Page 13 of 38

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 08 Jun 2013 05:34
by AMark
On June 7, 1944, 11 Canadian soldiers were illegally executed by members of the 12th SS Panzer Division at the Ardenne Abbey in Saint-Germain-la-Blanche-Herbe, near Caen, France. In total, 20 Canadian soldiers were executed at the Ardenne Abbey.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ardenne_Abbey

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 08 Jun 2013 05:55
by bazza4338
On this day - 08 June 1856 – A group of 194 Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the mutineers of HMS Bounty, arrives at Norfolk Island, commencing the Third Settlement of the Island.

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https://www.rosebedsstampshop.com/servlet/the-1100/Norfolk-Island-Stamps-1990/Detail

Norfolk Island was first settled by East Polynesian seafarers either from the Kermadec Islands north of New Zealand or from the North Island of New Zealand. They arrived in the fourteenth or fifteenth century, and survived for several generations before disappearing.

The first European known to have sighted the island was Captain James Cook, in 1774, on his second voyage to the South Pacific on HMS Resolution. He named it after Mary Howard, Duchess of Norfolk (c. 1712 - 1773).

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Norfolk Island (A) Pitcairn Island (B)

On 8 June 1856, the next settlement began on Norfolk Island. These were the descendants of Tahitians and the HMS Bounty mutineers, along with Fletcher Christian. They resettled from the Pitcairn Islands, which had become too small for their growing population. They left Pitcairn Islands on 3 May 1856 and arrived with 194 persons on 8 June. The Pitcairners occupied many of the buildings remaining from the penal settlements, and gradually established traditional farming and whaling industries on the island. Although some families decided to return to Pitcairn in 1858 and 1863, the island's population continued to grow. They accepted additional settlers, who often arrived with whaling fleets.

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 09 Jun 2013 05:38
by AMark
On June 8, 1625, Giovanni Domenico Cassini was born. Cassini was an Italian/French mathematician, astronomer, engineer, and astrologer. He is known for discovering the four satellites of Saturn, and the division between the rings of Saturn (known as, Cassini Division). Cassini also began work on a project to create a topographic map of France. It was continued by his son and grandson. When finished, it was the first topographic map of an entire country.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Domenico_Cassini

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 09 Jun 2013 06:04
by kbdessai
Birsa Munda passed away on 09 June 1900. He was an Indian tribal freedom fighter and a folk hero, who belonged to the Munda tribe, and was behind the Millenarian movement that rose in the tribal belt of modern day Bihar and Jharkhand during the British Raj, in the late 19th century, thereby making him an important figure in the history of the Indian independence movement.
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His portrait hangs in the Central Hall of Indian Parliament, the only tribal leader to have been so honoured.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birsa_Munda

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 09 Jun 2013 06:05
by bazza4338
On this day - 09 June 1781 – George Stephenson, English engineer was born (d. 1848)

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George Stephenson (9 June 1781 – 12 August 1848) was an English civil engineer and mechanical engineer who built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use steam locomotives, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.

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First passenger railway, Liverpool & Manchester Railway

Renowned as the "Father of Railways", the Victorians considered him a great example of diligent application and thirst for improvement, with self-help advocate Samuel Smiles particularly praising his achievements.

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His rail gauge of 4 feet 81⁄2 inches (1,435 mm), sometimes called "Stephenson gauge", is the world's standard gauge.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Stephenson

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A popular legend that has been around since at least 1937 traces the origin of the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in gauge even further back than the coalfields of northern England, pointing to the evidence of rutted roads marked by chariot wheels dating from the Roman Empire. Snopes categorized this legend as false but commented that “... it is perhaps more fairly labelled as 'True, but for trivial and unremarkable reasons.'" The historical tendency to place the wheels of horse-drawn vehicles approximately 5 feet (1,500 mm) apart probably derives from the width needed to fit a carthorse in between the shafts. In addition, while road-traveling vehicles are typically measured from the outermost portions of the wheel rims (and there is some evidence that the first railroads were measured in this way as well), it became apparent that for vehicles travelling on rails it was better to have the wheel flanges located inside the rails, and thus the distance measured on the inside of the wheels (and, by extension, the inside faces of the rail heads), was the important one.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_gauge

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Rail with half-lap joint, patented by Stephenson 1816

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 10 Jun 2013 05:26
by AMark
On June 9, 1915, Lester William Polsfuss (known as Les Paul) was born. Les Paul was an American jazz, country and blues guitarist, songwriter, luthier and inventor. He was one of the pioneers of the solid-body electric guitar, which made the sound of rock and roll possible.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Les_Paul

