.
When Google Translate is asked to render Tanna Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party into Mongolian, it produces the Cyrillic ["New script"] version:
.
Тангу Тувагийн Ардын хувьсгалт нам
Tangu Tuvagiin Ardyn khuvisgalt nam
.
Compare with the earlier:
Tangnu Tuva-yin arad-un qubisγal-tu nam
.
Ардын [ardyn = arad-un] — People's
Xувьсгалт [khuvisgalt = qubisγal-tu] — Revolutionary
нам [nam] — Party
.
Mongolian greeting
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-27 at 3.14.53 am.png
say᠋in bay᠋in-a uu
Hello, how are you? [Formal greeting]

Cyrillic script = "New script"
сайн байна уу
sajn bajna uu
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

I've discovered how to compose in Mongolian vertical script, since Mister Googletranslate only offers Cyrillic when you ask him for a translation.

You go to the Mongol script page on Wikipedia, copy each letter, then paste it in here, and re-size and re-colour. Be sure to use the correct form of each letter: initial if it is the starting letter of a word, medial if it is an interior letter, and final if it ends the word.

ᠷᠣ᠋ᠵᠠ ᠶᠠ‍ᠭᠢ‍‍ᠯᠢ‍ᠲᠢ‍‍ᠨᠠ ᠰᠠᠶᠢᠨ

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Braille in Italy

A recent post, motivated by a 2004 Italian stamp, looked at the deafblind, and the
Malossi hand-touch alphabet.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=534

Waffle has now added a post showing a 2004 Italian stamp celebrating Louis Braille's alphabet
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=92287&start=167
.
Italy, 2004, commemoratives:<br />Louis Braille; Saint Lucia
Italy, 2004, commemoratives:
Louis Braille; Saint Lucia
.
Italy, 2004, Postal card for the Louis Braille alphabet stamp
Italy, 2004, Postal card for the Louis Braille alphabet stamp
.
The First Day Cover [Busta Primo Giorno] shows the Braille alphabet, and two strikes of the
pictorial first day of issue [giorno di emissione] cancellation.
.
Italy, 6 Nov 2004, First Day Cover, <br />celebrating Louis Braille's alphabet
Italy, 6 Nov 2004, First Day Cover,
celebrating Louis Braille's alphabet
The Braille inscription

A close look at the Braille stamp (especially on the First Day Cover) shows that it has a Braille text.
Here is my transcription:
.
E [digit sign] 0 . 4 5
E [digit sign] 0 . 4 5
.
It simply states the face value of the stamp.

Saint Lucia

On the same day, 6 Nov 2004, Italy issue the Saint Lucia commemorative. What is the connection?
The link is explained in Wikipedia (and is clearer in Italian than English, as luce = light ). (Compare: English words lucid, and Lucifer.)
Wikipedia wrote:Saint Lucia is traditionally invoked as a protector of sight due to the Latin etymology of her name (Lux, light)

... per tradizione è invocata come protettrice della vista a motivo dell'etimologia latina del suo nome (Lux, luce).

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Lucia
Let's finish with a variation on the Braille theme, also from Italy:

An Italian cover for the blind

The idea of embossed or debossed dots to carry a message accessible to the blind is not entirely restricted to Braille, though that is the well-established standard.
Here is a 1933 cover (currently on eBay) sent within Turin, showing a different method:
.
1933 IMPERIALE c.2 ISOLATO in tariffa CIECHI lettera scrittura BRAILLE
1933 IMPERIALE c.2 ISOLATO in tariffa CIECHI lettera scrittura BRAILLE
1933 IMPERIAL c.2 solo franking, at special rate for the BLIND.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Waffle »

Wow Roger, your search engines manage to drag out some excellent philatelic material!!! I don't know where you manage to find it. Brilliant.
I prefer to collect UK, British Commonwealth esp Pacific area ( not excluding West Indies/Canada ) and Western Europe. At the bottom of my zone of interest is Eastern Europe and communist countries.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Sinhala

Sri Lanka
Official name: Republic of Sri Lanka
.
ශ්‍රී ලංකා
Sinhala: [Śrī Laṅkā]
இலங்கை
Tamil: [Ilaṅkai]
.
.<br />Sri Lanka, 1973, Commemorative stamps
.
Sri Lanka, 1973, Commemorative stamps


Sinhala and Tamil are the official languages of Sri Lanka.
Here we look at Sinhala. An earlier post on this thread focusse on Tamil:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=365

Sinhala සිංහල [Siṃhāla] — Sinhala, the Sinhalese language
Sinhala is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 16 million Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka. It also used as a second language by another 3 million people belonging to other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, where it is one of the official and national languages, along with Tamil...

The native name of the language is සිංහල [Siṃhāla], which comes from Sanskrit and could be translated as "lion-seizer", "lion-killer" or "lion blood", referring to the legendary founder of the Sinhala people, Prince Vijaya, a descendant of Sinhabahu/Sīhabāhu ("Lion-arms"), the son of a princess of the Vanga Kingdom and a lion...

The Sinhala script, a descendent of the Brahmi script, started to appear in Prakrit inscriptions during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE. Both the script and the language have changed considerably since then. The earliest surviving literature in Sinhala dates from the 9th century CE.

In Sri Lanka the Sinhala script is also used to write Pali and Sanskrit.
https://omniglot.com/writing/sinhala.htm
Sinhala script

The Sinhala script is an abugida. The consonants are the principal characters, and the vowels are added diacritics around the consonants.
The screenshots here presenting the characters are taken from Omniglot, at
https://omniglot.com/writing/sinhala.htm

Consonants, and special conjunct consonants
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-29 at 10.40.57 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-29 at 10.44.47 pm.png
xx
.
Vowels as diacritics with ka ක, and stand-alone vowels
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-29 at 10.42.20 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-10-29 at 10.43.33 pm.png
.
Numerals
The Sinhala numerals are now obsolete, having been superseded by [Western] Arabic numerals.
However, their forms are still of interest and historical/cultural value.
.
Screen Shot 2020-10-29 at 10.45.26 pm.png
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thai Hill Tribes

A set of stamps of Thailand depicting Thai Hill Tribes gives us another opportunity to study Thai script,
and learn a little more about the cultural and linguistic complexities of Thailand.
This post was motivated by Eli, who showed the 1972 stamp set in Folklore on Stamps thread:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=72459&hilit=Mountainous+tribes&start=274
.
.<br />Thailand, 1972, commemorative set of four,<br /> Thai Hill Tribes (Sc 620-3)
.
Thailand, 1972, commemorative set of four,
Thai Hill Tribes (Sc 620-3)
.
อีก้อ
[īk̂]
Akha = Iko

มูเซอ
[Mūse]
Musoe

เย้า
[Yêā]
Yao

เเม้ว
[Mæ̂w]
Maeo
.
Thai Hill Tribes
Wikipedia wrote:Thai Hill Tribe (Thai: ชาวดอย, ชาวเขา, คนเขา [tɕʰāːw.dɔ̄ːj, tɕʰāːw.kʰǎw, kʰōn.kʰǎw]; Northern Thai: จาวดอย, คนดอย [t͡ɕāːw.dɔ̄ːj, xōn.dɔ̄ːj] — mountain people/folk is a term used in Thailand for all of the various ethnic groups who mostly inhabit the high mountainous northern and western regions of Thailand, including both sides of the border areas between northern Thailand, Laos and Burma, the Phi Pan Nam Range, the Thanon Range (a southern prolongation of the Shan Hills), as well as the Tenasserim Hills in Western Thailand. These areas exhibit mountainous terrain which is in some areas covered by thick forests, while in others it has been heavily affected by deforestation.

The hill dwelling peoples have traditionally been primarily subsistence farmers who use slash-and-burn agricultural techniques to farm their heavily forested communities. Popular perceptions that slash and burn practices are environmentally destructive, governmental concerns over borderland security, and population pressure, have caused the government to forcibly relocate many hill tribe peoples. Traditionally, hill tribes were a migratory people, leaving land as it became depleted of resources. Cultural and adventure travel tourism resulting in visits to the tribal villages, is an increasing source of income for the hill tribes...

In the 19th century, the tribes living in the mountain ranges were the largest non-Buddhist group in Thailand. Their mountain locations were then considered remote and difficult to access. In Thai official documents, the term hill tribe [chao khao] began to appear in the 1960s. This term highlights a "hill and valley" dichotomy that is based on ancient social relationships existing in most of northern and western Thailand...

The seven major hill tribes in Thailand are the Akha, Lahu, Karen, Hmong/Miao, Mien/Yao, Lisu, and Palaung, each with a distinct language and culture.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hill_tribe_(Thailand)
.
.<br />Thailand, 1975, Anti-Tuberculosis Foundation,<br />cinderella sheetlet depicting members of Hill Tribes
.
Thailand, 1975, Anti-Tuberculosis Foundation,
cinderella sheetlet depicting members of Hill Tribes
The tribes represented, in order, are:
Yang, Lahai Nyi, Yao, Meo, Karen
Lisu, Akha, Yao, Karen, Akha

The year of issue is 2518 BE = 1975 CE (*)
.
(*) Conversion of years between Buddhist Era [= BE] and Christian Era [= CE]
follows the formula BE = CE + 543 (Jan-early May)/544 (late May-Dec). The
actual transition depends on the time of the full moon in May (Vesak Day).
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

More on the
Mongolian vertical script.



ᠳ᠋ᠤᠭᠠᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠬᠢᠨ ᠦ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ
First Day of Issue.


It has taken me a while to find out an easy way to compile texts in Mongol script. If you go to a "normal" translation site (such as Google Translate) and enter a phrase in English, it converts it to Mongolian cyrillic, as this has been the official script of Mongolia since World War 2.

Today, the Mongol vertical script is widely used in Inner Mongolia, presently a Chinese-ruled region. So it makes sense that the higher education institutes there would be more interested in conversion to this script.

And yes! Indeed they do. The Inner Mongolian University's computer college has set up a website which will allow you to take text already in standard (cyrillic) Mongolian, and have it converted into Mongol vertical script. It even outputs it correctly as vertical, but when I copy this to paste it here, it sadly gets changed to horizontal lines.

ᠬᠠᠷᠠᠩᠭᠤᠢ ᠰᠥᠨᠢ ᠪᠦᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠬᠤᠪᠢ ᠳᠤ ᠢᠯᠡᠭᠦᠦ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯ ᠭᠡᠭᠡ ᠲᠡᠢ ᠡᠳᠦᠷ ᠪᠠᠶᠢᠳᠠᠭ

For every dark night there’s a brighter day.






ᠪᠡᠷᠰ ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠹᠢᠯᠠᠲ᠋ᠧᠯ ᠳᠤ ᠳᠤᠷᠠᠲᠠᠢ᠃
Bruce enjoys Mongolian philately.





ᠮᠠᠷᠺᠠᠨ ᠤ ᠰᠠᠮᠪᠠᠷ᠎ᠠ ᠭᠠᠶᠢᠬᠠᠯᠲᠠᠢ᠃
Stampboards is amazing.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Bruce = Panterra for those latest updates on Mongolian traditional script.

May I make a request/suggestion? When posting in any script other than a Latin/Roman based script,
it would be very helpful to accompany it with a romanised transcription. If you look over posts by others
in this thread, and in the "Celebrating 500 Posts" thread, you will see that this has helpfully been the
standard, reader-friendly practice. Thanks (in anticipation)!

While I understand the hesitancy to include the "New script" alongside the traditional Mongolian
script, giving both as well as the romanised transcription would be even more inclusive for a range of
present and future readers of these posts...