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 10 Jun 2013 05:51
by kbdessai
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was born on 10 June 1921. He is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II. He is the Commonwealth realms' longest-serving consort, the oldest ever spouse of a reigning British monarch, and the oldest ever male member of the British royal family.
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A member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Prince Philip was born in Greece into the Greek and Danish royal families, but his family was exiled from Greece when he was a child. After being educated in France, England, Germany and Scotland, he joined the British Royal Navy at the age of 18 in 1939. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth (his third cousin through Queen Victoria and the elder daughter and heiress presumptive of King George VI) whom he had first met in 1934. During World War II he served with the Mediterranean and Pacific fleets.
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A keen sportsman, Philip helped develop the equestrian event of carriage driving. He is a patron of over 800 organisations, and chairman of the Duke of Edinburgh's Award scheme for people aged 14 to 24 years. In 2011, his wife, the Queen, gave him the title Lord High Admiral on the occasion of his 90th birthday.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Philip,_Duke_of_Edinburgh

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 10 Jun 2013 06:10
by bazza4338
On this day - 10 June 1944 – Ze'ev Friedman, Polish born Israeli weightlifter was born (d. 1972)

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Ze'ev Friedman was born in Poland in 1944. In 1960, he moved from Poland to Israel. He began his sports career as a gymnast, but later switched to weightlifting. He was a member of Hapoel Kiryat Haim sports club.

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In 1972, Ze'ev Friedman competed at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany as a weightlifter. He placed 12th, one of the best achievements of any Israeli athlete at the time. On September 5, members of the Palestinian Black September group broke into the Israeli team's dormitory and took hostage several Israeli athletes and coaches including Friedman. After protracted negotiations, the kidnappers brought the hostages to an airport via helicopter and killed them during an attempted rescue by Munich police and Bavarian border guards.

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 11 Jun 2013 05:59
by bazza4338
On this day -- 11 June 1770 – British explorer Captain James Cook runs aground on the Great Barrier Reef.

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On 29 April 1770 Cook and crew made their first landfall on the mainland of the Australian continent at a place now known as the Kurnell Peninsula. Cook originally christened the area as "Stingray Bay", but he later crossed it out and named it Botany Bay after the unique specimens retrieved by the botanists Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander. It is here that James Cook made first contact with an Aboriginal tribe known as the Gweagal.

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After his departure from Botany Bay he continued northwards, and a mishap occurred, on 11 June, when the Endeavour ran aground on a shoal of the Great Barrier Reef, and then "nursed into a river mouth on 18 June 1770".

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Endeavour replica in Cooktown, Queensland harbour — anchored where the original Endeavour was beached for 7 weeks in 1770.

The ship was badly damaged and his voyage was delayed almost seven weeks while repairs were carried out on the beach (near the docks of modern Cooktown, Queensland, at the mouth of the Endeavour River)

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The routes of Captain James Cook's voyages. The first voyage is shown in red, second voyage in green, and third voyage in blue. The route of Cook's crew following his death is shown as a dashed blue line.

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 11 Jun 2013 06:03
by kbdessai
Ghanshyam Das Birla, an Indian businessman and member of the influential Birla family, passed away on 11 June 1983. He inherited his family business and expanded his business empire. In 1926, he was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly of British India. Ghanshyam Das Birla during the Quit India movement of 1942, had conceived the idea of organizing a commercial bank with Indian capital and management, and the United Commercial Bank Limited was incorporated to give shape to that idea. UCO Bank, formerly United Commercial Bank, established in 1943 in Kolkata, is one of the oldest and major commercial bank of India.
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In 1957, he was awarded India's second highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan by the Government of India. Birla was a close associate and a steady supporter of Mahatma Gandhi, whom he met for the first time in 1916. Gandhi was staying at Birla's home in New Delhi when he was assassinated having lived there for the last four months of his life.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghanshyam_Das_Birla

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 11 Jun 2013 06:19
by AMark
On June 10, 1942, the destruction of Lidice a village in the Czech Republic began. On orders from Adolf Hitler and Heinrich Himmler, German forces were to burn down the village and level it completely in a reprisal for the assassination of Reich Protector Reinhard Heydrich. Furthermore, 173 men over the age of 16 were executed. Another 11 who were not in the village were arrested and executed. Women and children were deported to concentration camps. A few children considered racially suitable for Germanisation were handed over to SS families and the rest were sent to the Chełmno extermination camp.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lidice

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https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=37132&p=2760230

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 12 Jun 2013 05:21
by kbdessai
Renowned Marathi author Purushottam Laxman Deshpande passed away on 12 June 2000 in Pune . India. He was also an accomplished film and stage actor, music composer, harmonium-player, singer, and orator. Deshpande was a prolific writer and produced numerous original works as well as adaptations of works from other languages into Marathi. He preferred to identify his Marathi adaptations of plays and novels in other languages as bhawanuwad (भावानुवाद), meaning "adaptation of the essence".
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Most of his writings are deeply rooted in Marathi language which some consider as his command over the language while some others consider it as a shortcoming. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1990.
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Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purushottam_Laxman_Deshpande

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 12 Jun 2013 05:34
by bazza4338
On this day - 12 June 1929 – Anne Frank, German-Dutch author and Holocaust victim was born (d. 1945)

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Annelies "Anne" Marie Frank (12 June 1929 – early March 1945) is one of the most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Her diary has been the basis for several plays and films. Born in the city of Frankfurt am Main in Weimar Germany, she lived most of her life in or near Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. Born a German national, Frank lost her citizenship in 1941. She gained international fame posthumously after her diary was published. It documents her experiences hiding during the German occupation of the Netherlands in World War II.

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The Frank family moved from Germany to Amsterdam in 1933, the year the Nazis gained control over Germany. By the beginning of 1940, they were trapped in Amsterdam by the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. As persecutions of the Jewish population increased in July 1942, the family went into hiding in some concealed rooms in the building where Anne's father worked. After two years, the group was betrayed and transported to concentration camps. Anne Frank and her sister, Margot, were eventually transferred to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, where they died of typhus in March 1945.
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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 12 Jun 2013 06:08
by AMark
On June 11, 1910, Jacques-Yves Cousteau was born. Cousteau was a French naval officer, explorer, conservationist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. Cousteau co-developed the Aqua-Lung or self-contained underwater breathing apparatus, "SCUBA". He also pioneered marine conservation which is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Cousteau

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 13 Jun 2013 05:23
by kbdessai
E.M.S. Namboodiripad was born on 13 June 1909. During his college days, he was deeply associated with the Indian National Congress and Indian Independence Movement. He was a writer and author of several literary works and his book on the history of Kerala is notable. He was later associated with the Communist Part of India. When the CPI split in 1964, EMS stood with the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)). He served as a member of the Central Committee and the Politburo of the CPI(M), before becoming its General Secretary in 1977, a designation he held until 1992.
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He was a member of the party Politburo until his death. An outstanding Marxist scholar whose credentials remain unchallenged even today, much of the Kerala society's current day advancement owes itself to the insight of this polymath and social genius whose name resonates throughout Kerala, there is no passing day in Kerala without quoting his name or the erstwhile communist ministry headed by him. As the first non-Indian National Congress Chief Minister in Republic of India, he became the leader of the first democratically elected Communist government in India.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._M._S._Namboodiripad

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 13 Jun 2013 05:49
by bazza4338
On this day - 13 June 1897 – Paavo Nurmi, Finnish runner was born (d. 1973).

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Paavo Johannes Nurmi (13 June 1897 – 2 October 1973) was a Finnish middle and long distance runner. He was nicknamed as the "Flying Finn" as he dominated distance running in the early 20th century.

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Nurmi set 22 official world records at distances between 1,500 metres and 20 kilometres, and won a total of nine gold and three silver medals in his twelve events in the Olympic Games. At his peak, Nurmi was undefeated at distances from 800 m upwards for 121 races. Throughout his 14-year career, he remained unbeaten in cross country events and the 10,000 m.

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 13 Jun 2013 06:08
by AMark
On June 12, 1937, Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky was executed by the NKVD. Tukhachevsky was a Marshal of the Soviet Union, commander in chief of the Red Army, and one of the most prominent victims of Joseph Stalin's Great Purge.

Tukhachevsky and eight Generals were tried and convicted of treason. Upon hearing the accusations, Tukhachevsky was heard to say, "I feel I'm dreaming."

The Great Purge was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin from 1936 to 1939. It involved a large scale purge of the Communist Party and government officials, repression of peasants, Red Army leadership, and widespread police surveillance, suspicion of "saboteurs", imprisonment, and arbitrary executions.