Inner Mongolia University

I have visited the Wikipedia entry on Inner Mongolia University, using the link in your post:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inner_Mongolia_University

It gives the university's name in English, Chinese and Mongolian, and includes romanised transcriptions
of the latter two:
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-01 at 2.56.19 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-01 at 2.57.34 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-01 at 2.58.10 am.png
Note that the last transliteration is described as "SASM/GNC". Here is what that acronym means:
The former State Administration of Surveying and Mapping [= SASM], Geographical Names Committee [= GNC] and former Script Reform Committee [= SRC] of the People's Republic of China have adopted several romanisations for Chinese, Mongolian, Tibetan and Uyghur, officially known as pinyin, Regulation of Phonetic Transcription in Hanyu Pinyin Letters of Place Names in Minority Nationality Languages and Orthography of Chinese Personal Name in Hanyu Pinyin Letters. These systems may be referred to as SASM/GNC/SRC transcriptions or SASM/GNC romanizations.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SASM/GNC_romanization#Mongolian
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Burmese/Myanmar script
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-02 at 11.34.00 pm.png
.
.<br />Myanmar, 2012, Commemorative for the second TELSOM-ATEC Leaders Meeting, Sc390
.
Myanmar, 2012, Commemorative for the second TELSOM-ATEC Leaders Meeting, Sc390
Most of the content of this post comes from the Wikipedia article
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_alphabet
The Burmese script: မြန်မာအက္ခရာ [mjəmà ʔɛʔkʰəjà] is an abugida used for writing Burmese. It is also used for the liturgical languages of Pali and Sanskrit...
Burmese is written from left to right and requires no spaces between words, although modern writing usually contains spaces after each clause to enhance readability.

Burmese calligraphy originally followed a square format but the cursive format took hold from the 17th century when popular writing led to the wider use of palm leaves and folded paper known as parabaiks(*). A stylus would rip these leaves when making straight lines.

The alphabet has undergone considerable modification to suit the evolving phonology of the Burmese language.
(*) Parabaik
Parabaik ပုရပိုက် [pəɹəbaiʔ]) is a type of paper, made of thick sheets of paper that are blackened, glued and folded together. Along with paper made from bamboo and palm leaves, parabaiks were the main medium for writing and drawing in early modern Burma/Myanmar.
4252_10_-991x736.jpg
.
Two pages in a Burmese parabaik on mulberry bark paper, sold by London antiquarians Michael Blackman Ltd
The script is Shan or Mon, which has influenced Burmese/Myanmar script.
https://www.michaelbackmanltd.com/archived_objects/burmese-f ... h-century/
.
Consonants in Burmese/Myanmar script

Being an abugida means that the main characters of the script are consonants, and
the vowels are "add ons" indicated by diacritical marks added in various positions
around the consonants. Here are the 33 consonants, in traditional order.
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 12.25.20 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 12.26.12 am.png
.
There is a correct direction and order for writing the strokes in each consonant:
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 1.24.06 am.png
.
Romanised transcription of Burmese/Myanmar script usually follows the
MLCTS = Myanmar Language Commission Transcription System (1980),
sometimes abbreviated as the MLC Transcription System. It is an official
transliteration system for rendering Burmese in the Latin/Roman alphabet.

Diacritics for Medial Consonants in Burmese/Myanmar script

Adding a second consonant in the middle of a syllable (that is, a medial consonant) is indicated by the following special diacritical marks:
{Compare with adding a medial 'y' as in Japanese Yōon syllables
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=516
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=517
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 1.17.25 am.png
.
Diacritics for Vowels in Burmese/Myanmar script

Adding vowels is illustrated by the following list with diacritics combined with က [k]
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 1.47.19 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 1.50.10 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 1.53.09 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 1.56.20 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 2.01.27 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 2.04.23 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 2.13.18 am.png
.
Diacritics as Special Modifiers in Burmese/Myanmar script

The following diacritics modify syllables in special ways:
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-03 at 2.17.23 am.png
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Biurmese/Myanmar language

In the previous post we looked at Burmese/Myanmar scripy.
Here we look at the language itself.
Burmese မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: [mranmabhasa], IPA: /mjəmà bàðà/ is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Myanmar, where it is an official language and the language of the Bamar people, the country's principal ethnic group.

Although the Constitution of Myanmar officially recognises the English name of the language as the Myanmar language, most English speakers continue to refer to the language as Burmese, after Burma, the previous name for Myanmar. In 2007, it was spoken as a first language by 33 million, primarily the Bamar (Burman) people and related ethnic groups, and as a second language by 10 million, particularly ethnic minorities in Myanmar...

Burmese belongs to the Southern Burmish branch of the Sino-Tibetan languages, of which Burmese is the most widely spoken of the non-Sinitic languages. Burmese was the fifth of the Sino-Tibetan languages to develop a writing system, after Chinese characters, the Pyu script, the Tibetan alphabet, and the Tangut script...

The majority of Burmese speakers, who live throughout the Irrawaddy River Valley, use a number of largely similar dialects, while a minority speak non-standard dialects found in the peripheral areas of the country...

Despite vocabulary and pronunciation differences, there is mutual intelligibility among Burmese dialects, as they share a common set of tones, consonant clusters, and written script. However, several Burmese dialects differ substantially from standard Burmese...

Spoken Burmese is remarkably uniform among Burmese speakers, particularly those living in the Irrawaddy valley, all of whom use variants of Standard Burmese. The standard dialect of Burmese (the Mandalay-Yangon dialect continuum) comes from the Irrawaddy River valley. Regional differences between speakers from Upper Burma, such as the Mandalay dialect, called အညာသား [anya tha] and speakers from Lower Burma, such as the Yangon dialect, called အောက်သား [auk tha] largely occur in vocabulary choice, not in pronunciation.
The quoted information is from the Wikipedia article
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_language

Analysis of the terms:
MLCTS = Myanmar Language Commission Transcription System

Let us analyse the script for the three linguistic terms given above.
The row and entry number locate each consonant in standard position
as in the table in the previous post: e.g. န (4,5) is in row 4, position 5.
.
မြန်မာဘာသာ
[mranmabhasa]
Burmese/Myanmar language
မ m, mə (5,5), မြ mr, mra /mjə/;
န n, nə (4,5), န် nan /nə/;
မ m, mə (5,5), မာ ma /mà/;
ဘ b, bə (5,4), ဘာ ba /bà/;
သ ð, ðə (6,5), သာ ða /ðà/

အညာသား
[anya tha]
Northern dialect
အ {glottal stop} /?/ (7,3);
ည gn, gnə (2,5), ညာ gna /gna/;
သ ð, ðə (6,5), သာ ða သား ðá:

အောက်သား
[auk tha]
Southern dialect
အ {glottal stop} /?/ (7,3), အေ ?e, အော ?au:, အောက် ?auk;
သ ð, ðə (6,5), သာ ða, သား ða:
အောက်သား
.
The quoted information is from the Wikipedia article
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_language

Compact linguistic description
Burmese is a tonal, pitch-register, and syllable-timed language, largely monosyllabic and analytic, with a subject–object–verb = SOV word order.
Two registers
Burmese is a diglossic language with two distinguishable registers (or diglossic varieties):

Literary High (H) form မြန်မာစာ [mranma ca]: the high variety, formal and written, used in literature (formal writing), newspapers, radio broadcasts, and formal speeches.
Spoken Low (L) form မြန်မာစကား [mranma ca.ka:]: the low variety, informal and spoken, used in daily conversation, television, comics and literature (informal writing).

The literary form of Burmese retains archaic and conservative grammatical structures and modifiers (including particles, markers, and pronouns) no longer used in the colloquial form. Literary Burmese, which has not changed significantly since the 13th century, is the register of Burmese taught in schools. In most cases, the corresponding grammatical markers in the literary and spoken forms are totally unrelated to each other. Examples of this phenomenon include the following lexical terms:
"this" (pronoun): HIGH ဤ i → LOW ဒီ di
"that" (pronoun): HIGH ထို htui → LOW ဟို hui
"at" (postposition): HIGH ၌ hnai. [n̥aɪʔ] → LOW မှာ hma [m̥à]
plural (marker): HIGH များ mya: → LOW တွေ twe
possessive (marker): HIGH ၏ i. → LOW ရဲ့ re.
"and" (conjunction): HIGH နှင့် hnang. → LOW နဲ့ ne.
"if" (conjunction): HIGH လျှင် hlyang → LOW ရင် rang
Historically the literary register was preferred for written Burmese on the grounds that "the spoken style lacks gravity, authority, dignity". In the mid-1960s, some Burmese writers spearheaded efforts to abandon the literary form, asserting that the spoken vernacular form ought to be used...

Although the literary form is heavily used in written and official contexts (literary and scholarly works, radio news broadcasts, and novels), the recent trend has been to accommodate the spoken form in informal written contexts. Nowadays, television news broadcasts, comics, and commercial publications use the spoken form or a combination of the spoken and simpler, less ornate formal forms.
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-06 at 2.31.31 am.png
.
Burmese has politeness levels and honorifics that take the speaker's status and age in relation to the audience into account. The particle ပါ pa is frequently used after a verb to express politeness. Moreover, Burmese pronouns relay varying degrees of deference or respect. In many instances, polite speech (e.g., addressing teachers, officials, or elders) employs feudal-era third person pronouns or kinship terms in lieu of first- and second-person pronouns.

Furthermore, with regard to vocabulary choice, spoken Burmese clearly distinguishes the Buddhist clergy (monks) from the laity (householders), especially when speaking to or about bhikkhus (monks). The following are examples of varying vocabulary used for Buddhist clergy and for laity:

"sleep" (verb): ကျိန်း kyin: [tɕẽ́ʲ] for monks vs. အိပ် ip [eʲʔ] for laity
"die" (verb): ပျံတော်မူ pyam tau mu [pjã̀ dɔ̀ mù] for monks vs. သေ se [t̪è] for laity
I will take up some more aspects of the language in a later post.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Burmese/Myanmar language (cont.)

(Apologies for the "fat-finger" typing in the heading of the previous post — noticed too late to edit.)
_________________
.
The information quoted in this post is sourced from the Wikipedia article at
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_language

Screen Shot 2020-11-06 at 6.12.03 pm.png
.
Vocabulary of Burmese
Burmese primarily has a monosyllabic received Sino-Tibetan vocabulary. Nonetheless, many words, especially loanwords from Indo-European languages like English, are polysyllabic... Burmese loanwords are overwhelmingly in the form of nouns.

Here is a sample of loan words found in Burmese:

suffering: ဒုက္ခ [dowʔkʰa̰], from Pali dukkha
radio: ရေဒီယို [ɹèdìjò], from English radio
method: စနစ် [sənɪʔ], from Mon
eggroll: ကော်ပြန့် [kɔ̀pjã̰], from Hokkien 潤餅 (jūn-piáⁿ)
wife: ဇနီး [zəní], from Hindi jani
noodle: ခေါက်ဆွဲ [kʰaʊʔ sʰwɛ́], from Shan ၶဝ်ႈသွႆး [kʰāu sʰɔi]
foot (unit of measurement): ပေ [pè], from Portuguese pé
flag: အလံ [əlã̀], Arabic: علم‎ ʿalam
storeroom: ဂိုဒေါင် [ɡòdã̀ʊ̃], from Malay gudang
Because of the multiple sources for Burmese vocabulary, Burmese includes sets of synonyms, each having certain usages, such as formal, literary, colloquial, and poetic. One example is the word "moon", which can be လ la̰ (native Tibeto-Burman), စန္ဒာ/စန်း [sàndà]/[sã́] (derivatives of Pali canda 'moon'), or သော်တာ [t̪ɔ̀ dà] (Sanskrit).
1. Vocabulary derived from Pali
Historically, Pali, the liturgical language of Theravada Buddhism, had a profound influence on Burmese vocabulary. Burmese has readily adopted words of Pali origin because of phonotactic similarities between two languages alongside the fact that the script used for Burmese can reproduce Pali spellings with complete accuracy. Pali loanwords are often related to religion, government, arts, and science.