According to the declassified Soviet archives, during 1937 and 1938, the NKVD detained 1,548,366 victims, of whom 681,692 were shot which is an average of 1,000 executions a day.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikhail_Tukhachevsky

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Purge

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 14 Jun 2013 06:33
by AMark
On June 13, 1865, William Butler Yeats was born. Yeats was an Irish poet who is widely considered to be one of the greatest poets of the twentieth century. Some of his greatest work is found in, "The Tower" and "The Winding Stair and Other Poems".
Yeats was also awarded the 1923 Nobel Prize in Literature for what the Nobel Committee described as "inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation."

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._B._Yeats

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 14 Jun 2013 06:34
by bazza4338
On this day - 14 June 1822 – Charles Babbage proposes a difference engine in a paper to the Royal Astronomical Society entitled "Note on the application of machinery to the computation of astronomical and mathematical tables".

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Charles Babbage, FRS (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath. He was a mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, who is best remembered now for originating the concept of a programmable computer.

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Considered a "father of the computer", Babbage is credited with inventing the first mechanical computer that eventually led to more complex designs. His varied work in other fields has led him to be described as "pre-eminent" among the many polymaths of his century.

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 15 Jun 2013 06:00
by bazza4338
On this day - 15 June 1215 – King John of England puts his seal to the Magna Carta.


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https://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/9772952/The-Magna-Carta-a ... te-it.html
"The Magna Carta: an old piece of parchment that made England a nation – let's celebrate it
The 800th anniversary of Magna Carta, in 2015, is fast approaching, and we should do it justice"

John (24 December 1166 – 18/19 October 1216), also known as John Lackland (Norman French: Johan sanz Terre),was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death.

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Funeral effigy

Magna Carta was the first document forced onto a King of England by a group of his subjects, the feudal barons, in an attempt to limit his powers by law and protect their privileges.

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The 1215 charter required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties and accept that his will was not arbitrary—for example by explicitly accepting that no "freeman" (in the sense of non-serf) could be punished except through the law of the land, a right that still exists.

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 15 Jun 2013 06:13
by AMark
On June 14, 1919, John Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown, British aviators, made the first non-stop transatlantic flight. They flew a modified World War I Vickers Vimy bomber from St. John's, Newfoundland, to Clifden, Connemara, County Galway, Ireland. They flew 1890 miles (3040 km) in 15 hours 57 minutes at an average speed of 115 mph (185 km/h).

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transatlantic_flight_of_Alcock_and_Brown

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 16 Jun 2013 05:31
by bazza4338
On this day - 16 June 1821 – Old Tom Morris, Scottish golfer was born (d. 1908).

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Thomas Mitchell Morris, Sr. (16 June 1821 – 24 May 1908), otherwise known as Old Tom Morris, was a pioneer of professional golf.

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He was born in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland, the "home of golf" and location of the St Andrews Links, and died there as well. His son was Tom Morris, Jr. (died 1875), best known as "Young Tom Morris."

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 16 Jun 2013 06:06
by kbdessai
Chittaranjan Das- an Indian freedom activist, died on 16 June 1925. He was a leader of the Swaraj Party in Bengal under British reign. He brought out a newspaper called Forward and later changed its name to Liberty to fight the British Raj. When the Calcutta Corporation was formed, he became its first Mayor. He resigned his presidency of theIndian National Congress at the Gaya session after losing a motion on "No Council Entry" to Gandhi's faction. He then founded the Swaraj Party, with the veteran Motilal Nehru and young Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, to express his immoderate opinions .
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He was a believer of non-violence and constitutional methods for the realisation of national independence, and advocated Hindu-Muslim unity, cooperation and communal harmony and championed the cause of national education. His legacy was carried forward by his disciples, and notably by Subhash Chandra Bose.
He is generally referred to by the honorific” Desh Bandhu” meaning "friend of the nation."
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Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chittaranjan_Das

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 16 Jun 2013 06:46
by AMark
On June 15, 1944, Thomas Clement "Tommy" Douglas led the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) party to a win in Saskatchewan and became the seventh Premier of Saskatchewan. Douglas was a Scottish-born Canadian democratic socialist politician and Baptist minister. His government was the first to introduced the continent's single payer, universal health care program.

Source: https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/featured/tommy-douglas-greatest-canadian

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 17 Jun 2013 06:00
by bazza4338
On this day - 17 June 1867 – Henry Lawson, Australian poet was born (d. 1922)

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Henry Lawson (17 June 1867 – 2 September 1922) was an Australian writer and poet. Along with his contemporary Banjo Paterson, Lawson is among the best-known Australian poets and fiction writers of the colonial period and is often called Australia's "greatest writer". He was the son of the poet, publisher and feminist Louisa Lawson.

In 1949 Lawson was the subject of an Australian postage stamp.

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Henry Archibald Hertzberg Lawson was born in a town on the Grenfell goldfields of New South Wales. His father was Niels Hertzberg Larsen, a Norwegian-born miner from Tromøya near Arendal. Niels Larsen went to sea at 21 and arrived in Melbourne in 1855 to join the gold rush, along with partner William Henry John Slee. Lawson's parents met at the goldfields of Pipeclay (now Eurunderee New South Wales).

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https://www.stampboards.com/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=34297

He was featured on the first (paper) Australian ten dollar note issued in 1966 when decimal currency was first introduced into Australia. Lawson was pictured against scenes from the town of Gulgong in NSW.

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 17 Jun 2013 06:27
by AMark
On June 16, 1963, Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova became the first woman to fly in space when she flew aboard Vostok 6. Tereshkova is a retired Soviet cosmonaut and Engineer.

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 18 Jun 2013 01:42
by kbdessai
Jijabai Bhosle passed away on 17 June 1674. Jijau was a very pious and intelligent woman with great vision for an independent kingdom. She inspired her son the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj by telling stories from Ramayan, Mahabharat and other scriptures.
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Inspired by her, Shivaji Maharaj took Oath of Independence (SWARAJYA) in fort temple of lord Raireshwar in 1645 when he was 17. In Shivaji’s impeccable, spotless character and courage Jijabai's contribution is enormous.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jijabai

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 18 Jun 2013 05:54
by bazza4338
On this day - 18 June 1928 – Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer died (b. 1872)

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Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (16 July 1872 – c. 18 June 1928) was a Norwegian explorer of polar regions. He led the Antarctic expedition (1910-12) to discover the South Pole in December 1911 and he was the first expedition leader to (undisputedly) reach the North Pole in 1926. He is also known as the first to traverse the Northwest Passage (1903–06).

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He disappeared in June 1928 while taking part in a rescue mission. Amundsen, Douglas Mawson, Robert Falcon Scott, and Ernest Shackleton were key expedition leaders during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.

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Roald Amundsen filled the role of Fridtjof Nansen as a "renowned polar celebrity". Because of his long years of success in the polar field, Norway issued this set of stamps (Scott 104-10) in 1925 to support his planned flight to the North Pole in two "Dornier Wal" seaplanes. The flight failed to reach its objective, but was an example of the role of aviation in future travel. About two hundred thousand sets were issued, of which a large percentage was used for postage by the public.
https://www.south-pole.com/aspp013.htm

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 18 Jun 2013 06:54
by AMark
On June 17, 1953, a widespread uprising against the German Democratic Republic government occurred in East Berlin. On June 16, 300 East Berlin construction workers went on strike after their superiors announced a pay cut if they did not meet their work quota. Support for the workers increased and protests were called for the next day. Throughout the night news of the events spread quickly. In the morning of June 17, crowds of workers began to gather in public places and began to march towards the city center.

The original demands of the protesters, reinstatement of the previous lower work quotas, turned into political demands. The workers demanded the resignation of the East German government. The government violently suppressed the uprising by turning to the Soviet Union for military support and to the Volkspolizei.

In the uprising, 513 people were killed, 106 people were executed under martial law, 1,838 were injured, and 5,100 were arrested (1,200 of these were later sentenced to an average of 5 years in penal camps).

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uprising_of_1953_in_East_Germany

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 19 Jun 2013 03:19
by kbdessai
Goa Revolution Day, known as Kranti Divas, is celebrated every year on 18 June. Goa observes 18th June as ‘Goa Revolution Day’, as it was on this day in 1946, that patriotic Goans alongwith their compatriots from the rest of the country, launched a peaceful mass movement, against the oppressive colonial rule, upon a clarion call given by illustrious freedom fighter, the late Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia.
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Dr. Lohia on this day, in 1946, delivered a speech at Margao's "Maidan" (now named Lohia Maidan in his honour). He gave a clarion call to the people of the state to resist the oppressive policies of the Portuguese colonialists. A road in Panaji is named as 18 June Road.

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 19 Jun 2013 06:31
by AMark
On June 18, 1886, George Herbert Leigh Mallory was born. Mallory was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s. During the 1924 British Mount Everest Expedition, Mallory and his climbing partner Andrew "Sandy" Irvine both disappeared somewhere high on the North-East ridge during their attempt to make the first ascent of the world's highest mountain.