Burmese loanwords from Pali primarily take four forms:

Direct loan: direct import of Pali words with no alteration in orthography:
"life": Pali ဇီဝ jiva → Burmese ဇီဝ jiva

Abbreviated loan: import of Pali words with accompanied syllable reduction and alteration in orthography, usually by means of a placing a diacritic, called အသတ် [athat] — 'nonexistence', atop the last letter in the syllable to suppress the consonant's inherent vowel:
"karma": Pali ကမ္မ kamma → Burmese ကံ kam
"dawn": Pali အရုဏ aruṇa → Burmese အရုဏ် aruṇ
"merit": Pali ကုသလ kusala → Burmese ကုသိုလ် kusuil

Double loan: adoption of two different terms derived from the same Pali word:
Pali မာန māna → Burmese မာန [màna̰] ('arrogance') and မာန် [mã̀] ('pride')

Hybrid loan (neologisms or calques): construction of compounds combining native Burmese words with Pali or combine Pali words:
"aeroplane": လေယာဉ်ပျံ [lè jɪ̀m bjã̀], lit. 'air machine fly',
လေယာဉ်ပျံ ← လေ (native Burmese, 'air') + ယာဉ် (from Pali yana, 'vehicle') + ပျံ (native Burmese word, 'fly').
2. Vocabulary derived from Mon
Burmese has also adapted plenty of words from Mon, traditionally spoken by the Mon people, who until recently formed the majority in Lower Burma. Most Mon loanwords are so well assimilated that they are not distinguished as loanwords, because Burmese and Mon were used interchangeably for several centuries in pre-colonial Burma. Mon loan words are often related to flora, fauna, administration, textiles, foods, boats, crafts, architecture, and music.
3. Vocabulary derived from English
As a natural consequence of British rule in Burma, English has been another major source of vocabulary, especially with regard to technology, measurements, and modern institutions. English loanwords tend to take one of three forms:

Direct loan: adoption of an English word, adapted to the Burmese phonology:
"democracy": English democracy → Burmese ဒီမိုကရေစီ

Neologism or calque: translation of an English word using native Burmese constituent words:
"human rights": English 'human rights' → Burmese လူ့အခွင့်အရေး (လူ့ 'human' + အခွင့်အရေး 'rights')

Hybrid loan: construction of compound words by native Burmese words to English words:
'to sign': ဆိုင်းထိုး [sʰã́ɪ̃ tʰó] ← ဆိုင်း (English, sign) + ထိုး (native Burmese, 'inscribe').
4. Vocabulary derived from other languages
To a lesser extent, Burmese has also imported words from Sanskrit (religion), Hindi (food, administration, and shipping), and Chinese (games and food). Burmese has also imported a handful of words from other European languages such as Portuguese.
5. Movement against English loanwords
Since the end of British rule, the Burmese government has attempted to limit usage of Western loan words, especially from English, by coining new words (neologisms).

For instance, for the word "television," Burmese publications are mandated to use the term ရုပ်မြင်သံကြား (lit. 'see picture, hear sound') in lieu of တယ်လီဗီးရှင်း, a direct English transliteration.(*)

Another example is the word "vehicle", which is officially ယာဉ် [jɪ̃̀] (derived from Pali) but ကား [ká] (from English car) in spoken Burmese.(**)

Some previously common English loanwords have fallen out of usage with the adoption of neologisms. An example is the word "university", formerly ယူနီဗာစတီ jùnìbàsətì], from English university, now တက္ကသိုလ် [tɛʔkət̪ò], a Pali-derived neologism recently created by the Burmese government and derived from the Pali spelling of Taxila (တက္ကသီလ Takkasīla), an ancient university town in modern-day Pakistan.(***)
Script analysis of several words

For further practice with the script, let us analyse several words mentioned in the above quote.
Identification of consonants is indicated thus: ရ y,yə (6,2) is the consonant in row 6, position 2
of the standard list of 33 consonants, given in the earlier post at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=545

(*) "television"
ရုပ်မြင်သံကြား

[rotemyinsankyarr]
"see picture, hear sound" (television)
ရ y,yə (6,2), ရု yu. ; ပ p,pə (5,1), ပ် p, ရုပ် yup;
မ m,mə (5,5), မြ mr, မြင် mrang;
သ θ,θə (6,5), သံ θam;
က k,kə (1,1), ကြ kyə, ကြာ kya, ကြား kya:
.
တယ်လီဗီးရှင်း
[taalle bee shinn]
television
တ t,tə (4,1); ယ y,ye (6,1), ယ် ya; တယ် tai;
လ l,lə (6,3), လီ li;
ဗ b,bə (5,3), ဗီ bi, ဗီး bi:;
ရ y,yə (6,2), ရှ hr /ʃ/; ရှင်း ʃang:
.
(**) "vehicle"
ယာဉ်
[jɪ̃̀] [yarin]
vehicle
ယ g,gə (1,4), ယာ ga, ယာဉ် gany.

ကား
[ká] [karr]
car
က k, kə (1,1), ကာ ka, ကား ka:
.
(***) "university"
တက္ကသိုလ်

[tɛʔkət̪ò] [takkasol]
university
တ t, tə (4,1), က k,kə (1,1), က္က kke, တက္က takkə;
သ θ,θə (6,5), သိ θi., သို θum; လ l, lə (6,3), လ် la ; သိုလ် θul.

ယူနီဗာစတီ
[jùnìbàsətì] [yuu ne bar sə te]
university
ယ y, yə (6,1), ယူ yu;
န n,nə (4,5), နီ ni;
ဗ b,bə (5,3), ဗာ ba;
စ s,sə (2,1);
တ t,tə (4,1), တီ ti.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Burmese/Myanmar language (cont.)

.<br />Union of Burma, 1962, map stamp 15p.
.
Union of Burma, 1962, map stamp 15p.
.

ပြည်ထောင်စုမြန်မာနိုင်ငံ

[Pyihtaunghcu Myanmar Ninengan] [Google translate]

ပြည်ထောင်စု မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်‌

[Pyidaunzu Myăma Nainngandaw]
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-independence_Burma,_1948%E2%80%931962]
Union of Burma

ပ p, pə (5,1), ပြ pya;
ည ng, ngə (2,5), ည် ngay;
ထ d, də (4,2), ထေ de, ထော dau:, ထောင် daung;
စ z, zə (2,1), စု zu;
မ m, mə (5,5), မြ my;
န n, nə (4,5), န် nay;
မ m, mə (5,5), မာ ma;
န n, nə (4,5), နိ ni., နို num;
င ng, ngə (1,5), င် ang, င်ငံ angngi.;
တ t, tə (4,1), တေ te, တော tau:, တော် taung
.
The following quotes are excerpts from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burmese_language

Burmese/Myanmar tones
Burmese is a tonal language, which means phonemic contrasts can be made on the basis of the tone of a vowel. In Burmese, these contrasts involve not only pitch, but also phonation, intensity (loudness), duration, and vowel quality. However, some linguists consider Burmese a pitch-register language like Shanghainese.

In spoken Burmese, some linguists classify two real tones (there are four nominal tones transcribed in written Burmese), "high" (applied to words that terminate with a stop or check, high-rising pitch) and "ordinary" (unchecked and non-glottal words, with falling or lower pitch), with those tones encompassing a variety of pitches. The "ordinary" tone consists of a range of pitches. Linguist L. F. Taylor concluded that "conversational rhythm and euphonic intonation possess importance" not found in related tonal languages and that "its tonal system is now in an advanced state of decay."

There are four contrastive nominal tones in Burmese. In the following table, the tones are shown marked on the vowel /a/ as an example.
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-08 at 12.42.09 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-08 at 12.44.58 am.png
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Burmese/Myanmar language (cont.)

A Note on Tones

The four tones of Burmese/Myanmar (or five tones, according to some authorities)
are a "technical feature" which has attracted the attention of many linguists.

From a practical viewpoint, it appears that spoken [= low register] Burmese/Myanmar
uses two tones (high and low) or perhaps three (including creaky), whereas written,
especially literary [= high register] Burmese/Myanmar incorporates four tones (the
additional two being creaky and checked). Hence, in the written, high register form
of the language the tones play a role which is primarily grammatical.

The term "creaky" was a surprise for me when I first encountered it, and I have tried to
get a little more understanding of it. The information available tends to be couched in
specialised linguistic terminology and discussions, but as a layman considering some of
that material I have found that it is possible to get some insights. For interested readers,
I share the following:

(1) Here is the abstract of the article
Anatomy of a grammatical tone: The case of “Induced Creaky Tone” in Burmese,
January 2018, Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 41(2):192-218
DOI: 10.1075/ltba.18007.tia Author: Mimi Tian
Induced Creaky Tone (ICT)” is a grammatical tone in Burmese. It is the result of a process by which Low or High tone is changed into Creaky tone. This alternation is multifunctional, and one of its functions is possessor marking. This paper demonstrates several well-distinguished conditions of different nature and different domain for this tonal alternation. ICT is primarily induced by syntax, varies due to pragmatic factors, occurs only on the shared right boundary of phrases and stem forms, and its phonological condition has a domain stretching to the left boundary of the prosodic word. A comprehensive account of such conditions provides the basis for a grammatical analysis which tests the theoretical options for representing a tonal morpheme in the morpho-syntactic structure of a sentence. It also sheds light on other issues such as the interfaces between phonology and grammar, and between tonal morphology and tonal syntax.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330820534_Anatomy_o ... in_Burmese
(2) Two posts (2013) on WordReference.com Language Forums by Johnnypolyglot contribute.
https://forum.wordreference.com/threads/burmese-creaky-checked-tone.2757966/
After studying the creaky and checked tones, it appears that they are merged. Both have short vowels with an abrupt end (glottal stop).

In Shan language, there is only one tone with an abrupt end (creaky). Shan doesn't have both (creaky) and (checked) like Burmese. Shan just has (creaky) as its only tone with a glottal stop.

So the question is this, are creaky and checked tones merged in Burmese? ...

Note: I do believe there was a difference in the past. However, I am just hearing 1) creaky 2) low and 3) high and that is it. So I am wondering how this "checked tone" fits into the "3 tone system"? It would seem to me that the "checked" is merged with the "creaky"...
Screen Shot 2020-11-08 at 11.14.35 am.png
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Languages of Valle d'Aosta

In his thread on Italian stamps, Waffle has just added this stamp from the 2008 Regions of Italy commemoratives.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=92287&start=222
.
Image
.
Italy, 2008, Regions of Italy stamp celebrating Valle d'Aosta
.
1280px-Aosta_Valley_in_Italy.svg.png
.
As hinted by the bilingual inscriptions VALLE D'AOSTA and VALLEE D'AOSTE on the stamp itself, more than one language is spoken in this Italian region. Its multilinguistic character reflects its border location and its rugged terrain, making it less accessible to outside influences.

As usual, Wikipedia gives us an in-depth source of information. In particular, the languages spoken in Valle d'Aosta are given appropriate recognition:
Wikipedia wrote:The Aosta Valley, Italian: Valle d'Aosta /ˈvalle daˈɔsta/ (official) or Val d'Aosta (colloquial); French: Vallée d'Aoste /vale dɔst/ (official) or Val d'Aoste (colloquial); Francoprovençal: Val d'Outa; Walser: Augschtalann or Ougstalland; Piedmontese: Val d'Osta...

Italian and French are the official languages, though the native population also speak Valdôtain, a dialect of Arpitan = Franco-Provençal; 50.53% of the population can speak all three languages...

Valle d'Aosta is a mountainous autonomous region in northwestern Italy. It is bordered by Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France, to the west, Valais, Switzerland, to the north, and by Piedmont, Italy, to the south and east. The regional capital is Aosta.

Covering an area of 3,263 km2 (1,260 sq mi) and with a population of about 128,000 it is the smallest, least populous, and least densely populated region of Italy. It is the only Italian region that is not subdivided into provinces (the province of Aosta was dissolved in 1945). Provincial administrative functions are provided by the regional government. The region is divided into 74 comuni (French: communes).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aosta_Valley
A relevant post on Catalan, and its "dialect-continuum", was made in this thread some time ago by cursus:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&p=6591476&hilit=d%27aosta#p6591476


Further extracts from Wikipedia sources

Franco-Provençal
Franco-Provençal (also Francoprovençal, Arpitan, or Romand) is a dialect group within Gallo-Romance spoken in east-central France, western Switzerland, northwestern Italy, and in enclaves in the Province of Foggia in Apulia, Italy.

Franco-Provençal has several distinct dialects and is separate from but closely related to neighbouring Romance dialects (the langues d'oïl and Occitan, Rhaeto-Romance, Lombard, Piedmontese).

The designation Franco-Provençal (Franco-Provençal: francoprovençâl; French: francoprovençal; Italian: francoprovenzale) dates to the 19th century, and since the late 20th century as Arpitan (Franco-Provençal: arpetan; Italian: arpitano), and its areal [informal toponym] as Arpitania.

The number of speakers of Franco-Provençal has been declining significantly. According to UNESCO (1995), Franco-Provençal is a "potentially endangered language" in Italy and an "endangered language" in Switzerland and France.

Formerly spoken throughout the territory of Savoy, Franco-Provençal speakers are now found in the Aosta Valley, an autonomous administrative division of Italy. The language is also spoken in alpine valleys in the Metropolitan City of Turin, two isolated towns (Faeto and Celle di San Vito) in the Province of Foggia, and rural areas of the Swiss Romandie.

It is one of the three Gallo-Romance language families of France and is officially recognized as a regional language of France, but its use is marginal. Organisations are attempting to preserve it through cultural events, education, scholarly research, and publishing. Outside of the langues d'oïl, it is the most closely related language to French.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franco-Proven%C3%A7al_language
Piedmontese
Piedmontese (autonym: piemontèis /pjemʊŋˈtɛjz/ or lenga piemontèisa, in Italian: piemontese) is spoken by some 700,000 people mostly in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy. Though considered by many linguists a separate language, in Italy it is often considered an Italian dialect.

It is linguistically included in the Gallo-Italic languages group of Northern Italy (with Lombard, Emiliano-Romagnolo and Ligurian), which would make it part of the wider western group of Romance languages, which also includes French, Occitan, and Catalan. It is spoken in Piedmont (except in the part east to Sesia), Liguria (northwest part near Savona) and Lombardy (some municipalities in the westernmost part of Lomellina in the Pavia province).

It has some support from the Piedmont regional government, but is considered a dialect rather than a separate language by the Italian central government.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piedmontese_language
Walser
The Walser are the speakers of the Walser German dialects, a variety of Highest Alemannic. They inhabit the Alps of Switzerland and Liechtenstein, as well as the fringes of Italy and Austria. The Walser people are named after the Wallis (Valais), the uppermost Rhône valley, where they settled from roughly the 10th century in the late phase of the migration of the Alamanni, crossing from the Bernese Oberland; because of linguistic differences among the Walser dialects, it is supposed that there were two independent immigration routes.

From the upper Wallis, they began to spread south, west and east between the 12th and 13th centuries, in the so-called Walser migrations (Walserwanderungen). The causes of these further population movements, the last wave of settlement in the higher valleys of the Alps, are not entirely clear. Some think that the large Walser migrations took place because of conflicts with the valley's feudal lords. Other theories contend it was because of overpopulation and yet others that they were reinforced by the respective local authorities in order to settle previously unpopulated regions.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walser

Walser German (German: Walserdeutsch) and Walliser German (Walliserdeutsch, locally Wallisertiitsch) are a group of Highest Alemannic dialects spoken in parts of Switzerland (Valais, Ticino, Grisons), Italy (Piedmont, Aosta Valley), Liechtenstein (Triesenberg, Planken), and Austria (Vorarlberg).

Usage of the terms Walser and Walliser has come to reflect a difference of geography, rather than language. The term Walser refers to those speakers whose ancestors migrated into other Alpine valleys in medieval times, whereas Walliser refers only to a speaker from Upper Valais – that is, the upper Rhone valley. In a series of migrations during the Late Middle Ages, people migrated out of the Upper Valais, across the higher valleys of the Alps.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walser_German
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Devanagari script

A new post on another thread rounds out some information on Devanagari script:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=8480&start=16628

It can be regarded as a follow-up on my introductory discussion about Devanagari script
on this thread, which begins:
RogerE wrote:
08 Aug 2020 04:12

I've been reminded by several recent posts that although I made earlier posts in this thread on Hindi and the Devanagari script, I have not yet made a detailed post on that script comparable to recent posts on the scripts of several other major languages of India. Let's correct that oversight now.

देवनागरी
Devanāgarī
देवनागरी = द d/də, दे de; व v/və; न n/nə, ना nā; ग g/gə; र r/rə, री rī
....
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Philatelic Glossary, A–D

The recent thread Free Prizes to Celebrate 500 Stamps & Languages Posts received
over 350 posts, each containing a philatelic term in a language other than English, with
its translation into English.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=12&t=92430

By sorting the terms from that thread, we shall have an interesting mulilingual glossary
of philatelic terms. This post and several later posts will contain that glossary.

Afrikaans
Poseel — Stamp
Arabic
طابع بريدي [tabie biridi] — Postage stamp
Bengali
ডাক ঘর [daak ghar] — Post Office
প্রথম দিন কভার [prathama dina kabhāra] — First day cover
Catalan
Coberta del primer dia — First day cover
Correu Aeri — Airmail
Segell — Stamp
Chinese
新年好! [Xīnnián hǎo!] — Happy New Year!
美国 (s), 美國 (t) [Měiguó] — U.S.A.(*)
邮政局 (s), 郵政局 (t) [Yóuzhèngjú] — Post Office(*)
首日封 [Shǒurìfēng] — First day cover
(*) s = simplified characters; t = traditional characters
Czech
Bez lepu — Without gum
Dopis — Letter/cover
Dopisnice — Postcard
Doporučený — Registered
Letadlem — By air mail
Obálka prvního dne — First day cover
Odesílatel — Sender
Danish
Frimærke — Stamp
Grønland — Greenland
Pakke-porto frimaerker — Parcelpost stamps
Tyskland — Germany
Vandmærke — Watermark
Dutch
Blok — Miniature sheet
Brandkastzegel — Safe stamp
Briefkaart — Postcard
Brievenbus — Post box
Brugparen — Gutter pair
Eerste-dag envelop — First day cover
Envelop /ˌɑn.vəˈlɔp/, /ˌɛn.vəˈlɔp/ — Cover, envelope
Fiscale zegel — Revenue
Frankeermachine — Postage meter
Gebruikt — Used
Jaar collectie — Year collection
Luchtpost — Air mail
Nederlandse Postzegels — Netherlands postage stamps
Persoonlijke zegel — Personal stamp
Postboot — Post delivery boat
Postbriefkasten — Post box
Postcode /ˈpɔstˌkoː.də/ — Postcode, ZIP code
Postfris — Mint
Postkaart — Postcard
Postkantoor — Post Office
Postkoets — Stagecoach
Posttrein — Mail train
Postzegel — Postage stamp
Postzegelpincet — Tongs, tweezers
Postzegelveiling — Philatelic auction
Provisie — Commission
Strook — Setenant
Tanding — Perforation
Tandingmeter— Perforation gauge
Vel — Sheetlet
Vliegtuigpost — Air mail
Voorafstempeling — Precancel
Watermerk — Watermark
Zelfklevend — Self-adhesive
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by andy66 »

RogerE wrote:
09 Nov 2020 13:40
Languages of Valle d'Aosta

/RogerE :D
[/quote]

Hello,
It's all right what you are writing, only that you don't have to get confused with languages and dialects. In Italy there are 12 languages recognized by the Italian constitution (law 482/1999, yes we had to wait many years to get that stated), all others are just dialects, and those are many more, at least one for each province. Here you can see a map of the several languages and the areas where they are spoken:
https://it.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legislazione_italiana_a_tutela_delle_minoranze_linguistiche
You can see that mostly they are spoken near the borders. The most interesting are those known as Neo-Latin, that is they come directly from ancient Latin (alike french, Spanish, portoguese and Rumanian) and are Ladin, Friulan and Sardinian. Ladin is spoken also in parts of Switzerland, Sardinian also in Corsica and Friulan nowhere else in the world (except for our many emigrants that went all over :) )

Andrea
Andy66
Friuli - Italy

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Andrea = andy66 :D I like your comment about Friulan.

More later. In the meantime I will get back to the glossary...

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Philatelic Glossary, E–K

Esperanto
Poŝtmarko — Postage stamp
Estonian
Postkast — Post box
Finnish
Ehiö — Postal stationery
Ensipäivän kuori — First day cover
Hammastamaton — Imperforate
Hammastettu — Perforated
Kirjattu kirje — Registered letter
Leima — Cancellation, postmark
Lentoposti — Air mail
Malli — Specimen
Pikakirje — Express letter
Postimerkki — Postage stamp
Postitoimisto — Post Office
Suomen Postimerkit — Finnish stamps
Flemish
Postkaart — Postcard
French
Allemagne — Germany
Boîte aux lettres — Post box
Carte Postale — Postcard
Catalogue de vente aux enchères — Auction catalogue
Charnière  — Hinge
Colis posteaux — Parcel post
Destinataire — Recipient/addressee
Enveloppe — Cover, envelope
Expéditeur/expéditrice (m/f) — Sender
Exposition de timbres — Stamp exhibition
Filigrane (m) — Watermark
Les timbres-poste — Postage stamps
Neuf sans charnière — Mint never hinged/Mint unhinged
Odontomètre — Perforation gauge
Par avion — By air mail
Premier jour d'émission — First day of issue
Se tenant — Joined (stamps of different designs)
Tête-bêche — Head-to-tail
Timbre — Stamp
Timbre d'usage courant — Definitive stamp
Timbre préoblitéré — Precancel
Train postal — Mail train
Vente sur offres — Mail auction
German
Briefmarken — Postage stamps
Briefzentrum — Mail centre
Dauermarke— Definitive stamp
Ersttagsbrief — First day cover
Firmenlochung — Perfin
Flugpost — Air mail
Frankreich — France
Ganzsache — Postal stationery, entire
Gefälligkeitsabstempelung — Cancelled to order
Griechische Briefmarken — Greek stamps
Nachporto — Postage due
Paketpost — Parcel post
Postfrisch — Mint never hinged
Postgeschichte — Postal history
Postschiff — Post delivery boat
Prägedruck — Embossed printing
das Scharnier — Hinge
Selbstklebend — Self-adhesive
Sondermarke — Commemorative stamp
der Umschlag — Cover, envelope
Ungezähnte Briefmarke — Imperforate stamp
Vorausentwertung — Precancel
Wiesenschaumkraut — Lady's Smock/Cuckooflower(!)
Zähnungsschlüssel — Perforation gauge
Greek
γραμματόσημο [grammatósimo] — Postage stamp
ταχυδρομείο [tachydromeío] — Post Office
Greenlandic
Kalaallit Nunaat — Greenland
Juullip frimærkiinik mappersakkat — Christmas stamp booklet
Hebrew
בֵּית דוּאַר [Beit duar] — Post Office
בּוּל דוֹאַר [Bool duar] — Postage stamp
מִכתָב רָשׁוּם [Miktav rashum] — Registered letter
שובל [Shoval] — Tab (at base of an Israeli stamp)
Hindi
डाक घर [Dāk ghar] — Post Office
डाक टिकट [Dāk tikat] — Postage stamp
डाक टिकट प्रदर्शनी [Dāk tikat pradarshanī] — Stamp exhibition
डाक विभाग [Dāk vibhāg] — Postal Department
पंजीकृत डाक [Panjīkrt dāk] — Registered mail
पोस्ट कार्ड [Post kārd] — Postcard
प्रतिरूप [Pratiroop] — Specimen
प्रथम दिवस आवरण [Pratham ðivas āvaran] — First day cover
भारत [Bhārat] — India
भारतीय डाक और तार विभाण [Bhāratīya dāk aur tār vibhān] — India Posts and Telegraphs Division
विशेष आवरण [Vishèsh āvaran] — Special cover
Indonesian
Perangko — Postage stamp
Sampul hari pertama — First day cover
Italian
Busta primo giorno — First day cover
Catalogo d'asta — Auction catalogue
Francobolli — Stamps
Francobollo definitivo — Definitive stamp
Instituto Polygrafico e Zecca Della Stato — National Mint and Printing House
Posta prioritaria — Priority mail
Ufficio postale — Post Office
Japanese
ステーショナリー [Sutēshonarī] — Postal stationery
切手 [Kitte] — Stamp
日本 [Nihon] — Japan
普通切手 [Futsū kitte] — Definitive stamp
書留郵便 [Kakitome yūbin] — Registered mail
航空便 [Kōkū-bin] — Air mail
見本 [Mihon] — Specimen
郵便局 [Yūbinkyoku] — Post Office
Korean
우체국 [U.che.gug] — Post Office
우표 [U.pyo] — Postage stamp
.
/RogerE :D