Mallory's body was discovered on May 1, 1999 by an expedition that had set out to search for the climbers' remains. Whether Mallory and Irvine reached the summit before they died remains a subject of speculation and continuing research.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mallory
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1924_British_Mount_Everest_Expedition

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 20 Jun 2013 02:44
by kbdessai
Rahul Gandhi was born in Delhi on 19 June 1970, as the first of the two children of Rajiv Gandhi, who later became the Prime Minister of India, and Italian-born Sonia Gandhi, who later became President of Indian National Congress, and as the grandson of the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. He is also the great-grandson of India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru.
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He is the Vice President of the Indian National Congress and the Chairperson of the Indian Youth Congress and the National Students Union of India. Gandhi has served as an General Secretary in the All India Congress Committee and represents Amethi as its Member of Parliament (MP). He is the second-ranked member of the Congress Working Committee.

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 20 Jun 2013 05:31
by bazza4338
On this day - 20 June 1840 – Samuel Morse receives the patent for the telegraph.

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Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter who turned inventor. Already well known as a portrait painter, in his middle age he contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs, was a co-inventor of the Morse code, and helped to develop the commercial use of telegraphy.

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Morse additionally supported the institution of slavery as well as anti-Catholic and anti-immigration efforts within the United States.

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The Morse telegraphic apparatus was officially adopted as the standard for European telegraphy in 1851. Only the United Kingdom (with its extensive overseas empire) kept the needle telegraph of Cooke and Wheatstone.

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 20 Jun 2013 06:04
by AMark
On June 19, 1623, Blaise Pascal was born. Pascal was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher. He is famous for inventing the mechanical calculator, which is a mechanical device used to perform automatically the basic operations of arithmetic.

Pascal was also an important mathematician. His work, "Traité du triangle arithmétique", described Pascal's triangle.

In physics, his work concentrated on the principles of hydraulic fluids. He invented the hydraulic press and the syringe.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blaise_Pascal
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanical_calculator

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 20 Jun 2013 18:18
by kbdessai
On 20 June 1887, Victoria Terminus (now known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus/CST), the busiest railway station in India, was opened in Bombay(present day Mumbai). It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and historic railway station which serves as the headquarters of the Central Railways in Mumbai, India.
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Designed by Frederick William Stevens with influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture and traditional Mughal buildings, the station was built in 1887 in the Bori Bunder area of Bombay to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chhatrapati_Shivaji_Terminus

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 21 Jun 2013 06:25
by AMark
On June 20, 1991, the German Bundestag, as a result of German reunification, decided to move its headquarters from Bonn to Berlin.

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 21 Jun 2013 06:44
by bazza4338
On this day - 21 June 1896 – Charles Momsen, American admiral, inventor of the Momsen lung was born (d. 1967).

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Charles Bowers Momsen (June 21, 1896 – May 25, 1967), nicknamed "Swede", was born in Flushing, New York. He was an American pioneer in submarine rescue for the United States Navy, and he invented the underwater escape device later called the "Momsen lung", for which he received the Navy Distinguished Service Medal in 1929. In May 1939, Momsen directed the rescue of the crew of Squalus (SS-192)

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In addition to the Navy Cross once and the Legion of Merit with two Gold Stars (to show repeat awards) and "V" device, Momsen earned the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Army Distinguished Service Medal, Navy Commendation Medal with "V" device, World War I Victory Medal with escort clasp, American Defense Service Medal with Fleet Clasp, American Campaign Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with four service stars, World War II Victory Medal, Navy Occupation Service Medal, National Defense Service Medal, Philippine Liberation Medal with one bronze star and the Submarine Warfare insignia.

It was aboard S-1 Momsen's attention became drawn to the urgent need for a way to rescue trapped submariners.

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On September 25, 1925, S-1's sister ship, S-51 (SS-162), collided with freighter City of Rome and sank in 130 feet (40 m) of water. Momsen was ordered to take S-1 to search for the crippled submarine. S-1 found the oil slick marking the spot where S-51 had sunk, but without any sonar, there was no way for his crew to locate her on the bottom, nor was there a way for trapped crewmen to escape.

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Momsen began to look for ways to rescue submariners. He conceived a diving bell, which could be lowered to a submarine in distress, mated to an escape hatch, and opened to allow trapped submariners to climb in. A watertight seal to the submarine could be achieved by placing a rubber gasket around the diving bell's bottom and reducing the air pressure once the bell was over the escape hatch. Then, the hatch could be opened, and the trapped submariners could climb aboard.