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honza
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by honza »

Ahoj Roger,

May I point out an error in your French glossary. The plural of 'colis postal' (seen on French stamps) is 'colis postaux; (seen on Belgian stamps) not 'colis posteaux'.

Also, as I pointed out in a private email, 'Falz' is the usual term in German for a stamp hinge.

Best wishes,

Honza

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks for picking up those corrections, honza.
I don't remember seeing honza's private e-mail about Falz. If I did see it, I had forgotten by the time I was preparing the latest section of the glossary. Apologies for that!
_________________
Correcting my spelling error:
French: le colis postal, les colis postaux — parcel stamp, parcel stamps

Explicit normal terminology:
German: der Briefmarkenfalz, die Briefmarkenfalze — stamp hinge, stamp hinges
Common usage:
German: der Falz, die Falze (or Fälze) — hinge, hinges

As honza implies, das Scharnier is not the commonly used German term for stamp hinge. That word is a loan word from French charnière.

The basic meaning of Falz is a sharp fold, usually in paper. Stamp hinges are traditionally folded, so Falz is a natural name, while Briefmarkenfalz is explicit as "stamp hinge".
Here is a relevant Wikipedia extract:
Ein Briefmarkenfalz oder kurz Falz, auch Klebefalz, ist ein einseitig gummierter Pergaminstreifen und dient zur Befestigung von Briefmarken auf einer Unterlage (z. B. Albumseite).
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Briefmarkenfalz
Compare with:
In philately, stamp hinges, or mounts, are small, folded, transparent, rectangular pieces of paper coated with a mild gum. They are used by stamp collectors to affix postage stamps onto the pages of a stamp album.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stamp_hinge
Those two descriptions are parallel, but not exactly equivalent. Stylistically, the German is slightly more precise.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by honza »

Ahoj again Roger!

Going back to 'colis postal', this strictly means postal parcel rather than parcel stamp. The noun is 'colis' and 'postal' is the adjective. Thus 'colis postaux' means more than one parcel rather than more than one stamp.

For example a stamp in English could be inscribed PARCEL or PARCELS to indicate its use regardless of the number of parcels sent

Cheers again,

Honza

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Aaahh, thanks to honza for another correction. I was so focussed on correcting the spelling error that I didn't examine the meaning carefully enough. Well, now I've learnt something more!
.
_______________
.
Corrected translation:
French: le colis postal, les colis postaux — postal parcel, postal parcels

Not all parcels are intended to go through the post, so the adjective "postal" is appropriately specific.
The following quotes are from various entries in
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/
French: colis
Pronunciation IPA: /kɔ.li/
Noun: colis m (plural colis)
• parcel, package
• baggage, luggage
The etymology of the French word colis is interesting.
Latin collum —> Italian collo —> French colis
Summary: From neck comes the association with something wound around the neck, hence collar. In turn, that suggests wrapping an object, hence parcel.
French colis, borrowed from Italian colli, plural of collo.
Italian: collo
Pronunciation IPA: /ˈkɔl.lo/, [ˈkɔl̺l̺o]
Noun: collo m (plural colli)
• neck (all senses) [cognate with French cou — neck]
• collar
• parcel, package; luggage (especially when bulky)
• (anatomy) neck, cervix
In turn, the Italian collo derives from Latin:
Latin: collum
Noun: collum n (genitive collī); second declension
• (anatomy) neck, throat
• upper stem of a plant
• (symbolically) servitude
Footnote: The English word collar also ultimately comes from the Latin collum. As several recent posts in this thread were about Burmese, I found that Wiktionary also notes that Burmese borrows its word for collar from English: ကော်လာ (category: Burmese terms borrowed from English)
[ကော်လာ — က k, ကော် kau; လ l, လာ la]
English collar. IPA: /kɔ̀là/ Romanisation: MLCTS: kaula

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Philatelic Glossary, L–P

Latin
Helvetia — Switzerland
Latvian
Latvijas Pastmarkas Gada Komplekts — Latvian stamps year set
Malayalam
അഞ്ചലോട്ടക്കാരൻ [Anchalōttakkāran]— Postman
അഞ്ചൽ പെട്ടി [Anchàlpetti] — Post box
ആവരണം [Āvaranam] — Cover
തപാലാപ്പീസ് [Thapālaappīs] — Post Office
തപാൽ [Thapāl] — Post
തപാൽ പെട്ടി [Thapāl pettī] — Post box
തപാൽ മുദ്രാ പ്രദർശനം [Thapāl muðra praðarshanam] — Stamp exhibition
പ്രഥമ ദിവസ ആവരണം [Prathama ðivada āvaranam] — First day cover
മുദ്ര [Muðrā] — Stamp
മുദ്രാ ശേഖരണം [Muðrā shèkaranam] — Philately
മേൽപടി അച്ചടി [Mèlpadi achchadī] — Overprint
വിശേഷ ആവരണം [Vishèsha āvaranam] — Special cover
സ്ഥിര ചിത്ര മുദ്ര [Sthira chithra mudrā] — Permanent pictorial cancellation
Maltese
Bolla — Stamp
Bolli ta' malta — Stamps of Malta
ittra rreġistrata — Registered letter
Marathi
टपाल तिकिट [Ṭapāla tikiṭa] — Postage stamp
पत्र [Patra] — Letter
Mongolian
[Rendered here in "new script (Cyrillic)"; traditional vertical script omitted]
Aгаарын шуудан [Agaaryn shuudan] — Air mail
Шуудангийн төлбөр [Shuudangiin tölbör] — Postage due
Дугаарын эхний өдөр [Dugaaryn ekhnii ödör] — First day of issue
Илгээмжийн шуудан [ilgeemjiin shuudan] — Parcel post
Nepali
नेपाल [Nēpāla] — Nepal
पहिलो दिन कभर [Pahilō dina kabhara] — First day cover
हुलाक टिकट [Hulāka ṭikaṭa] — Postage stamp
Odia/Oriya
ଡାକ ଘର [ḍāk ghara] — Post Office
Polish
Okładka pierwszego dnia — First day cover
Pustopole — Gutter pairs
Skrzynka pocztowa — Post box
Ustawa stemplowa — Stamp duty
Portuguese
Aerograma — Aerogram
Álbum de selo — Stamp album
Auto-adesivo — Self-adhesive
Bissecto — Bisect
Bloco — Block
Burelagem — Burelage
Caixa de correio — Post box
Caixa postal — Mailbox
Cancelado a pedido — Cancelled to order
Carta registrada — Registered letter
Carteiro — Postman
Cartofilia — Deltiology
Charneira— Hinge
Código de rastreamento — Tracking code
Correio aéreo — Air mail
Correio prioritário — Priority mail
Correios — Post Office
Correspondência censurada — Censored mail
Correspondência registrada — Registered mail
Destinatário — Recipient
Emissão base — Definitive stamp
Ensaio — Essay
Envelope — Cover, envelope
Falsificação — Forgery
Falso (m), falsa (f) — Bogus, fake
Filatelia — Philately
Folha em miniatura — Miniature sheet
Franquia — Franking
História postal — Postal history
Imperfurado — Imperforate
Imposto do selo — Stamp duty
Impressão no verso de um selo — Backprint
Inteiro Postal — Entire
Litografia — Lithography
Livreto — Booklet
Lupa — Magnifying glass
Marca d'água — Watermark
Marca de recebimento — Receiving mark
Papel vergê — Laid paper
Perfuração mista — Mixed perforation
Pré-cancelamento — Precancel
Primeiro dia de emissão — First day of issue
Remetente — Sender
Selo — Stamp
Selo comemorativo — Commemorative stamp
Selo de bobina — Coil stamp
Selo de caridade — Charity stamp
Selo de receita — Revenue stamp
Selo definitivo — Definitive stamp
Selo postal — Postage stamp
Sobreimpressão — Overprint
Sobretaxa — Surcharge
Taxas de postagem — Postage dues
Valor de catálogo — Catalogue value
Vinco — Crease
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Philatelic Glossary, Q–Z

Quechua
Chaski unanchana — Postage stamp
Russian
Германия [Germaniya] — Germany
Заказное письмо [Zakaznoye pismo] — Registered letter
Kонверт первого дня [Konvert pervogo dnya] — First day cover
Oткрытка [Otkrytka] — Postcard
Почтовое отделение [Pochtovoye otdeleniye] — Post Office
Предварительное гашение [Predvaritel'noye gasheniye] — Precancel
С Новым Годом [Snovim godom] — Happy New Year!
Samoan
Fa'alēaogāina — Cancellation
Le faʻaaogaina — Unused
Meli ave pusa — Parcel post
Meli fa'amuamua — Priority mail
Meli fa'ava'alele — Air mail
Meli fa'asolopito — Postal history
Meli mai fafo — Foreign (overseas) mail
Meli toe fo'i mai — Returned mail
O le aso muamua o le lomiga — First day of issue
O le fa'ailoga vai i pepa — Watermark
O le faʻailoga — Stamp
O le faʻailoga aloaia — Official stamp
O le faʻailoga e leai ni pu — Imperforate stamp
O le faʻailoga tupe maua — Revenue stamp
O le faʻatasiga fa'ailoga — Stamp club
O le falemeli — Post Office
O le pepa pipii — Hinge
O le posikaki — Postcard
O le pusa meli — Mailbox
O le taga meli — Mail bag
O le tagata ave meli — Postman
O le teutusi — Envelope
O le tioata faʻalauteleina — Magnifying glass
O le tusi fa'ailoga — Stamp album
O pu i fa'ataamilo o se faʻailoga — Perforations
Ta'avale meli — Mail truck
Tagata na lofoa le tusi — Sender/Person who sent the letter
Totogi faʻaopoopo — Surcharge
Tuātusi — Address
Scots Gaelic
Litir-Adhair — Air Letter
Troimh'n phost-adhair — By Air Mail
Sinhala
තැපැල් කාර්යාලය [Tæpæl kāryālaya] — Post Office
පළමු දින කවරය [Paḷamu dina kavaraya] — First day cover
ලියාපදිංචි ලිපිය [Liyāpadiṁci lipiya] — Registered letter
Spanish
Alemania — Germany
Inglaterra — England
Odontómetro — Perforation gauge
Primer día de circulación — First day of issue
Sobre — Cover, envelope
Swedish
Vattenstämpel — Watermark
Tamil
அஞ்சல் [Añchal] — Post
அஞ்சல் அட்டை [Añcal aṭṭai] — Postcard
முதல் நாள் அட்டை [Mutal nāḷ aṭṭai] — First day cover
Telugu
తపాలా బిళ్ళ [Tapālā biḷḷa] — Postage stamp
Thai
จดหมายลงทะเบียน [Cdh̄māy lng thabeīyn] — Registered letter
ที่ทำการไปรษณีย์ [Thī̀thảkār pịrs̄ʹṇīy̒] — Post Office
ประเทศไทย [Prathet Thai] — Thailand
ไปรษณีย์ [Pịrs̄ʹṇīy̒] — Post Office
สตางค์ [Satang] — Satang
แสตมป์ [Saetamp] — Stamp
Turkish
Köprülü pullar — Gutter pairs
Posta kodu — Postcode, ZIP code
Pul posta — Postage stamp
Zarf — Cover, envelope
Vietnamese
Bìa thư — Cover
Blốc tem — Souvenir sheet
Bưu cục chuyển phát — Receiving Post Office
Bưu cục lưu động — Mobile post office
Bưu điện — Post Office
Bưu tá — Postman
Bưu thiếp — Postcard
Bưu thiếp cực đại — Maxicard
Chuyển về người gửi — Return to sender
Con tem — Stamp
Dấu hủy — Cancellation
Địa chỉ —  Address
Ngày Phát hành Đầu tiên — First day of issue
Người gửi — Sender
Người nhận — Recipient
Phong bì — Envelope
Tem chết — Cancelled stamp
Tem giả — Fake stamp, counterfeit
Tem học — Philately
Tem hủy trước — Cancelled to order stamp
Tem in lỗi — Error stamp
Tem không răng — Imperforate stamp
Tem kỷ niệm — Commemorative stamp
Tem phổ thông — Definitive stamp
Tem quân đội — Military stamp
Tem sư vụ — Official stamp
Tem thiếu cước — Postage due
Tết — Lunar New Year
Thư bị phá hoại — Destroyed/damaged mail
Thư hàng không — Air mail
Thùng thư — Mailbox
Welsh
Post Awyr — Air mail
Post Brenihol — Royal Mail
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Travancore Cochin — Malayalam script

A post introducing Malayalam was included earlier in this thread, at
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=90529&start=374

A current post by sagi2917 on the Happy Day thread showed this Travancore postcard, offering us an opportunity to examine some philatelic instances of Malayalam:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=82193&start=6021

96634753-BCEE-4122-8119-3C052CEE6350.jpg
.
Malayalam title (top right):
ആഞ്ചൽ കാഡ്
[āñcal kāḍ]
Analysis: ആ ഞ്ച ൽ . കാ ഡ്
Post Card

Malayalam subtitle (top right):
വിലാസം
[vilāsaṁ]
Analysis: വി ലാ സം
address
മേൽ
[mēl]
Analysis: മേ ൽ
over, above
മേൽ വിലാസം
[mēl vilāsaṁ]
address here

Malayalam subtitle (top left)
My attempted transcription (perhaps not quite accurate?)
എഴതാന ഇഇസഥലം
[eḻatāna 'i'isathalaṁ]
This is the place to write
Travancore–Cochin or Thiru–Kochi was a short-lived state of India (1949–1956). It was originally called United State of Travancore and Cochin and was created on 1 July 1949 by the merger of two former kingdoms, Travancore and Cochin with Thiruvananthapuram as the capital. It was renamed State of Travancore–Cochin in January 1950.
Travancore Cochin 1951
Travancore Cochin 1951
.
440px-Travancore_postal_stamp_त्रावणकोर_टपाल_तिकीट.jpg
.
Malayalam denomination:
രണ്ട് പൈസ
[raṇṭ paisa]
Analysis: ര ണ്ട് . പൈ സ
two pies
.
Malayalam caption for image:
തിരുവിതാംകൂർ തപാൽ സ്റ്റാമ്പുകൾ
[tiruvitāṅkūr tapāl sṟṟāmpukaḷ]
Analysis: തി രു വി താം കൂ ർ . ത പാ ൽ . സ്റ്റാ മ്പു ക ൾ
Travancore postage stamp
.
Marathi caption on original image:
त्रावणकोर टपाल तिकीट
[trāvaṇakōra ṭapāla tikīṭa]
Analysis: त्रा व ण को र . ट पा ल . ति की ट
Travancore postage stamp
.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travancore%E2%80%93Cochin

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Ge'ez Script

Sadly, Ethiopia is currently in the news because of widespread conflict and disruption, with many of the
nonparticipants fleeing the conflict areas on foot, carrying what little food and belongings they can manage...
With over 109 million inhabitants as of 2019, Ethiopia is the 12th most populous country in the world, the second most populous nation on the African continent (after Nigeria), and most populous landlocked country in the world.
Against that reality, let us look at the philatelic and linguistic cultural windows into that region.

The Ge'ez script, or at least a modern version of that classical script, is recognisable from Ethiopian stamps.
.
.<br />Ethiopia, 22 Jun 1942, First Day Cover, Haile Selassie definitives
.
Ethiopia, 22 Jun 1942, First Day Cover, Haile Selassie definitives
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-16 at 10.48.44 am.png
.
Wikipedia wrote:
Geʽez /ˈɡiːɛz/ ግዕዝ Gəʿəz IPA: [ˈɡɨʕɨz], referred to in some scholarly literature as Classical Ethiopic, is an ancient South Semitic language of the Ethio-Semitic branch. The language originates from the region encompassing the Eritrea and northern Ethiopia regions in East Africa.

Today, spoken Geʽez is used only as the main liturgical language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Ethiopian Catholic Church and Eritrean Catholic Church, and the Beta Israel Jewish community.

The closest living languages to Geʽez are Tigre and Tigrinya, with lexical similarity at 71% and 68%, resp.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ge%CA%BDez
What is the principal language of Ethiopia?

That simple question has a surprisingly complicated answer.
The official languages of Ethiopia include Afar, Amharic, English, Oromo, Somali, Tigrinya
Wikipedia wrote: Of the languages spoken in Ethiopia, 86 are living and 2 are extinct; 41 of the living languages are institutional, 14 are developing, 18 are vigorous, 8 are in danger of extinction, and 5 are near extinction.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Ethiopia
Wikipedia wrote:
አማርኛAmharic
Pronunciation: /amarɨɲːa/

Amharic is an Ethio-Semitic language, which is a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages. It is spoken as a first language by the Amharas and as a lingua franca by other populations residing in major cities and towns of Ethiopia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amharic
Wikipedia wrote:
ትግርኛ Tigrinya Geʽez
[tigriññā]
Pronunciation /tɨɡrɨɲa/
Native to Eritrea, Ethiopia
Ethnicity Tigrinyas
Native speakers 9 million (2011–2012)
Tigrinya Ge’ez Tigrinya: ትግርኛ (also spelled Tigrigna), is an Ethiopic Semitic language spoken in Eritrea and in northern Ethiopia in the Tigray region. It is also spoken by the global diaspora of these regions.

Although Tigrinya differs markedly from the Geʽez (Classical Ethiopic) language, for instance in having phrasal verbs, and in using a word order that places the main verb last instead of first in the sentence — there is a strong influence of Geʽez on Tigrinya literature, especially with terms relating to Christian life, Biblical names, and so on. Ge'ez, because of its status in Ethiopian culture, and possibly also its simple structure, acted as a literary medium until relatively recent times.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tigrinya_language
.
Wikipedia wrote:
ትግረ / ትግሬ / ትግራይት / ኻሳ Tigre
Tigre / Tigrē / Tigrayit / Xasa
Tigre Geʽez
Native to Eritrea
Ethnicity Tigre
Native speakers 250,000 – 1.05 million (2014)

Tigre Geʽez Tigre: ትግረ tigre, or ትግሬ tigrē, better known in Eritrea by its autonym Tigrayit ትግራይት, and also known by speakers in Sudan as al-Bani amir (Arabic: البني عامر‎), is an Afroasiatic language spoken in the Horn of Africa. It belongs to the North Ethiopic subdivision of the South Semitic languages and is primarily spoken by the Tigre people in Eritrea.

Along with Tigrinya, it is believed to be the most closely related living language to Ge'ez, which is still in use as the liturgical language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church. Tigre has lexical similarity, 71% with Ge’ez and 64% with Tigrinya. As of 1997, Tigre was spoken by approximately 800,000 Tigre people in Eritrea.

The Tigre mainly inhabit western Eritrea, though they also reside in the northern highlands of Eritrea and its extension into the adjacent part of Sudan, as well as Eritrea's Red Sea coast north of Zula.

The Tigre people are not to be confused with their neighbors to the south, the Tigrayans of Eritrea and Ethiopia, who speak Tigrinya. Tigrinya is also derived from the parent Geʽez tongue, but is quite distinct from Tigre despite the similarity in name.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tigre_language
Wikipedia wrote:
ብሊና / ብሊንBilen
Region central Eritrea and eastern Sudan
Ethnicity Bilen people
Native speakers 91,000 (2006)

The Bilen language ብሊና [b(ɨ)lina], or ብሊን [b(ɨ)lin] is spoken by the Bilen people in and around the city of Keren in Eritrea and Kassala in eastern Sudan. It is the only Agaw (Central Cushitic) language spoken in Eritrea. It is spoken by about 120,000 people.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilen_language
Ge'ez script

The Wikipedia source for the quotes (lightly edited) which follow is
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ge%CA%BDez_script
Geʽez ግዕዝ [Gəʿəz] is an abugida script (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea. It originated as an abjad (consonant-only alphabet) and was first used to write Geʽez, now retained as a liturgical language... In Amharic and Tigrinya, the script is often called fidäl ፊደል script, letter...

The representation of sounds here uses a system common (though not universal) among linguists who work on Ethiopian Semitic languages. This differs somewhat from the conventions of the International Phonetic Alphabet = IPA.
To understand the syllabic script (abugida), it is helpful to see the original characters, which represent consonants only (abjad).

Ge'ez abjad

Screen Shot 2020-11-16 at 12.11.35 pm.png
.
Ge'ez abugida
Modern Geʽez script is written from left to right.

The Geʽez abugida developed under the influence of Christian scripture by adding vocalic diacritics to the consonantal letters. The diacritics for the vowels, u, i, a, e, y, o, were fused with the consonants in a recognisable but slightly irregular way, so that the system is laid out as a syllabary. The original form of the consonant was used when the vowel was ä /ə/, the so-called inherent vowel. The resulting forms are shown below in their traditional order. For some vowels, there is an eighth form for the diphthong -wa or -oa; and for some of those, a ninth for -jä.

To represent a consonant with no following vowel, for example at the end of a syllable or in a consonant cluster, the y /ɨ/ form is used (the character in the sixth column).