Shortly thereafter, in December 1927, another submarine, the S-4 (SS-109), sank off Cape Cod. All forty of her crew died. Six sailors survived three days in the forward torpedo room, but had no way to escape.

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After the S-4 incident, Momsen began working on a device to help trapped submariners escape safely to the surface. Officially called the Submarine Escape Lung, it consisted of an oblong rubber bag that recycled exhaled air. The press enthusiastically received the device and they dubbed it the "Momsen lung", a name that stuck.

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The Momsen lung contains a canister of soda lime, which removes poisonous carbon dioxide from the exhaled air and then replenishes the air with oxygen. Two tubes lead from the bag to a mouthpiece: one with which to inhale air and the other to with which to exhale spent air. The device hangs around the wearer's neck and is strapped around the waist. Besides providing oxygen for the ascent, it also allows a submariner to rise slowly to the surface, thus avoiding embolisms.

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 21 Jun 2013 23:52
by kbdessai
Sukarno died of kidney failure in Jakarta Army Hospital on 21 June 1970 at age 69. He was buried in Blitar, East Java, Indonesia. In recent decades, his grave has been a significant venue in the network of places that Javanese visit on ziarah and for some is of equal significance to those of the Wali Songo.
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Sukarno was the leader of his country's struggle for independence from the Netherlands and was Indonesia's first president from 1945 to 1967. He was a prominent leader of Indonesia's nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period, and spent over a decade under Dutch detention until released by the invading Japanese forces. On the international front, Sukarno organised the Bandung Conference in 1955, with the goal of uniting developing Asian and African countries into a non-aligned movement to counter against the competing superpowers at the time.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sukarno

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 22 Jun 2013 05:18
by AMark
On June 21, 1945, the last remnants of Japanese resistance fell during the Battle of Okinawa. The Battle of Okinawa was fought on the Ryukyu Islands of Okinawa and was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War during World War II. After a long campaign of island hopping, the Allies planned to use Okinawa as a base for air operations on the planned invasion of Japanese mainland.

The battle has been referred to as the "typhoon of steel" due to the ferocity of the fighting, the intensity of kamikaze attacks from the Japanese defenders, and to the sheer numbers of Allied ships and armored vehicles that assaulted the island. The battle resulted in the highest number of casualties in the Pacific Theater during World War II. Japan lost over 100,000 soldiers and the Allies suffered more than 65,000 casualties of all kinds.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Okinawa

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 22 Jun 2013 05:58
by bazza4338
On this day - 22 June 1911 – George V and Mary of Teck are crowned King and Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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George was a grandson of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and the first cousin of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. From 1877 to 1891, he served in the Royal Navy. On the death of Victoria in 1901, George's father became King Edward VII, and George was made Prince of Wales.
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On his father's death in 1910, he succeeded as King-Emperor of the British Empire. He was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar.

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 22 Jun 2013 18:11
by kbdessai
Ilya Mikhailovich Frank died on 22 June 1990. He was a Soviet winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1958 jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Igor Y. Tamm, also of the Soviet Union.
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He received the award for his work in explaining the phenomenon of Cherenkov radiation. He received the Stalin prize in 1946 and 1953 and the USSR state prize in 1971.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilya_Frank

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 23 Jun 2013 06:03
by AMark
On June 22, 1941, Operation Barbarossa began. Operation Barbarossa was the code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II. Barbarossa was the largest invasion in the history of warfare. Over four million soldiers of the Axis powers invaded the USSR along with 600,000 motor vehicles and 750,000 horses. However, the invasion marked the beginning of the pivotal phase in deciding the victors of the war.

Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Barbarossa
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalplan_Ost

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 23 Jun 2013 06:11
by bazza4338
On this day - 23 June 1868 – Christopher Latham Sholes received a patent for an invention he called the "Type-Writer."

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Christopher Latham Sholes (February 14, 1819 – February 17, 1890)

Typewriters had been invented as early as 1714 by Henry Mill and reinvented in various forms throughout the 1800s. It was to be Sholes, however, who invented the first one to be commercially successful.

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Sholes typewriter, 1873. Museum, Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society.

Inspiration came in July 1867, when Sholes came across a short note in Scientific American describing the "Pterotype", a prototype typewriter that had been invented by John Pratt. From the description, Sholes decided that the Pterotype was too complex and set out to make his own machine, whose name he got from the article: the typewriting machine, or typewriter.

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John Pratt's Pterotype, the inspiration for Sholes in July 1867.

Sholes returned to Milwaukee and continued to work on new improvements for the typewriter throughout the 1870s, which included the QWERTY keyboard (1873).