Screen Shot 2020-11-16 at 12.22.27 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-16 at 12.23.13 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-16 at 12.24.05 pm.png
.
Adaptations of Ge'ez abugida for modern languages
The Amharic script uses all the basic consonants plus the ones indicated below.

Tigrinya has all the basic consonants ... plus the ones indicated below. A few of the basic consonants are falling into disuse in Eritrea.

Tigre uses the basic consonants except for ś (ሠ), ḫ (ኀ) and ḍ (ፀ). It also uses the ones indicated below.

Bilen uses the basic consonants except for ś (ሠ), ḫ (ኀ) and ḍ (ፀ). It also uses the ones indicated below...

Screen Shot 2020-11-16 at 1.08.54 pm.png
.
Numerals
Numbers are over- and underlined with a vinculum; in proper typesetting these combine to make a single bar, but some less sophisticated fonts cannot render this and show separate bars above and below each character.
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-16 at 1.18.06 pm.png
.
Detail of 1942 First Day Cover

Screen Shot 2020-11-16 at 1.48.01 pm.png
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ሊትዮጵያ፡ Ethiopia

Ethiopia /iːθiˈoʊpiə/ Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ [ʾĪtyōṗṗyā], Afar Ge'ez: ኢትዮጵያ [Itiyoophiyaa], Oromo: Itoophiyaa, Somali: Itoobiya, Tigrinya: ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, an East African landlocked country on the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northwest.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopia

፰ ሳንቲም 8 centimes
8 sanitime
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Ge'ez script, Amharic, Hebrew and Arabic

The previous post introduced the Ge'ez script, used in modern day Ethiopia to write several languages, in particular Amharic.
ኢትዮጵያ
[ītiyop’iya]
Ethiopia
Analysis: ī, ti, yo, p’i, ya
.
አማርኛ
[āmarinya]
Amharic
Analysis: ā, ma, ri, nya
Amharic is spoken as a first language by the Amharas (some 22 million) and as a lingua franca by other populations residing in major cities and towns of Ethiopia.
Israel celebrates Aliya of Ethiopian Jews

This post is motivated by Eli's latest post in the Folklore on Stamps thread:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=72459&hilit=folklore&start=279
.
Aliyah [US pronunciation: /ˌæliˈɑː/; UK pronunciation: /ˌɑː-/], Hebrew: עֲלִיָּה‎ [aliyah] — ascent, is the Jewish term used to describe immigration of Jews from the diaspora to Israel.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aliyah


The Israeli commemorative stamp has inscriptions in Ge'ez script, Hebrew, Arabic and English
As usual, the country name appears trilingually:
.
יִשְׂרָאֵל [yisrael]
إسرائيل ['iisrayiyl]
Israel
.
.<br />Israel, 12 Apr 2011, Commemorating Aliyah of Ethiopian Jews
.
Israel, 12 Apr 2011, Commemorating Aliyah of Ethiopian Jews
.
የኢትዮጵያ ይሁዲቃች አሊያ
Analysis:
የኢትዮጵያ [yəītiyop'iya]: የ yə, ኢ ī, ት ti, ዮ yo, ጵ p'i [pɨ], ያ ya
ይሁዲቃች [yehudikačy (?)]: ይ yi, ሁ hu, ዲ di, ቃ ka, ች čy [t͡ʃi] (?)
አሊያ ['əliya]: አ 'ə, ሊ li, ያ ya
Aliyah of Ethiopian Jews
Amharic: [contrast with the Ge'ez inscription on the Israeli stamp]
የኢትዮጵያ አይሁዳዊ አሊያ
[ye’ītiyop’iya āyihudawī ālīya]
Aliyah of Ethiopian Jews

עליית יהודי אתיופיה
[aliit yehudi etiopih]
Immigration of Ethiopian Jews
The main language used for communication among Israeli citizens and amongst the Ethiopian Beta Israel in Israel is Modern Hebrew. The majority of the Beta Israel immigrants continue to speak in Amharic (primarily) and Tigrinya at home with their family members and friends.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopian_Jews_in_Israel
Ethiopian Jews/Beta Israel now in Israel
Ethiopian Jews in Israel are immigrants and descendants of the immigrants from the Beta Israel communities in Ethiopia who now reside in Israel. To a lesser, but notable, extent, the Ethiopian Jewish community in Israel is also composed of Falash Mura, a community of Beta Israel which had converted to Christianity over the course of the past two centuries, but were permitted to immigrate to Israel upon returning to the Israelite religion — this time, largely to Rabbinic Judaism.

Most of the community made aliyah from Ethiopia to Israel in two waves of mass immigration assisted by the Israeli government: Operation Moses (1984), and Operation Solomon (1991). Today, Israel is home to the largest Beta Israel community in the world, with about 125,500 citizens of Ethiopian descent in 2011, who are mainly assembled in the smaller urban areas of central Israel.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopian_Jews_in_Israel
The present Israeli currency unit is the new shekel:
שח = שקל חדש
With vowels explicitly included:
שֶׁקֶל חָדָשׁ
[shekel ẖadash] ["ẖ" as "ch" in Scottish "loch"]
The currency sign for the new shekel  ₪ is a combination of
the initial Hebrew letters of shekel (ש) and ẖadash (ח) (new).
Usually simplified to "shekel" colloquially. 100 agorot = 1 shekel
.
The last Hebrew line on the stamp states the year and the designers' names:
.
התשע''א = 5771, corresponding to 2011CE
The difference is 3760 (early in the Gregorian year) or 3761 (later in the Gregorian year).
Key:א = 1 ,ע = 70 ,ש = 300 ,ת = 400 ,ה' = 5000.
.
For example, right now (Nov 2020) the Jewish year is התשפ״א = 3761 + 2020 = 5781
This uses 80 = פ
.
The stamp designers:
עלמו אישטהAlmo Ishtah
יגאל גבאי Yigal Gabay
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Eli »

Thank you, Roger, for posting this information about the languages used on the stamps and about the Ethiopian Jews in Israel. As "Stamps motivate us to engage with languages", your thread motivates us to learn about different cultures around the world.

One comment, please. In the following translation:

עליית יהודי אתיופיה
[aliit yehudi etiopih]
Immigration of Ethiopian Jews

It should be: Ali-yat Yehudei Ethiopia (instead of: aliit yehudi etiopih).

Ali-yat is "Aliya of..".

The word "Yehudei" means "Jews of... (Yehudi is singular = Jew. In Hebrew the writing of Yehudei and Yehudi is the same, the difference is in the punctuation).

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks Eli, that's exactly the kind of expert correction my linguistic posts need!

I suspect there are also some errors in my work with the Ge'ez script, so expert input on
that would be very helpful. I suppose the language is Amharic, but it might be Tigrinya,
or it might be a variant language used by the Ethiopian Jewish community... In any case,
my transliteration includes some "best guesses", which could easily be mistaken. ;)

My problem with the Hebrew was that the source text does not include the vowel markings
(nekudot), and when such vowel-free text is entered into Goggle translate the vowels are
usually not supplied. As my Hebrew is less than fluent, I might still make poor guesses at
pronunciation of vowel-free text. In this case, there were some "obvious" mistakes!
For instance, I can look at the "subtext" in Goggle translate and discover that the
relevant verb has this voweled version: לַעֲלוֹת [la-alot] — to ascend, go up, but I can't
persuade it to give me the voweled version of the noun: עלייה [aliya] — aliya, ascent.

[In my earlier post I did include a version of aliya with full vowels, thanks to the Wikipedia page
for including that helpful version:
Aliyah [US pronunciation: /ˌæliˈɑː/; UK pronunciation: /ˌɑː-/], Hebrew: עֲלִיָּה‎ [aliyah] — ascent,
is the Jewish term used to describe immigration of Jews from the diaspora to Israel.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aliyah]

Can any reader suggest an on-line method for getting the voweled version of vowel-free
Hebrew text? Words from phrases like עליית יהודי אתיופיה are challenging because they
include declined forms (plurals, possessives, etc) which are not "straight" dictionary entries.

Some notes on Hebrew script

Eli's helpful corrections to my transliteration prompted me to do some further reading. Although
I didn't find an on-line method of having unknown vowels (nekudot) added to vowel-free Hebrew
text, I did revise my knowledge of nekudot, and learnt something more about the script's history.
I will share a few relevant Wikipedia quotes, from
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_alphabet

Historical origins

Paleo-Hebrew, Samaritan and Assyrian scripts
A Hebrew variant of the Phoenician alphabet, called the paleo-Hebrew alphabet by scholars, began to emerge around 800 BCE...

The paleo-Hebrew alphabet was used in the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Following the exile of the Kingdom of Judah in the 6th century BCE during the Babylonian captivity, Jews began using a form of the Imperial Aramaic alphabet, another offshoot of the same family of scripts, which flourished during the Achaemenid Empire. The Samaritans, who remained in the Land of Israel, continued to use the paleo-Hebrew alphabet. During the 3rd century BCE, Jews began to use a stylized, "square" form of the Aramaic alphabet that was used by the Persian Empire (and which in turn had been adopted from the Assyrians), while the Samaritans continued to use a form of the paleo-Hebrew script called the Samaritan alphabet. After the fall of the Persian Empire in 330 BCE, Jews used both scripts before settling on the square Assyrian form.
Ktav Ashuri
Ktav Ashuri, Hebrew: כְּתָב אַשּׁוּרִי‎ [ktav ashurí] — Assyrian script , also Ashurit, is the modern-day Hebrew language name for the Hebrew alphabet now in use in Israel. It is used to write both Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic.
Vowels as matres lectionis
In traditional [vowel-free] Hebrew script, vowels are indicated by the weak consonants Aleph (א‎), He (ה‎), Waw/Vav (ו‎), or Yodh (י‎) serving as matres lectionis [consonants indicating which vowel sounds should be added for pronunciation]...
In modern forms of the script, as in the case of Yiddish and to some extent Modern Hebrew, vowels may be indicated. Today, the trend is toward full spelling with the weak letters acting as true vowels...

א‎ alef, ע ayin, ו‎ waw/vav and י‎ yod are letters that can sometimes indicate a vowel instead of a consonant... When they do, ו‎ and י‎ are considered to constitute part of the vowel designation in combination with a niqqud symbol, whether or not the diacritic is marked, whereas א‎ and ע are considered to be mute, their role being purely indicative of the non-marked vowel.
Screen Shot 2020-11-17 at 11.09.37 am.png
.
It can be seen that aleph א‎ and ayin ע imply a range of vowels, so the reader really needs to already know the pronunciation of the word to be able to choose the correct vowel in each instance.

Vowels as diacritics
To preserve the proper vowel sounds, scholars developed several different sets of vocalisation and diacritical symbols called nequdot ניקודות‎ points. One of these, the Tiberian system, eventually prevailed. Aaron ben Moses ben Asher, and his family for several generations, are credited with refining and maintaining the system. These nequdot are normally used only for special purposes, such as Biblical books intended for study, in poetry or when teaching the language to children.
Screen Shot 2020-11-17 at 11.08.22 am.png
.

/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Armenian

A recent post by Harryk in another thread included this cinderella.
He remarked that the text on this stamp is probably Armenian.
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=23&t=93008&start=1
.
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-17 at 6.44.26 pm.png
.
This prompted me to look at the Armenian alphabet.

Armenian alphabet

My source for the quotes which follow is this Wikipedia site:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_alphabet

The Armenian word for "alphabet" is այբուբեն [aybuben], named after the first two letters of the Armenian alphabet:
⟨Ա⟩ այբ [ayb]
⟨Բ⟩ բեն [ben]
Armenian is written horizontally, left-to-right.

The Armenian alphabet, Armenian: Հայոց գրեր [Hayots' grer], or Հայոց այբուբեն [Hayots' aybuben], Eastern Armenian: [haˈjotsʰ ajbuˈbɛn]; Western Armenian: [haˈjotsʰ ajpʰuˈpʰɛn]) is an alphabetic writing system used to write Armenian. It was developed around 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots, an Armenian linguist and ecclesiastical leader. The system originally had 36 letters; eventually, three more were adopted. The alphabet was also in wide use in the Ottoman Empire around the 18th and 19th centuries.
.
The alphabet in brief
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-19 at 10.54.15 pm.png
.
The alphabet in detail

The Armenian alphabet has an upper case ["capital"] and lower case version of each letter
These are shown in the table which follows, along with the letter names and their pronunciation,
the pronunciation of the letters, and the transliterations of the letters.
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-19 at 10.57.44 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-19 at 10.58.43 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-19 at 10.59.35 pm.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-19 at 11.00.22 pm.png
.
The two transliteration systems
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-19 at 11.27.24 pm.png
.
The stamp inscription
Here is my current "best guess" transcription of the stamp text, all in upper case:
I also offer the corresponding lower case transcription.
.
ՎԱՑԿԱԿԱՆ ԹՂԹԱԿՑՈՒԹԻՒՆ
VAC'KAKAN T'LT'AKC'OWT'IUN
.
վացկական թղթակցութիւն
vac'kakan t'lt'akc'owt'iun
.
Google translate gives the transcription: [vats’kakan t’ght’akts’ut’iun]
.
I have not found a satisfactory translation, though it might mean something like "vaccine correspondence"(?)
Any expert help would be greatly appreciated!

/RogerE

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by nigelc »

Hi Roger,

Just a quick thought, could the first letter on the Armenian language label be an uppercase "ho" as in the following glyphs from Wiktionary?
Armenian__uppercase letter_Ho.png
This just helps Google Translate shift from vaccine to bakery. ;)
Nigel

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

The first character seems the ambiguous one here. I suggest it could be a cha, which then makes the stamp translate to "online correspondence".
չացկական թղթակցութիւն
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



armenia-1922-50R.jpg
Armenia 1922 50k on 25,000 Roubles, SG # 207.

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by OldDuffer1 »

A few more German Philatelic terms:

Brief- Letter
Drucksache- Printed Matter
Eilboten- Express
Einschreiben- Registered
Falz- Hinge- not to be confused with Falsch- Fake!
Geschäftlich- Business Mail
Karte- Postcard
Nachnahme- Cash on Delivery
Nachgebühr- Postage Due
Steurmarke- Tax Stamp (For Example- Berlin Tax Stamp)
Unzulässig- Inadmissible
Wertbrief- Insured item.
Zensur- Censored
Zurück- Return (to sender).

Compliments on this excellent thread!

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Thanks OldDuffer1 for your German philatelic terms. Those I included in the Glossary E-K were
all contributed in entries in the celebratory thread for 500 posts in this Stamps and Languages thread.

Thanks nigelc and Panterra for contributing suggestions on my Armenian transliteration.
Both suggestions look reasonable.
• The lower case 'cha' = 'ča' Չ • չ in the Wikipedia article looks right, whereas the upper case form
doesn't. However, the text on Harryk's cinderella appears to be all in upper case...

• The upper case 'ho' Հ in the Wikipedia article doesn't look like a good match,
but the versions given in Wiktionary are different, and the upper case version (letter 16) looks quite plausible. I think Nigel's suggestion is probably correct.

Here is Wiktionary's listing of the Armenian alphabet. It is in a different font from that used in the Wikipedia article, and the differences are significant.
.
Screen Shot 2020-11-21 at 1.53.51 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-21 at 1.54.36 am.png
Screen Shot 2020-11-21 at 1.55.06 am.png
.
The difference between upper case 'ho' in the Wiktionary list and the version in the Wikipedia article seems to be simply a difference in fonts rather than an error in one of the lists.

The text on the 1922 Armenian postage stamp

Panterra showed us this stamp:
.
.<br />Armenia, 1922 surcharge: 50k on 25,000r, SG207.
.
Armenia, 1922 surcharge: 50k on 25,000r, SG207.
.
The banner text at the top of the stamp appears to be
.
ՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆԻ ԱՒ ՀԱՆԻԱՊԵՏՈՒԹՒՒՆ
HAYASTANI AW HANIAPETUT’WWN
The Republic of Armenia

ՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆԻ ՀԱՆՐԱՊԵՏՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ [Google Translate]
HAYASTANI HANRAPETUT’YUN

The lower text
25000 ՌՈՒԲԼՒ
RRUBLW
Rouble(s)

The surcharge abbreviates
50 կոպեկ
50 kopek
.
/RogerE :D

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by OldDuffer1 »

Here is a cover from Armenia which I recently put up on another thread:
"SPIES, ESPIONAGE AND SECRET POLICE on stamps"
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=17&t=34883&start=200

Image

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by peterh »

RogerE wrote:
12 Nov 2020 22:58
Welsh
Post Brenihol — Royal Mail
.
/RogerE :D
Incorrect. It's Post Brenhinol

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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Latest developments:

Thanks to OldDuffer1 for posting the Armenian First Day Cover.
I hope to get back to it in a follow-up post.

Thanks to peterh for correcting this Welsh term:
Welsh
Incorrect (somewhat dyslexic!):
Post Brenihol — Royal Mail
Correct version:
Post Brenhinol — Royal Mail
.
___________________
.
In the Happy Day thread Ubobo.R.O. has posted this minisheet:
https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=6&t=82193&start=6087
.
.<br />Slovenia, 1999, Horses minisheet
.
Slovenia, 1999, Horses minisheet
.
There is some rather inconspicuous text on each stamp prompting this
brief encounter with Slovenian:
.
Slovenski hladnokrvni konjSlovenian coldblood horse
Ljutomerski kasačLjutomer trotter
Slovenski toplokrvni konjSlovenian warmblood horse
LipicanecLipizzaner
.
The Slovenian alphabet is pronounced much like other European alphabets based on the
Roman/Latin alphabet, with a few notable differences for English speakers, occurring in
these examples as follows:
'j' is pronounced like 'y' in English 'yet'
'c' is pronounced like 'ts' in English 'bits'
'č' is pronounced like 'ch' in English 'chat'
.
I found the Equinest website a fine go-to place for information about horse breeds.
The following quotes are from that site. http://www.theequinest.com/breeds/
.
The Ljutomer Trotter comes from Ljutomer, Slovenia, an area famous for their horse breeding and trotting races. Horses have traditional value to the local culture, and have been used in wedding ceremonies since the 19th century. Late in that same century trotting races became popular as well, and the focus of breeding local animals was turned specifically to trotting.
The Lipizzan or Lipizzaner is perhaps most well known for their fine performing stallions from the Spanish Riding School in Vienna which is the oldest riding academy in the world. The Lipizzan breed is named for the village of Lipizza near the northwest border of Italy (before World War II). Austria is actually credited with the origins of the breed because Lipizza was theirs during the breed’s development.
I also found some relevant information (including the following two quotes) at
http://www.horses-and-horse-information.com
Coldblood horses
Large horses with a gentle disposition and a placid interactive style are usually referred to as cold bloods. Cold blooded horses are descendants of the ancient European breeds used for farming, hauling and other types of heavy work. ... Examples of cold blooded horses include the Clydesdale, the Shire and the Belgian.
Warmblood horses
The warm blooded breeds were created when warriors returned to Europe from the Middle East and Africa with hot blooded Arabian horses captured in battle.
Breeding the large, heavy war horses of northern Europe with the lighter, faster and fiery tempered hot bloods from the Mongolian steppes created horse breeds that combine the quickness and agility of race horses with the larger build and milder temperament of cold bloods. Over time, the draft horses of Europe were increasingly bred with hot blooded imports, creating the forerunners of dozens of breeds in existence today. Warmbloods have smaller heads and bodies than draft horses and tend to be less excitable than hot blooded horses, making them good all-round horses for riding and light work.
/RogerE :D

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Panterra
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by Panterra »

Panterra wrote:
20 Nov 2020 03:20
The first character seems the ambiguous one here. I suggest it could be a cha, which then makes the stamp translate to "online correspondence".
չացկական թղթակցութիւն
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
But "online correspondence" is what most of us do, most of the time. Like on this forum, and our emails.

So why would they need a stamp for online correspondence?



armenia-1922-35k.jpg
Armenia 1922 35k on 20,000 Roubles, SG # 205.


The sculpture of an extinct animal (from the ruins of Ani) is shown on the stamp.


Ani (Armenian: Անի; Greek: Ἄνιον, Ánion; Latin: Abnicum; Turkish: Ani) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.

Between 961 and 1045, it was the capital of the Bagratid Armenian kingdom that covered much of present-day Armenia and eastern Turkey. Called the "City of 1001 Churches", Ani stood on various trade routes and its many religious buildings, palaces, and fortifications were amongst the most technically and artistically advanced structures in the world. At its height, Ani was one of the world's largest cities, with a possible population of circa 100,000.

Renowned for its splendor, Ani was sacked by the Mongols in 1236. Ani never recovered from a devastating 1319 earthquake, and was gradually abandoned until it was largely forgotten by the 17th century. Ani is a widely recognized cultural, religious, and national heritage symbol for Armenians. According to Razmik Panossian, Ani is one of the most visible and ‘tangible’ symbols of past Armenian greatness and hence a source of pride. In 2016, it was added in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

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RogerE
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Re: Stamps motivate us to engage with languages

Post by RogerE »

Don't confuse Slovenia and Slovakia

Do you find it confusing to read about the countries Slovenia and Slovakia?
The recent post showing the minisheet of horse stamps from Slovenia might have prodded that confusion.

It turns out that because the two names are very similar, each country receives quite a lot of mail intended
for destinations in the other country, and mail exchanges take place regularly between authorities from both
nations.

A Youtube presentation about the two names can be found at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KhflsG23wvM
.
SLOVENIA-SLOVAKIA-MAP-2.jpg
.
Slovenia was part of former Yugoslavia, which means the Land of the South Slavs
Yugoslavia /ˌjuːɡoʊˈslɑːviə/; Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslavija = Југославија [juɡǒslaːʋija]; Slovene: Jugoslavija [juɡɔˈslàːʋija]; Macedonian: Југославија [juɡɔˈsɫavija]; — South Slavic Land, was a country in Southeast Europe and Central Europe for most of the 20th century...

On 25 June 1991, Slovenia and Croatia became the first republics to declare independence from Yugoslavia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yugoslavia
Slovakia was part of former Czechoslovakia, The people of Slovakia are Western Slavs.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia /ˌtʃɛkoʊsloʊˈvækiə, -kə-, -slə-, -ˈvɑː-/, Czech and Slovak: Československo, Česko-Slovensko, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czechoslovakia
Both Slovene/Slovenian and Slovak are Slavic languages, so there are many similarities,
but there are also many differences.
Slovenian
slovenski jezik; slovenščina
Slovenian Language; Slovene

poštna znamka — postage stamp
kuverto in pismo — envelope and letter
poštni paket — postal parcel
knjigo — book
konj, konji — horse, horses
pes, psi — dog, dogs
mačka, mačke — cat, cats
ptica, ptice — bird, birds
hiša, hiše — house, houses

Slovak
slovenský jazyk; slovenčina
Slovakian Language; Slovak

poštová známka — postage stamp
obálka a list — envelope and letter
poštová zásielka — postal parcel
kniha — book
kôň, kone — horse, horses
pes, psy — dog, dogs
mačka, mačky — cat, cats
vták, vtáky — bird, birds
dom, domy — house, houses
Read on! ;)

/RogerE :D

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