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https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com.au/2013/01/typewriter-stamps-envelopes-postcard.html

James Densmore had suggested splitting up commonly used letter combinations in order to solve a jamming problem caused by the slow method of recovering from a keystroke: weights, not springs, returned all parts to the "rest" position.

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https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com.au/2013/01/typewriter-stamps-envelopes-postcard.html

This concept was later refined by Sholes and the resulting QWERTY layout is still used today on both typewriters and English language computer keyboards, although the jamming problem no longer exists.

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https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com.au/2013/01/typewriter-stamps-envelopes-postcard.html

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 23 Jun 2013 19:01
by kbdessai
Sanjay Gandhi passed away on 23 June 1980. He was an Indian politician. He was a member of the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty. During his lifetime he was widely expected to succeed his mother Mrs. Indira Gandhi, as head of the Indian National Congress, but following his early death in a plane crash his older brother Rajiv became their mother's political heir, and succeeded her as Prime Minister of India after her death. Sanjay's widow Maneka Gandhi and son Varun Gandhi are also politicians from BJP.
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Maruti Udyog, today India's premier automobile manufacturing corporation, was founded by Sanjay Gandhi, but the company did not produce any vehicles during his lifetime. Sanjay Gandhi died instantly from head wounds in an air crash on 23 June 1980 near Safdarjung Airport in New Delhi. He was flying a new aircraft of the Delhi Flying club, and, while performing a loop over his office, lost control and crashed. The only passenger in the plane, Captain Subhash Saxena, was also killed in the crash.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanjay_Gandhi

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 24 Jun 2013 04:02
by AMark
On June 23, 1912, Alan Mathison Turing was born. Turing was a British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, and computer scientist. He was highly influential in the development of computer science, giving a formalisation of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer. Turing is widely considered to be the father of computer science and artificial intelligence.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Turing

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 24 Jun 2013 05:46
by bazza4338
On this day - 24 June 1916 – World War I: the Battle of the Somme begins with a week-long artillery bombardment on the German Line.

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The Battle of the Somme was one of the largest battles of the war; by the time fighting paused in late autumn 1916, the forces involved had suffered more than 1 million casualties, making it one of the bloodiest military operations ever recorded.

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 25 Jun 2013 03:36
by kbdessai
Stephen Grover Cleveland died on June 24, 1908. He was the 22nd and 24th President of the United States. Cleveland is the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897) and therefore is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents.
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He was the winner of the popular vote for president three times—in 1884, 1888, and 1892—and was the only Democrat elected to the presidency in the era of Republican political domination that lasted from 1861 to 1913.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grover_Cleveland

Re: On This Day.

Posted: 25 Jun 2013 05:20
by AMark
On June 24, 1812, the Grande Armée crossed the Neman River and invaded Russia. Napoleon's aim was to compel Emperor of Russia, Alexander I, to remain in the Continental Blockade of the United Kingdom.

However, the French Invasion of Russia in 1812 proved to be a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars. It greatly reduced the French and allied invasion forces and it triggered a major shift in European politics as it dramatically weakened French hegemony in Europe. Furthermore, Napoleon's reputation as an undefeated military genius was severely shaken and French former allies, at first Prussia and then the Austrian Empire, broke their alliance with France and switched camps.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_invasion_of_Russia

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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 25 Jun 2013 06:04
by bazza4338
On this day - 25 June 1876 – Battle of the Little Bighorn and the death of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer.

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The Battle of the Little Bighorn, commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of Lakota, Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes, against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle, which occurred on June 25 and 26, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in eastern Montana Territory, was the most prominent action of the Great Sioux War of 1876.

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It was an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho, led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Chief Gall, inspired by the visions of Sitting Bull (Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake)

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Having served with distinction at Gettysburg, General George Custer was dispatched in 1876 to join General George Crook in teaching the powerful Sioux a lesson. Always impetuous, and without waiting for reinforcements, Custer divided his 700 men into three battalions. His small force of 265 men found themselves surrounded by 2500 warriors under the command of Chiefs Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse.
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Re: On This Day.

Posted: 26 Jun 2013 03:26
by kbdessai
At midnight on 25 June 1975, state of Emergency was declared in India. It was a 21-month period, when President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed, upon request by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, declared a state of emergency under Article 352 of the Constitution of India, effectively bestowing on her the power to rule by decree, suspending elections and civil liberties. It is one of the most controversial times in the history of independent India.
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Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Emergency_(India)